Redis源码分析(十九)--- replication主从数据复制的实现

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              replication的英文单词的原意是“复制”的意思,replication文件作为我在Data目录下的分析的最后一个文件,足以说明他的重要性,代码量1800+,的确非常难啃。只能说个我看代码下来的大致印象吧,要我画个结构图好好理理这里面各个API的关系图,这个我目前还真做不到。说到主从复制,这个是实现读写分离的最好手段了,也很常见,当用户数达到一定量,当一个服务器承受不了达到上千万的pv时,采取主从数据库的形式也是一般架构师能够想到的一种手段。Redis的主从数据库在我这里就称为主客户端,从客户端,因为客户端中有所属于的db,因为数据库基于客户单本身进行复制操作的。也就是说,一个Redis,存在一个master主客户端,多个slave从客户端,到时实现的就是slave向主客户端进行复制操作。因为API比较多,进行了稍稍的归类:

/* ---------------------------------- MASTER -------------------------------- */
void createReplicationBacklog(void) /* 创建backlog的buffer */
void resizeReplicationBacklog(long long newsize) /* 调整复制备份日志的大小,当replication backlog被修改的时候 */
void freeReplicationBacklog(void) /* 释放备份日志 */
void feedReplicationBacklog(void *ptr, size_t len) /* 往备份日志中添加添加数据操作,会引起master_repl_offset偏移量的增加 */
void feedReplicationBacklogWithObject(robj *o) /* 往backlog添加数据,以Redis 字符串对象作为参数 */
void replicationFeedSlaves(list *slaves, int dictid, robj **argv, int argc) /* 将主数据库复制到从数据库 */
void replicationFeedMonitors(redisClient *c, list *monitors, int dictid, robj **argv, int argc) /* 发送数据给monitor监听者客户端 */
long long addReplyReplicationBacklog(redisClient *c, long long offset) /* slave从客户单添加备份日志 */
int masterTryPartialResynchronization(redisClient *c) /* 主数据库尝试分区同步 */
void syncCommand(redisClient *c) /* 同步命令函数 */
void replconfCommand(redisClient *c) /* 此函数用于从客户端进行配置复制进程中的执行参数设置 */
void sendBulkToSlave(aeEventLoop *el, int fd, void *privdata, int mask) /* 给slave客户端发送BULK数据 */
void updateSlavesWaitingBgsave(int bgsaveerr) /* 此方法将用于后台保存进程快结束时调用,更新slave从客户端 */
	
/* ----------------------------------- SLAVE -------------------------------- */
void replicationAbortSyncTransfer(void) /* 中止与master主数据的同步操作 */
void replicationSendNewlineToMaster(void) /* 从客户端发送空行给主客户端,破坏了原本的协议格式,避免让主客户端检测出从客户端超时的情况 */
void replicationEmptyDbCallback(void *privdata) /* 清空数据库后的回调方法,当老数据被刷新出去之后等待加载新数据的时候调用 */
void readSyncBulkPayload(aeEventLoop *el, int fd, void *privdata, int mask) /* 从客户端读取同步的Sync的BULK数据 */
char *sendSynchronousCommand(int fd, ...) /* 从客户端发送给主客户端同步数据的命令,附上验证信息,和一些参数配置信息 */
int slaveTryPartialResynchronization(int fd) /* 从客户端尝试分区同步操作 */
void syncWithMaster(aeEventLoop *el, int fd, void *privdata, int mask) /* 与主客户端保持同步,期间包括端口号等的确认,socket连接 */
int connectWithMaster(void) /* 连接主客户端 */
void undoConnectWithMaster(void) /* 撤销连接主客户端 */
int cancelReplicationHandshake(void) /* 当已经存在一个复制进程时,中止一个非阻塞的replication复制的尝试 */
void replicationSetMaster(char *ip, int port) /* 设定主客户端的ip地址和端口号 */
void replicationUnsetMaster(void)
void slaveofCommand(redisClient *c)
void roleCommand(redisClient *c)
void replicationSendAck(void) /* 发送ACK包给主客户端 ,告知当前的进程偏移量 */
	
/* ---------------------- MASTER CACHING FOR PSYNC -------------------------- */
void replicationCacheMaster(redisClient *c) /* 缓存客户端信息 */
void replicationDiscardCachedMaster(void) /* 当某个客户端将不会再回复的时候,可以释放掉缓存的主客户端 */
void replicationResurrectCachedMaster(int newfd) /* 将缓存客户端复活 */
	
/* ------------------------- MIN-SLAVES-TO-WRITE  --------------------------- */
void refreshGoodSlavesCount(void) /* 更新slave从客户端数量 */
void replicationScriptCacheInit(void)
void replicationScriptCacheFlush(void)
void replicationScriptCacheAdd(sds sha1)
int replicationScriptCacheExists(sds sha1)
void replicationCron(void)
找一个标准的slave从客户端向主客户端实现同步的操作:

/* 与主客户端保持同步,期间包括端口号等的确认,socket连接 */
void syncWithMaster(aeEventLoop *el, int fd, void *privdata, int mask) {
    char tmpfile[256], *err;
    int dfd, maxtries = 5;
    int sockerr = 0, psync_result;
    socklen_t errlen = sizeof(sockerr);
    REDIS_NOTUSED(el);
    REDIS_NOTUSED(privdata);
    REDIS_NOTUSED(mask);

    /* If this event fired after the user turned the instance into a master
     * with SLAVEOF NO ONE we must just return ASAP. */
    if (server.repl_state == REDIS_REPL_NONE) {
        close(fd);
        return;
    }

    /* Check for errors in the socket. */
    /* socket连接是否正常 */
    if (getsockopt(fd, SOL_SOCKET, SO_ERROR, &sockerr, &errlen) == -1)
        sockerr = errno;
    if (sockerr) {
        aeDeleteFileEvent(server.el,fd,AE_READABLE|AE_WRITABLE);
        redisLog(REDIS_WARNING,"Error condition on socket for SYNC: %s",
            strerror(sockerr));
        goto error;
    }

    /* If we were connecting, it's time to send a non blocking PING, we want to
     * make sure the master is able to reply before going into the actual
     * replication process where we have long timeouts in the order of
     * seconds (in the meantime the slave would block). */
    /* 连接测试,将由主客户端发送PING命令给从客户端,在给定的延迟时间内观察是否有回复 */
    if (server.repl_state == REDIS_REPL_CONNECTING) {
        redisLog(REDIS_NOTICE,"Non blocking connect for SYNC fired the event.");
        /* Delete the writable event so that the readable event remains
         * registered and we can wait for the PONG reply. */
        aeDeleteFileEvent(server.el,fd,AE_WRITABLE);
        server.repl_state = REDIS_REPL_RECEIVE_PONG;
        /* Send the PING, don't check for errors at all, we have the timeout
         * that will take care about this. */
        //发送PING命令
        syncWrite(fd,"PING\r\n",6,100);
        return;
    }

    /* Receive the PONG command. */
    //收到回复了
    if (server.repl_state == REDIS_REPL_RECEIVE_PONG) {
        char buf[1024];

        /* Delete the readable event, we no longer need it now that there is
         * the PING reply to read. */
        aeDeleteFileEvent(server.el,fd,AE_READABLE);

        /* Read the reply with explicit timeout. */
        buf[0] = '\0';
        if (syncReadLine(fd,buf,sizeof(buf),
            server.repl_syncio_timeout*1000) == -1)
        {
            redisLog(REDIS_WARNING,
                "I/O error reading PING reply from master: %s",
                strerror(errno));
            goto error;
        }

        /* We accept only two replies as valid, a positive +PONG reply
         * (we just check for "+") or an authentication error.
         * Note that older versions of Redis replied with "operation not
         * permitted" instead of using a proper error code, so we test
         * both. */
        if (buf[0] != '+' &&
            strncmp(buf,"-NOAUTH",7) != 0 &&
            strncmp(buf,"-ERR operation not permitted",28) != 0)
        {
            redisLog(REDIS_WARNING,"Error reply to PING from master: '%s'",buf);
            goto error;
        } else {
            redisLog(REDIS_NOTICE,
                "Master replied to PING, replication can continue...");
        }
    }

    /* AUTH with the master if required. */
    //auth身份验证
    if(server.masterauth) {
        err = sendSynchronousCommand(fd,"AUTH",server.masterauth,NULL);
        if (err[0] == '-') {
            redisLog(REDIS_WARNING,"Unable to AUTH to MASTER: %s",err);
            sdsfree(err);
            goto error;
        }
        sdsfree(err);
    }

    /* Set the slave port, so that Master's INFO command can list the
     * slave listening port correctly. */
    /* 设置从客户端监听端口 */
    {
        sds port = sdsfromlonglong(server.port);
        err = sendSynchronousCommand(fd,"REPLCONF","listening-port",port,
                                         NULL);
        sdsfree(port);
        /* Ignore the error if any, not all the Redis versions support
         * REPLCONF listening-port. */
        if (err[0] == '-') {
            redisLog(REDIS_NOTICE,"(Non critical) Master does not understand REPLCONF listening-port: %s", err);
        }
        sdsfree(err);
    }

    /* Try a partial resynchonization. If we don't have a cached master
     * slaveTryPartialResynchronization() will at least try to use PSYNC
     * to start a full resynchronization so that we get the master run id
     * and the global offset, to try a partial resync at the next
     * reconnection attempt. */
    psync_result = slaveTryPartialResynchronization(fd);
    if (psync_result == PSYNC_CONTINUE) {
        redisLog(REDIS_NOTICE, "MASTER <-> SLAVE sync: Master accepted a Partial Resynchronization.");
        return;
    }

    /* Fall back to SYNC if needed. Otherwise psync_result == PSYNC_FULLRESYNC
     * and the server.repl_master_runid and repl_master_initial_offset are
     * already populated. */
    if (psync_result == PSYNC_NOT_SUPPORTED) {
        redisLog(REDIS_NOTICE,"Retrying with SYNC...");
        if (syncWrite(fd,"SYNC\r\n",6,server.repl_syncio_timeout*1000) == -1) {
            redisLog(REDIS_WARNING,"I/O error writing to MASTER: %s",
                strerror(errno));
            goto error;
        }
    }

    /* Prepare a suitable temp file for bulk transfer */
    while(maxtries--) {
        snprintf(tmpfile,256,
            "temp-%d.%ld.rdb",(int)server.unixtime,(long int)getpid());
        dfd = open(tmpfile,O_CREAT|O_WRONLY|O_EXCL,0644);
        if (dfd != -1) break;
        sleep(1);
    }
    if (dfd == -1) {
        redisLog(REDIS_WARNING,"Opening the temp file needed for MASTER <-> SLAVE synchronization: %s",strerror(errno));
        goto error;
    }

    /* Setup the non blocking download of the bulk file. */
    if (aeCreateFileEvent(server.el,fd, AE_READABLE,readSyncBulkPayload,NULL)
            == AE_ERR)
    {
        redisLog(REDIS_WARNING,
            "Can't create readable event for SYNC: %s (fd=%d)",
            strerror(errno),fd);
        goto error;
    }

    server.repl_state = REDIS_REPL_TRANSFER;
    server.repl_transfer_size = -1;
    server.repl_transfer_read = 0;
    server.repl_transfer_last_fsync_off = 0;
    server.repl_transfer_fd = dfd;
    server.repl_transfer_lastio = server.unixtime;
    server.repl_transfer_tmpfile = zstrdup(tmpfile);
    return;

error:
    close(fd);
    server.repl_transfer_s = -1;
    server.repl_state = REDIS_REPL_CONNECT;
    return;
}
         在replication中,要一个cacheMaster的概念,就是可以临时缓存主客户端的信息,一般用于突然master和slave断开连接的时候,可以下次进行主从同步的时候快速恢复:

/* 缓存客户端信息 */
void replicationCacheMaster(redisClient *c) {
    listNode *ln;

    redisAssert(server.master != NULL && server.cached_master == NULL);
    redisLog(REDIS_NOTICE,"Caching the disconnected master state.");

    /* Remove from the list of clients, we don't want this client to be
     * listed by CLIENT LIST or processed in any way by batch operations. */
    //首先移除此客户端
    ln = listSearchKey(server.clients,c);
    redisAssert(ln != NULL);
    listDelNode(server.clients,ln);

    /* Save the master. Server.master will be set to null later by
     * replicationHandleMasterDisconnection(). */
    //保存为缓存客户端
    server.cached_master = server.master;

    /* Remove the event handlers and close the socket. We'll later reuse
     * the socket of the new connection with the master during PSYNC. */
    //删除在这个客户端上的读写事件
    aeDeleteFileEvent(server.el,c->fd,AE_READABLE);
    aeDeleteFileEvent(server.el,c->fd,AE_WRITABLE);
    close(c->fd);

    /* Set fd to -1 so that we can safely call freeClient(c) later. */
    c->fd = -1;

    /* Invalidate the Peer ID cache. */
    if (c->peerid) {
        sdsfree(c->peerid);
        c->peerid = NULL;
    }

    /* Caching the master happens instead of the actual freeClient() call,
     * so make sure to adjust the replication state. This function will
     * also set server.master to NULL. */
    replicationHandleMasterDisconnection();
}
当想让这个master的复活的时候,调用下面的方法:

/* Turn the cached master into the current master, using the file descriptor
 * passed as argument as the socket for the new master.
 *
 * This funciton is called when successfully setup a partial resynchronization
 * so the stream of data that we'll receive will start from were this
 * master left. */
/* 将缓存客户端复活 */
void replicationResurrectCachedMaster(int newfd) {
	//将cached_master赋值为主客户端
    server.master = server.cached_master;
    server.cached_master = NULL;
    server.master->fd = newfd;
    server.master->flags &= ~(REDIS_CLOSE_AFTER_REPLY|REDIS_CLOSE_ASAP);
    server.master->authenticated = 1;
    server.master->lastinteraction = server.unixtime;
    server.repl_state = REDIS_REPL_CONNECTED;

    /* Re-add to the list of clients. */
    //重新添加入客户端列表中
    listAddNodeTail(server.clients,server.master);
    if (aeCreateFileEvent(server.el, newfd, AE_READABLE,
                          readQueryFromClient, server.master)) {
        redisLog(REDIS_WARNING,"Error resurrecting the cached master, impossible to add the readable handler: %s", strerror(errno));
        freeClientAsync(server.master); /* Close ASAP. */
    }

    /* We may also need to install the write handler as well if there is
     * pending data in the write buffers. */
    if (server.master->bufpos || listLength(server.master->reply)) {
        if (aeCreateFileEvent(server.el, newfd, AE_WRITABLE,
                          sendReplyToClient, server.master)) {
            redisLog(REDIS_WARNING,"Error resurrecting the cached master, impossible to add the writable handler: %s", strerror(errno));
            freeClientAsync(server.master); /* Close ASAP. */
        }
    }
}
当然如果确定在未来不糊在使用缓存的master的时,可以彻底摧毁:

/* Free a cached master, called when there are no longer the conditions for
 * a partial resync on reconnection. */
/* 当某个客户端将不会再回复的时候,可以释放掉缓存的主客户端 */
void replicationDiscardCachedMaster(void) {
    if (server.cached_master == NULL) return;

    redisLog(REDIS_NOTICE,"Discarding previously cached master state.");
    server.cached_master->flags &= ~REDIS_MASTER;
    //直接释放客户端
    freeClient(server.cached_master);
    //server的缓存客户端赋值为NULL
    server.cached_master = NULL;
}
在这里面靠的就是server.cached_master属性。slave在和master连接的时候,要进行master的ip地址和Port端口的确认:

/* Set replication to the specified master address and port. */
/* 设定主客户端的ip地址和端口号 */
void replicationSetMaster(char *ip, int port) {
    sdsfree(server.masterhost);
    server.masterhost = sdsdup(ip);
    server.masterport = port;
    //设置完毕之后,断开所有的连接,中止replication进程
    if (server.master) freeClient(server.master);
    disconnectSlaves(); /* Force our slaves to resync with us as well. */
    replicationDiscardCachedMaster(); /* Don't try a PSYNC. */
    freeReplicationBacklog(); /* Don't allow our chained slaves to PSYNC. */
    cancelReplicationHandshake();
    server.repl_state = REDIS_REPL_CONNECT;
    server.master_repl_offset = 0;
}
主从复制的实现其实还有很多细节和步骤的。稍稍分析了一下,以后有机会研究的更深入一点


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