PISA - Programme for International Student Assessment

原创 2013年12月04日 21:34:41


Question Level

At Level 2 students can interpret and recognise situations in contexts that require no more than direct inference. They can extract relevant information from a single source and make use of a single representational mode. Students at this level can employ basic algorithms, formulae, procedures, or conventions. They are capable of direct reasoning and making literal interpretations of the results.
Question Category
This item belongs to the change and relationships category. The natural and designed worlds display a multitude of temporary and permanent relationships among objects and circumstances, where changes occur within systems of interrelated objects or in circumstances where the elements influence one another. In many cases these changes occur over time, and in other cases changes in one object or quantity are related to changes in another. Some of these situations involve discrete change; others change continuously. Some relationships are of a permanent, or invariant, nature. Being more literate about change and relationships involves understanding fundamental types of change and recognising when they occur in order to use suitable mathematical models to describe and predict change. Mathematically this means modelling the change and the relationships with appropriate functions and equations, as well as creating, interpreting, and translating among symbolic and graphical representations of relationships.


Question Level

At Level 3 students can execute clearly described procedures, including those that require sequential decisions. They can select and apply simple problem solving strategies. Students at this level can interpret and use representations based on different information sources and reason directly from them. They can develop short communications reporting their interpretations, results and reasoning.
Question Category
This item belongs to the quantity category. The notion of quantity may be the most pervasive and essential mathematical aspect of engaging with, and functioning in, our world. It incorporates the quantification of attributes of objects, relationships, situations and entities in the world, understanding various representations of those quantifications, and judging interpretations and arguments based on quantity. To engage with the quantification of the world involves understanding measurements, counts, magnitudes, units, indicators, relative size, and numerical trends and patterns. Aspects of quantitative reasoning – such as number sense, multiple representations of numbers, elegance in computation, mental calculation, estimation and assessment of reasonableness of results – are the essence of mathematical literacy relative to quantity.


Question Level
At Level 4 students can work effectively with explicit models for complex concrete situations that may involve constraints or call for making assumptions. They can select and integrate different representations, including symbolic, linking them directly to aspects of real-world situations. Students at this level can utilise well-developed skills and reason flexibly, with some insight, in these contexts. They can construct and communicate explanations and arguments based on their interpretations, arguments, and actions.
Question Category
This item belongs to the quantity category. The notion of quantity may be the most pervasive and essential mathematical aspect of engaging with, and functioning in, our world. It incorporates the quantification of attributes of objects, relationships, situations and entities in the world, understanding various representations of those quantifications, and judging interpretations and arguments based on quantity. To engage with the quantification of the world involves understanding measurements, counts, magnitudes, units, indicators, relative size, and numerical trends and patterns. Aspects of quantitative reasoning – such as number sense, multiple representations of numbers, elegance in computation, mental calculation, estimation and assessment of reasonableness of results – are the essence of mathematical literacy relative to quantity.

Question Level
At Level 5 students can develop and work with models for complex situations, identifying constraints and specifying assumptions. They can select, compare, and evaluate appropriate problem solving strategies for dealing with complex problems related to these models. Students at this level can work strategically using broad, well-developed thinking and reasoning skills, appropriate linked representations, symbolic and formal characterisations, and insight pertaining to these situations. They can reflect on their actions and formulate and communicate their interpretations and reasoning.
Question Category
This item belongs to the change and relationships category. The natural and designed worlds display a multitude of temporary and permanent relationships among objects and circumstances, where changes occur within systems of interrelated objects or in circumstances where the elements influence one another. In many cases these changes occur over time, and in other cases changes in one object or quantity are related to changes in another. Some of these situations involve discrete change; others change continuously. Some relationships are of a permanent, or invariant, nature. Being more literate about change and relationships involves understanding fundamental types of change and recognising when they occur in order to use suitable mathematical models to describe and predict change. Mathematically this means modelling the change and the relationships with appropriate functions and equations, as well as creating, interpreting, and translating among symbolic and graphical representations of relationships.

Question Level
At Level 6 students can conceptualise, generalise, and utilise information based on their investigations and modelling of complex problem situations. They can link different information sources and representations and flexibly translate among them. Students at this level are capable of advanced mathematical thinking and reasoning. These students can apply this insight and understandings along with a mastery of symbolic and formal mathematical operations and relationships to develop new approaches and strategies for attacking novel situations. Student at this level can formulate and precisely communicate their actions and reflections regarding their findings, interpretations, arguments, and the appropriateness of these to the original situations.
Question Category
This item belongs to the change and relationships category. The natural and designed worlds display a multitude of temporary and permanent relationships among objects and circumstances, where changes occur within systems of interrelated objects or in circumstances where the elements influence one another. In many cases these changes occur over time, and in other cases changes in one object or quantity are related to changes in another. Some of these situations involve discrete change; others change continuously. Some relationships are of a permanent, or invariant, nature. Being more literate about change and relationships involves understanding fundamental types of change and recognising when they occur in order to use suitable mathematical models to describe and predict change. Mathematically this means modelling the change and the relationships with appropriate functions and equations, as well as creating, interpreting, and translating among symbolic and graphical representations of relationships.

The OECD's Programme for International Student Assessment (PISA) evaluates education systems worldwide by testing 15-year-olds in key subjects. The focus of PISA 2012 was mathematics.

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