Python模块WSGI详解

WSGI(Web Server Gateway Interface):Web服务网关接口,是Python中定义的服务器程序和应用程序之间的接口。

Web程序开发中,一般分为服务器程序和应用程序。服务器程序负责对socket服务的数据进行封装和整理,而应用程序则负责对Web请求进行逻辑处理。

Web应用本质上也是一个socket服务器,用户的浏览器就是一个socket客户端。

我们先用socket编程实现一个简单的Web服务器:

import socket

def handle_request(client):
    buf = client.recv(1024)
    print(buf)
    msg = "HTTP/1.1 200 OK\r\n\r\n"  #HTTP头信息
    client.send(('%s' % msg).encode())
    msg = "Hello, World!"
    client.send(('%s' % msg).encode())

def main():
    ip_port = ("localhost", 8000)
    sock = socket.socket(socket.AF_INET, socket.SOCK_STREAM)
    sock.bind(ip_port)
    sock.listen(5)

    while True:
        conn, addr = sock.accept()
        handle_request(conn)
        conn.close()

if __name__ == "__main__":
    main()
上述代码中,main()函数就是服务器函数,handle_request()就是应用程序。

下面我们再用python的wsgiref模块来实现跟上述代码一样的Web服务器:

from wsgiref.simple_server import make_server

def handle_request(env, res):
    res("200 OK",[("Content-Type","text/html")])
    body = "<h1>Hello World!</h1>"
    return [body.encode("utf-8")]

if __name__ == "__main__":
    httpd = make_server("",8000,handle_request)
    print("Serving http on port 80000")
    httpd.serve_forever()
上面两份代码实现的效果是一样的,调用wsgiref模块则明显节省了代码量,是整个程序更加简洁。
wsgiref模块封装了socket服务端的代码,只留下一个调用的接口,省去了程序员的麻烦,程序员可以将精力放在Web请求的逻辑处理中。
以上述的代码为例,详细看一下wsgiref模块的源码中一些关键的地方:

if __name__ == "__main__":
    httpd = make_server("",8000,handle_request)
    print("Serving http on port 80000")
    httpd.serve_forever()
1、整个程序的入口为make_server()函数:

def make_server(host, port, app, server_class=WSGIServer, handler_class=WSGIRequestHandler):
    """Create a new WSGI server listening on `host` and `port` for `app`"""
    server = server_class((host, port), handler_class)  #默认创建一个WSGIServer类
    server.set_app(app)  #将应用程序,即逻辑处理函数传给类
    return server
2、make_server()函数默认生成一个WSGIServer类:

class WSGIServer(HTTPServer):
class HTTPServer(socketserver.TCPServer):
class TCPServer(BaseServer):

WSGIServer,HTTPServer两个类没有初始化函数,调用父类的初始化函数,TCPServer类的__init__()函数拓展了BaseServer类的__init__()函数:

#BaseServer类的__init__()函数:
def __init__(self, server_address, RequestHandlerClass):
    """Constructor.  May be extended, do not override."""
    self.server_address = server_address
    self.RequestHandlerClass = RequestHandlerClass
    self.__is_shut_down = threading.Event()
    self.__shutdown_request = False
#TCPServer类的__init__()函数:
def __init__(self, server_address, RequestHandlerClass, bind_and_activate=True):
    """Constructor.  May be extended, do not override."""
    BaseServer.__init__(self, server_address, RequestHandlerClass)
    self.socket = socket.socket(self.address_family,self.socket_type)
        if bind_and_activate:
            try:
                self.server_bind()
                self.server_activate()
            except:
                self.server_close()
                raise
TCPServer类的初始化函数还调用了server_bind(self),server_bind(self)两个函数:

def server_bind(self):
    """Called by constructor to bind the socket.May be overridden."""
    if self.allow_reuse_address:
        self.socket.setsockopt(socket.SOL_SOCKET, socket.SO_REUSEADDR, 1)
    self.socket.bind(self.server_address)
    self.server_address = self.socket.getsockname()	
def self.server_activate(self):
    """Called by constructor to activate the server.May be overridden."""
    self.socket.listen(self.request_queue_size) 
可以看到server.bind()函数调用了socket.bind()函数,而server_activate()调用了socket.listen()函数:

3、server.set_app(app),此处传入Web请求的处理逻辑:

def set_app(self,application):
    self.application = application
4、httpd.serve_forever()函数调用BaseServer类的_handle_request_noblock()函数处理多路请求:
def _handle_request_noblock(self):
    try:
        request, client_address = self.get_request() #get_request()调用了socket.accept()函数
    except OSError:
        return
    if self.verify_request(request, client_address):
        try:
            self.process_request(request, client_address)
        except:
            self.handle_error(request, client_address)
            self.shutdown_request(request)
    else:
        self.shutdown_request(request)
def process_request(self, request, client_address):
    self.finish_request(request, client_address)	
    self.shutdown_request(request)					#shutdown_request()调用socket.close()关闭socket
		
def finish_request(self, request, client_address):
    """Finish one request by instantiating RequestHandlerClass."""
    self.RequestHandlerClass(request, client_address, self)
5、process_request()函数调用了finish_request()函数,简介调用了make_server函数的默认参数WSGIRequestHandler类:

class WSGIRequestHandler(BaseHTTPRequestHandler):
class BaseHTTPRequestHandler(socketserver.StreamRequestHandler):
class StreamRequestHandler(BaseRequestHandler):

#调用BaseRequestHandler类的初始化函数:
def __init__(self, request, client_address, server):
    self.request = request
    self.client_address = client_address
    self.server = server
    self.setup()
    try:
        self.handle()
    finally:
        self.finish()
6、初始化函数调用之后调用WSGIRequestHandler类的handle()函数获取server的逻辑处理函数:
def handle(self):
    """Handle a single HTTP request"""
    try:
        handler = ServerHandler(self.rfile, stdout, self.get_stderr(), self.get_environ())
        handler.request_handler = self      # backpointer for logging
        handler.run(self.server.get_app())	#此处调用server的逻辑处理函数
    finally:
        stdout.detach()
7、BaseHandler类的handler.run()函数执行逻辑处理:
def run(self, application):
     try:
        self.setup_environ()
        self.result = application(self.environ, self.start_response)
        self.finish_response()
    except:
        try:
            self.handle_error()
        except:
            self.close()
            raise   # ...and let the actual server figure it out.

self.environ:一个包含所有HTTP请求信息的dict对象

self.start_response:一个发送HTTP响应的函数。

在application函数中,调用:

 res("200 OK",[("Content-Type","text/html")])
这样就发送了HTTP响应的头信息
8、BaseHandler类的setup_environ()函数获取HTTP请求的头信息:
def setup_environ(self):
    """Set up the environment for one request"""
    env = self.environ = self.os_environ.copy()
	
os_environ= read_environ()

read_environ()函数:

def read_environ():
    """Read environment, fixing HTTP variables"""
    enc = sys.getfilesystemencoding()
    esc = 'surrogateescape'
    try:
        ''.encode('utf-8', esc)
    except LookupError:
        esc = 'replace'
    environ = {}

    # Take the basic environment from native-unicode os.environ. Attempt to
    # fix up the variables that come from the HTTP request to compensate for
    # the bytes->unicode decoding step that will already have taken place.
    for k, v in os.environ.items():
        if _needs_transcode(k):

            # On win32, the os.environ is natively Unicode. Different servers
            # decode the request bytes using different encodings.
            if sys.platform == 'win32':
                software = os.environ.get('SERVER_SOFTWARE', '').lower()

                # On IIS, the HTTP request will be decoded as UTF-8 as long
                # as the input is a valid UTF-8 sequence. Otherwise it is
                # decoded using the system code page (mbcs), with no way to
                # detect this has happened. Because UTF-8 is the more likely
                # encoding, and mbcs is inherently unreliable (an mbcs string
                # that happens to be valid UTF-8 will not be decoded as mbcs)
                # always recreate the original bytes as UTF-8.
                if software.startswith('microsoft-iis/'):
                    v = v.encode('utf-8').decode('iso-8859-1')

                # Apache mod_cgi writes bytes-as-unicode (as if ISO-8859-1) direct
                # to the Unicode environ. No modification needed.
                elif software.startswith('apache/'):
                    pass

                # Python 3's http.server.CGIHTTPRequestHandler decodes
                # using the urllib.unquote default of UTF-8, amongst other
                # issues.
                elif (
                    software.startswith('simplehttp/')
                    and 'python/3' in software
                ):
                    v = v.encode('utf-8').decode('iso-8859-1')

                # For other servers, guess that they have written bytes to
                # the environ using stdio byte-oriented interfaces, ending up
                # with the system code page.
                else:
                    v = v.encode(enc, 'replace').decode('iso-8859-1')

            # Recover bytes from unicode environ, using surrogate escapes
            # where available (Python 3.1+).
            else:
                v = v.encode(enc, esc).decode('iso-8859-1')

        environ[k] = v
    return environ
9、BaseHandler类的start_response()函数:
def start_response(self, status, headers,exc_info=None):
    """'start_response()' callable as specified by PEP 3333"""
    if exc_info:
        try:
            if self.headers_sent:
                # Re-raise original exception if headers sent
                raise exc_info[0](exc_info[1]).with_traceback(exc_info[2])
        finally:
            exc_info = None        # avoid dangling circular ref
    elif self.headers is not None:
        raise AssertionError("Headers already set!")

    self.status = status
    self.headers = self.headers_class(headers)
    status = self._convert_string_type(status, "Status")
    assert len(status)>=4,"Status must be at least 4 characters"
    assert status[:3].isdigit(), "Status message must begin w/3-digit code"
    assert status[3]==" ", "Status message must have a space after code"

    if __debug__:
        for name, val in headers:
            name = self._convert_string_type(name, "Header name")
            val = self._convert_string_type(val, "Header value")   
	return self.write











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