Hive基本操作与案例

1. 创建数据库,切换数据库

create database testdb2; 
use testdb2; 

技巧:一般将其优化,如果数据库存在,在创建时会报错,所以加上if no exists.

create database if not exists testdb2;

2. 创建管理表


create table emp(
empno int,
empname string,
job string,
mgr int,
hiredate string,
salary double,
comm double,
deptno int)
row format delimited
fields terminated by '\t';
 
加载数据
load data local inpath '/opt/test/emp.txt' overwrite into table emp; 


3. 创建外部表
创建外部表时直接指定表位置
上传数据文件到指定路径 

hdfs dfs -mkdir /user/hive/warehouse/testdb2.db/emp_ext 

hdfs dfs -put emp.txt /user/hive/warehouse/testdb2.db/emp_ext/ 

 在hive中创建数据表指定location

create external table 
emp_ext( empno int, empname string, job string,
          mgr int, hiredate string, salary double,
         comm double, deptno int) 
row format delimited fields terminated by '\t' 
location '/user/hive/warehouse/testdb2.db/emp_ext/'; 
4. 创建分区表
create table emp_part
        ( empno int, empname string, job string,
          mgr int, hiredate string, salary double,
          comm double, deptno int)
 partitioned by (year string, month string)
 row format delimited fields terminated by '\t'; 
注:分区字段不能与表中其他字段重复,否则报错 

FAILED: SemanticException [Error 10035]: Column repeated in partitioning columns
 
加载数据
从本地拷贝emp.txt到分区表目录中

load data local inpath '/opt/test/emp.txt' into table emp_part partition (year='2016', month='3'); 
load data local inpath '/opt/test/emp.txt' into table emp_part partition (year='2016', month='4'); 

用hdfs中指定位置的数据,增加分区表中数据,此操作不会移动数据文件到分区表目录中

alter table emp_part add partition (year='2016', month='5') location '/data'; 


把hdfs中指定位置的数据移动到分区表目录中,增加数据

load data inpath '/emp.txt' into table emp_part partition (year='2016', month='6'); 

 
5.其他创建表的方式
(1) create-as

create table emp3 
as 
select * from emp; 


(2) create-like

create table emp4 like emp;
load data local inpath '/opt/test/emp.txt' overwrite into table emp4; 


(3)插入数据

insert overwrite table emp4 select * from emp; 

 
6.指定表存储格式与压缩格式
(1) 指定orc格式

create table emp_orc( 
    empno int, empname string, job string, 
    mgr int, hiredate string, salary double,
     comm double, deptno int)
 stored as orc; 

指定为非文本格式时无需再指定row format delimited fields terminated by '\t'

插入数据
insert into table emp_orc select * from emp; 

 
可以利用已有的ORC存储格式的表创建新的ORC表

create table emp_orc2 like emp_orc; 
插入数据 
insert overwrite table emp_orc2 select * from emp; 

 
(2) 指定orc+snappy格式
a)先创建表,再插入数据

create table emp_orc_snappy( 
    empno int, empname string, job string,
     mgr int, hiredate string, salary double,
     comm double, deptno int) 
stored as orc tblproperties("orc.compression"="snappy");

插入数据
insert overwrite table emp_orc_snappy select * from emp; 


b)利用已有的orc表格式创建orc+snappy格式表

create table emp_orc_snappy2 like emp_orc tblproperties ("orc.compression"="snappy"); insert overwrite table emp_orc_snappy2 select * from emp; 


c)利用非压缩表直接创建orc+snappy表并导入数据

create table emp_orc_snappy3
stored as orc tblproperties("orc.compression"="snappy") 
as
select * from emp; 


7.hive执行参数-e,-f,--hiveconf
(1)命令行直接执行hql语句

hive -e "select * from db_hive01.emp" 

(2)执行hql文件中的语句

hive -f emp.hql 


(3)打开调试模式

hive --hiveconf hive.root.logger=DEBUG,console 


8.数据导出
(1)导出数据到本地
a)insert

insert overwrite local directory '/opt/test/local' row format delimited fields terminated by '\t' select * from emp; 

如果不指定row format delimited fields terminated by '\t',字段间默认没有分割符    
 
b)

hive -e 'select * from testdb2.emp' >> ./emp_export.txt 

 
(2)导出到hdfs
a)

insert overwrite directory '/export_data' select * from emp; 

hive 0.13.1版本还不支持导出数据到hdfs时指定分隔符row format delimited fields terminated by '\t'
 
b)

export table emp to '/export_data'; 

导出后会在会生成/export_data/data目录, emp.txt存放在此目录中,即/export_data/data/emp.txt
 
9. 排序
(1)order by 全局排序

insert overwrite local directory '/opt/test/local' row format delimited fields terminated by '\t' select * from emp order by empno; 


(2)sort by 与 distributed by
类似MR中partition,进行分区,结合sort by使用
每个reduce内部进行排序,全局不是排序, distribute by 一定是放在sort by 前面,
且必须要指定mapreduce.job.reduces数量,否则导出结果还是在一个文件中  

set mapreduce.job.reduces=3; 
insert overwrite local directory '/opt/test/local' 
row format delimited fields terminated by '\t' 
select * from emp 
distribute by deptno 
sort by empno; 


(3)cluster by
当distributed by和sort by 字段一样的时候,直接使用cluster by
 
10.常用函数

select upper(empname) from emp; 
select unix_timestamp(trackTime) from bflog limit 3 ;
select year(hiredate) from emp ; 
select month(hiredate) from emp ; 
select hour(hiredate) from emp ; 
select substr(hiredate,1,4) from .emp ; 
select split(hiredate,'-')[1] from emp ; 
select reverse(hiredate) from emp ; 
select concat(empno,'-',empname) from emp ; 


case 
    when 条件1 then ... 
    when 条件2 then ... 
    else end 

可以使用desc function substr 查看函数说明, substr第二个参数为index 从1技术,第三个参数为length
 
11. 自定义UDF

add jar /opt/test/mylower.jar ; 
CREATE TEMPORARY FUNCTION mylower AS 'org.gh.hadoop.hive.MyLower'; 

 
12. 使用正则表达式加载数据字段

create table beifenglog(

remote_addr string,
remote_user string,
time_local string,
request string,
status string,
body_bytes_sent string,
request_body string,
http_referer string,
http_user_agent string,
http_x_forwarded_for string,
host string)
row format serde 'org.apache.hadoop.hive.contrib.serde2.RegexSerDe'
with serdeproperties(
"input.regex" = "(\\\"[\\d\\.]+\\\") (\\\"[^ ]+\\\") (\\\".*?\\\") (\\\".*?\\\") (\\\"\\d+\\\") (\\\"\\d+\\\") ([^ ]+) (\\\"[^ ]+\\\") (\\\".*?\\\") (\\\"[^ ]+\\\") (\\\"[^ ]+\\\")"
)
stored as textfile;
 
加载原表数据
load data local inpath '/opt/test/beifenglog.data' overwrite into table beifenglog; 

 

可以使用工具调试正则:http://tool.chinaz.com/regex
 
 
13.注意点
(1)在创建表(无论管理表还是外部表)时,如果没有指定location,可以使用load data加载数据
a) 指定本地目录中的数据,会上传数据文件到hdfs中
b) 指定hdfs中数据文件,如果指定的路径与表所在的目录不一致,则移动数据文件到表目录中
 

create external table emp_ext2 like emp;
load data inpath '/emp.txt' into table emp_ext2;
会把/emp.txt移动到/user/hive/warehouse/testdb2.db/emp_ext2/目录中 
create table emp2 like emp;
load data inpath '/emp.txt' into table emp2;
会把/emp.txt移动到/user/hive/warehouse/testdb2.db/emp2/目录中 

 
(2)create-like时不能指定stored as为其他格式,否则报错
以下操作会报错 FAILED: ParseException line 1:31 missing EOF at 'stored' near 'emp'

create table emp_orc2 like emp stored as orc; 

原文地址:https://www.cnblogs.com/guanhao/p/5641675.html

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