MapReduce序列化

序列化就是把内存中的对象转换成字节序列以便于存储到磁盘(持久化)和网络传输。
反序列化就是将字节序列或者是持久化的数据转换成内存中的对象

内存中的对象只能本地进程使用,断掉后就消失了,也不能被发送到网络上的另一台机器,序列化可以将内存中的对象发送到远程机器。由于Java本身的序列化框架(Serializable)太重,序列化的对象包含了很多额外信息,不便于在网络中高效传输,Hadoop开发了自己的序列化机制(Writable)。


实现自定义bean对象的序列化

步骤如下:

  1. 必须实现Writable接口;
  2. 反序列化时,需要反射调用空构造参数,所以必须有空参构造;
public FlowBean() {
  super();
}
  1. 重写序列化方法;
@Override
public void write(DataOutput out) throws IOException {
  out.writeLong(upFlow);
  out.writeLong(downFlow);
  out.writeLong(sumFlow);
}
  1. 重写反序列化方法;
@Override
public void readFields(DataInput in) throws IOException {
  upFlow = in.readLong();
  downFlow = in.readLong();
  sumFlow  = in.readLong();
}

注意:反序列化的顺序和序列化的顺序完全一致。

  1. 要想把结果显示在文件中,需要重写toString()方法,可用“\t“分开;
  2. 如果需要将自定义的Bean放在Key中传输,还需要实现Comparable接口,因为MapReduce框架中的Shuffle过程要求必须对key必须能排序。
@Override
public int compareTo(FlowBean o) {  
  return this.sumFlow > o.getSumFlow() ? -1 : 1;
}

自定义序列化

统计txt中每个电话号的上行流量、下行流量和总流量。数据示例如下,倒数第二和第三列分别为下行流量和上行流量。

0   13152567890 www.baidu.com   90  100 200
1   16592992187 www.google.com  100 2000    200
2   15716605853 www.vx.com  2000    2043    200
3   16592992187 www.baidu.com   204 222 200
4   13152567890 www.python.org  20  40  500
  1. 自定义的Bean,按照上述要求完成。
package Flowsum;

import org.apache.hadoop.io.Writable;

import java.io.DataInput;
import java.io.DataOutput;
import java.io.IOException;

public class FlowBean implements Writable {

    private long upFlow;
    private long downFlow;
    private long sumFlow;

    // 空参构造,实现反射调用
    public FlowBean() {
        super();
    }

    // 有参构造
    public FlowBean(long upFlow, long downFlow) {
        super();
        this.upFlow = upFlow;
        this.downFlow = downFlow;
        sumFlow = upFlow + downFlow;
    }

    // 序列化方法
    public void write(DataOutput dataOutput) throws IOException {
        dataOutput.writeLong(upFlow);
        dataOutput.writeLong(downFlow);
        dataOutput.writeLong(sumFlow);
    }

    // 反序列化方法
    public void readFields(DataInput dataInput) throws IOException {
        // 要求和序列化时的顺序一致
        upFlow = dataInput.readLong();
        downFlow = dataInput.readLong();
        sumFlow = dataInput.readLong();
    }

    @Override
    public String toString() {
        return upFlow + "\t" + downFlow + "\t" + sumFlow;
    }

    public long getUpFlow() {
        return upFlow;
    }

    public void setUpFlow(long upFlow) {
        this.upFlow = upFlow;
    }

    public long getDownFlow() {
        return downFlow;
    }

    public void setDownFlow(long downFlow) {
        this.downFlow = downFlow;
    }

    public long getSumFlow() {
        return sumFlow;
    }

    public void setSumFlow(long sumFlow) {
        this.sumFlow = sumFlow;
    }

    public void set(long upFlow2, long downFlow2) {
        upFlow = upFlow2;
        downFlow = downFlow2;
        sumFlow = upFlow + downFlow;
    }
}

注意:
1)空参构造必须有;
2)序列化的过程和反序列化的过程比必须一致;
3)每个字段必须有get和set方法。

  1. Mapper
package Flowsum;

import org.apache.hadoop.io.LongWritable;
import org.apache.hadoop.io.Text;
import org.apache.hadoop.mapreduce.Mapper;

import java.io.IOException;

public class FlowCountMapper extends Mapper<LongWritable, Text, Text, FlowBean> {

    Text k = new Text();
    FlowBean v = new FlowBean();

    @Override
    protected void map(LongWritable key, Text value, Context context) throws IOException, InterruptedException {

        // 1 获取一行
        String line = value.toString();

        // 2 切分
        String[] fields = line.split("\t");

        // 3 封装对象
        k.set(fields[1]);

        long upFlow = Long.parseLong(fields[fields.length - 3]);
        long downFlow = Long.parseLong(fields[fields.length - 2]);

        v.setUpFlow(upFlow);
        v.setDownFlow(downFlow);

        // 4 写出
        context.write(k, v);
    }
}
  1. Reducer
package Flowsum;

import org.apache.hadoop.io.Text;
import org.apache.hadoop.mapreduce.Reducer;

import java.io.IOException;

public class FlowCountReducer extends Reducer<Text, FlowBean, Text, FlowBean> {

    FlowBean v = new FlowBean();

    @Override
    protected void reduce(Text key, Iterable<FlowBean> values, Context context) throws IOException, InterruptedException {

        // 1 累加求和
        long sum_upFlow = 0;
        long sum_downFlow = 0;

        for (FlowBean flowBean : values) {
            sum_upFlow += flowBean.getUpFlow();
            sum_downFlow += flowBean.getDownFlow();
        }
        v.set(sum_upFlow, sum_downFlow);

        // 2 写出
        context.write(key, v);
    }
}
  1. Driver
package Flowsum;

import org.apache.hadoop.conf.Configuration;
import org.apache.hadoop.fs.Path;
import org.apache.hadoop.io.Text;
import org.apache.hadoop.mapreduce.Job;
import org.apache.hadoop.mapreduce.lib.input.FileInputFormat;
import org.apache.hadoop.mapreduce.lib.output.FileOutputFormat;

import java.io.IOException;

public class FlowCountDriver {

    public static void main(String[] args) throws IOException, ClassNotFoundException, InterruptedException {

        // 1 获取Job对象
        Configuration conf = new Configuration();
        Job job = Job.getInstance(conf);

        // 2 设置jar路径
        job.setJarByClass(FlowCountDriver.class);

        // 3 关联Mapper和Reducer
        job.setMapperClass(FlowCountMapper.class);
        job.setReducerClass(FlowCountReducer.class);

        // 4 设置Mappr输出的key和value类型
        job.setMapOutputKeyClass(Text.class);
        job.setMapOutputValueClass(FlowBean.class);

        // 5 设置最终输出的key和value类型
        job.setOutputKeyClass(Text.class);
        job.setOutputValueClass(FlowBean.class);

        // 6 设置输入路径和输出路径
        FileInputFormat.setInputPaths(job, new Path(args[0]));
        FileOutputFormat.setOutputPath(job, new Path(args[1]));

        // 7 提交
        job.waitForCompletion(true);

    }
}
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