T1. VIM教程:基本操作

Lesson 1

  1. The cursor is moved using either the arrow keys or the hjkl keys.
    h (left) j (down) k (up) l (right)

  2. To start Vim from the shell prompt type: vim FILENAME <ENTER>

  3. To exit Vim type: <ESC> :q! <ENTER> to trash all changes.
    OR type: <ESC> :wq <ENTER> to save the changes.

  4. To delete the character at the cursor type: x

  5. To insert or append text type:
    i type inserted text <ESC> insert before the cursor
    A type appended text <ESC> append after the line

    NOTE: Pressing <ESC> will place you in Normal mode or will cancel
    an unwanted and partially completed command.

Lesson 2

  1. To delete from the cursor up to the next word type: dw
  2. To delete from the cursor to the end of a line type: d$
  3. To delete a whole line type: dd
  4. To repeat a motion prepend it with a number: 2w

    Type 2w to move the cursor two words forward.
    Type 3e to move the cursor to the end of the third word forward.
    Type 0 (zero) to move to the start of the line.
    Repeat the above three operations for many times.

  5. Type d2w to delete the two UPPER CASE words

    insert a count before the motion to delete more: d number motion

  6. To undo previous actions, type: u (lowercase u)
    To undo all the changes on a line, type: U (capital U)
    To undo the undo’s, type: CTRL-R

Lesson 3

  1. To put back text that has just been deleted, type p . This puts the
    deleted text AFTER the cursor (if a line was deleted it will go on the
    line below the cursor).
  2. To replace the character under the cursor, type r and then the
    character you want to have there.
  3. The change operator allows you to change from the cursor to where the
    motion takes you. eg. Type ce to change from the cursor to the end of
    the word, c$ to change to the end of a line.
  4. The format for change is:
    c [number] motion

Lesson 4

  1. CTRL-G displays your location in the file and the file status.
    G moves to the end of the file.
    number G moves to that line number.
    gg moves to the first line.
  2. Typing /followed by a phrase searches FORWARD for the phrase.
    Typing ? followed by a phrase searches BACKWARD for the phrase.
    After a search type n to find the next occurrence in the same direction
    or N to search in the opposite direction.
    CTRL-O takes you back to older positions, CTRL-Ito newer positions.
  3. Typing % while the cursor is on a (,),[,],{, or }goes to its match.
  4. To substitute new for the first old in a line type :s/old/new
    To substitute new for all 'old’s on a line type :s/old/new/g
    To substitute phrases between two line #'s type :#,#s/old/new/g
    To substitute all occurrences in the file type :%s/old/new/g
    To ask for confirmation each time add ‘c’ :%s/old/new/gc

Lesson 5

  1. :!command executes an external command.
    Some useful examples are:
(MS-DOS) (Unix)
:!dir left-aligned - shows a directory listing.
:!del'FILENAME :!rm FILENAME - removes file FILENAME.
  1. :w FILENAME writes the current Vim file to disk with name FILENAME.

  2. v motion :w FILENAME saves the Visually selected lines in file
    FILENAME.

  3. :r FILENAME retrieves disk file FILENAME and puts it below the
    cursor position.

  4. :r !dir reads the output of the dir command and puts it below the
    cursor position.

Lesson 6

  1. Type o to open a line BELOW the cursor and start Insert mode.
    Type O to open a line ABOVE the cursor.

  2. Type a to insert text AFTER the cursor.
    Type A to insert text after the end of the line.

  3. The e command moves to the end of a word.

  4. The y operator yanks (copies) text, p puts (pastes) it.

  5. Typing a capital R enters Replace mode until <ESC> is pressed.

  6. Typing ":set xxx" sets the option "xxx". Some options are:
    'ic' 'ignorecase' ignore upper/lower case when searching
    'is' 'incsearch' show partial matches for a search phrase
    'hls' 'hlsearch' highlight all matching phrases
    You can either use the long or the short option name.

  7. Prepend “no” to switch an option off: :set noic.

Lesson 7

  1. Type :help or press <F1> or <Help> to open a help window.

  2. Type :help cmd to find help on cmd .

  3. Type CTRL-W CTRL-W to jump to another window

  4. Type :q to close the help window

  5. Create a vimrc startup script to keep your preferred settings.

  6. When typing a : command, press CTRL-D to see possible completions.
    Press <TAB> to use one completion.

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