America, Britain and France strike Syria

America and its allies again try to deter Bashar al-Assad from using chemical weapons
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AMERICA, Britain and France fired a barrage of missiles at targets inside Syria on April 14th. The early-morning strikes aimed to punish the regime of Bashar al-Assad for a suspected chemical-weapons attack that killed dozens of people in the city of Douma a week earlier. More than 100 cruise missiles, launched from warplanes and gunboats, struck three Syrian facilities: a scientific research centre used to produce chemical weapons near the capital of Damascus and two military bases further north.

American officials and their European allies were careful to characterise the attack as a one-off strike designed to deter Mr Assad from using chemical weapons again. America’s defence secretary, Jim Mattis, who urged caution in the lead-up to the attack, said: “We were not out to expand this; we were very precise and proportionate.” No more attacks are planned, said Mr Mattis, unless Mr Assad uses chemical weapons again. “This is not about intervening in a civil war. It is not about regime change,” said Theresa May, Britain’s prime minister.

Pentagon officials said the missiles first struck a scientific research centre near Damascus that develops, produces and tests chemical and biological weapons. The other two facilities targeted in the strikes are located west of the city of Homs (see map). One produces sarin gas and the other is part of a military command post, the officials said. Syrian state television claimed some of the missiles were shot down by the government’s air defence systems. Still, “a large part of [Syria’s] chemical arsenal has been destroyed,” Jean-Yves Le Drian, France’s foreign minister, told French television.

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The attack was twice as big as one launched by America last year, which failed to deter Mr Assad. The earlier strike, involving 59 cruise missiles, was in response to a chemical attack on the town of Khan Sheikhoun in Idlib province. The target, a Syrian air base, was back operating a day later and Mr Assad has launched several suspected chemical attacks since then.

Whether or not Mr Assad is deterred by the latest strike—and warnings of more to come if he continues gassing his people—it will do little to alter the the course of Syria’s civil war. Aided by Iran and Russia, Mr Assad has been winning for some time. Rebels control only a few pockets of territory and are largely cut off from international support. As the missiles hit their targets and anti-aircraft guns lit up the sky, hundreds of people took to the streets of Damascus to protest the strike. After the bombing stopped the Syrian presidency posted on Twitter a video of Mr Assad, dressed in suit and tie, confidently strolling into work. “The morning of resilience,” read the caption beneath.

When announcing the attack, President Donald Trump tried to shame Iran and Russia into stopping Mr Assad from using poison gas again. “To Iran and to Russia I ask: What kind of a nation wants to be associated with the mass murder of innocent men, women and children?” said Mr Trump. Russia, in turn, threatened to respond. “We warned that such actions will not be left without consequences,” said Anatoly Antonov, the ambassador to the United States, in a statement. But neither Russia nor Iran appears to have lost men or military kit in the strike. American and French officials say they warned Russia in advance.

Mr Trump’s desire to make good on his promise to punish the “crimes of a monster” appear to have stalled his plans to pull America out of Syria. About 2,000 American troops are based in the north-east of the country, where they fight alongside a Kurdish-led force against what is left of the Islamic State jihadist group. “We look forward to the day when we can bring our warriors home,” said Mr Trump, while announcing the attack. But his advisers want America to stay in Syria. For this administration, punishing Mr Assad is likely to prove easier than devising a coherent Syria policy.

France '98

09-12

Today the first round of the Soccer World Championship in France is coming to an end. 16 countries are remaining now, among which the winner is determined by the following tournament:n 1 Brazil -----+ n +-- ? --+n 2 Chile ------+ |n +-- ? --+n 3 Nigeria ----+ | |n +-- ? --+ |n 4 Denmark ----+ |n +-- ? --+n 5 Holland ----+ | |n +-- ? --+ | |n 6 Yugoslavia -+ | | |n +-- ? --+ |n 7 Argentina --+ | |n +-- ? --+ |n 8 England ----+ |n +-- World Championn 9 Italy ------+ |n +-- ? --+ |n10 Norway -----+ | |n +-- ? --+ |n11 France -----+ | | |n +-- ? --+ | |n12 Paraguay ---+ | |n +-- ? --+n13 Germany ----+ |n +-- ? --+ |n14 Mexico -----+ | |n +-- ? --+n15 Romania ----+ |n +-- ? --+n16 Croatia ----+nnFor each possible match A vs. B between these 16 nations, you are given the probability that team A wins against B. This (together with the tournament mode displayed above) is sufficient to compute the probability that a given nation wins the World Cup. For example, if Germany wins against Mexico with 80%, Romania against Croatia with 60%, Germany against Romania with 70% and Germany against Croatia with 90%, then the probability that Germany reaches the semi-finals is 80% * (70% * 60% + 90% * 40%) = 62.4%. nnYour task is to write a program that computes the chances of the 16 nations to become the World Champion '98.nnnInputnnThe input will contain just one test case.nnThe first 16 lines of the input file give the names of the 16 countries, from top to bottom according to the picture given above. nnNext, there will follow a 16 x 16 integer matrix P where element pijgives the probability in percent that country #i defeats country #j in a direct match. Country #i means the i-th country from top to bottom given in the list of countries. In the picture above Brazil is #1 and Germany is #13, so p1,13=55 would mean that in a match between Brazil and Germany, Brazil wins with a probability of 55%. nnNote that matches may not end with a draw, i.e. pij + pji = 100 for all i,j.nnnOutputnnOutput 16 lines of the form "XXXXXXXXXX p=Y.YY%", where XXXXXXXXXX is the country's name, left-justified in a field of 10 characters, and Y.YY is their chance in percent to win the cup, written to two decimal places. Use the same order of countries like in the input file.nnnSample InputnnBrazilnChilenNigerianDenmarknHollandnYugoslavianArgentinanEnglandnItalynNorwaynFrancenParaguaynGermanynMexiconRomanianCroatian50 65 50 60 55 50 50 65 45 55 40 55 40 55 50 50 n35 50 35 45 40 35 35 50 30 40 25 40 25 40 35 35 n50 65 50 60 55 50 50 65 45 55 40 55 40 55 50 50 n40 55 40 50 45 40 40 55 35 45 30 45 30 45 40 40 n45 60 45 55 50 45 45 60 40 50 35 50 35 50 45 45 n50 65 50 60 55 50 50 65 45 55 40 55 40 55 50 50 n50 65 50 60 55 50 50 65 45 55 40 55 40 55 50 50 n35 50 35 45 40 35 35 50 30 40 25 40 25 40 35 35 n55 70 55 65 60 55 55 70 50 60 45 60 45 60 55 55 n45 60 45 55 50 45 45 60 40 50 35 50 35 50 45 45 n60 75 60 70 65 60 60 75 55 65 50 65 50 65 60 60 n45 60 45 55 50 45 45 60 40 50 35 50 35 50 45 45 n60 75 60 70 65 60 60 75 55 65 50 65 50 65 60 60 n45 60 45 55 50 45 45 60 40 50 35 50 35 50 45 45 n50 65 50 60 55 50 50 65 45 55 40 55 40 55 50 50 n50 65 50 60 55 50 50 65 45 55 40 55 40 55 50 50nnnSample OutputnnBrazil p=8.54%nChile p=1.60%nNigeria p=8.06%nDenmark p=2.79%nHolland p=4.51%nYugoslavia p=7.50%nArgentina p=8.38%nEngland p=1.56%nItaly p=9.05%nNorway p=3.23%nFrance p=13.72%nParaguay p=3.09%nGermany p=13.79%nMexico p=3.11%nRomania p=5.53%nCroatia p=5.53%

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