从Android设备中提取内核和逆向分析

版权声明:本文为博主原创文章,未经博主允许不得转载。 https://blog.csdn.net/QQ1084283172/article/details/57074695

本文博客链接:http://blog.csdn.net/qq1084283172/article/details/57074695


一、手机设备环境

Model number: Nexus 5
OS Version: Android 4.4.4 KTU84P
Kernel Version: 3.4.0-gd59db4e


二、Android内核提取

adb shell
su
cd /dev/block/platform/msm_sdcc.1/by-name
ls -l boot


boot 是个系统符号软链接,/dev/block/mmcblk0p19 就是boot分区


用 dd 将其dump到Nexus 5手机的sdcard文件夹下:

dd if=/dev/block/mmcblk0p19 of=/sdcard/boot.img


adb pull 将dump出来的boot.img文件导出到 /home/androidcode/AndroidDevlop/Nexus5Boot 文件夹下

adb pull /sdcard/boot.img /home/androidcode/AndroidDevlop/Nexus5Boot



用 Binwalk 工具分析boot.img文件

1.Binwalk工具的详细使用说明:Binwalk:后门(固件)分析利器

2.Binwalk工具的github地址:https://github.com/devttys0/binwalk

3.Binwalk工具的官方网址:http://binwalk.org/

4.Binwalk工具的wiki使用说明的地址:https://github.com/devttys0/binwalk/wiki

5.Binwalk工具作者收集的IDA插件和脚本:https://github.com/devttys0/ida

6.Binwalk工具的安装说明:https://github.com/devttys0/binwalk/blob/master/INSTALL.md


安装Binwalk工具并分析boot.img文件

cd /home/androidcode/AndroidDevlop/Nexus5Boot/binwalk-master

# 按照binwalk工具的说明安装binwalk
sudo python setup.py install

# 分析boot.img文件
sudo binwalk ../boot.img >log


分析的结果截图:



boot.img文件跳过2k的文件头之后,包括有两个gz包,一个是boot.img-kernel.gz即Linux内核,一个是boot.img-ramdisk.cpio.gz,
大概的组成结构如下图,详细的信息可以参考Android源码的 android/platform/system/core/master/mkbootimg/bootimg.h 文件,在线查看 booting.h 文件地址:https://android.googlesource.com/platform/system/core/+/master/mkbootimg/bootimg.h

/* tools/mkbootimg/bootimg.h
**
** Copyright 2007, The Android Open Source Project
**
** Licensed under the Apache License, Version 2.0 (the "License"); 
** you may not use this file except in compliance with the License. 
** You may obtain a copy of the License at 
**
**     http://www.apache.org/licenses/LICENSE-2.0 
**
** Unless required by applicable law or agreed to in writing, software 
** distributed under the License is distributed on an "AS IS" BASIS, 
** WITHOUT WARRANTIES OR CONDITIONS OF ANY KIND, either express or implied. 
** See the License for the specific language governing permissions and 
** limitations under the License.
*/
#include <stdint.h>
#ifndef _BOOT_IMAGE_H_
#define _BOOT_IMAGE_H_
typedef struct boot_img_hdr boot_img_hdr;
#define BOOT_MAGIC "ANDROID!"
#define BOOT_MAGIC_SIZE 8
#define BOOT_NAME_SIZE 16
#define BOOT_ARGS_SIZE 512
#define BOOT_EXTRA_ARGS_SIZE 1024
struct boot_img_hdr
{
    uint8_t magic[BOOT_MAGIC_SIZE];
    uint32_t kernel_size;  /* size in bytes */
    uint32_t kernel_addr;  /* physical load addr */
    uint32_t ramdisk_size; /* size in bytes */
    uint32_t ramdisk_addr; /* physical load addr */
    uint32_t second_size;  /* size in bytes */
    uint32_t second_addr;  /* physical load addr */
    uint32_t tags_addr;    /* physical addr for kernel tags */
    uint32_t page_size;    /* flash page size we assume */
    uint32_t unused;       /* reserved for future expansion: MUST be 0 */
    /* operating system version and security patch level; for
     * version "A.B.C" and patch level "Y-M-D":
     * ver = A << 14 | B << 7 | C         (7 bits for each of A, B, C)
     * lvl = ((Y - 2000) & 127) << 4 | M  (7 bits for Y, 4 bits for M)
     * os_version = ver << 11 | lvl */
    uint32_t os_version;
    uint8_t name[BOOT_NAME_SIZE]; /* asciiz product name */
    uint8_t cmdline[BOOT_ARGS_SIZE];
    uint32_t id[8]; /* timestamp / checksum / sha1 / etc */
    /* Supplemental command line data; kept here to maintain
     * binary compatibility with older versions of mkbootimg */
    uint8_t extra_cmdline[BOOT_EXTRA_ARGS_SIZE];
} __attribute__((packed));
/*
** +-----------------+ 
** | boot header     | 1 page
** +-----------------+
** | kernel          | n pages  
** +-----------------+
** | ramdisk         | m pages  
** +-----------------+
** | second stage    | o pages
** +-----------------+
**
** n = (kernel_size + page_size - 1) / page_size
** m = (ramdisk_size + page_size - 1) / page_size
** o = (second_size + page_size - 1) / page_size
**
** 0. all entities are page_size aligned in flash
** 1. kernel and ramdisk are required (size != 0)
** 2. second is optional (second_size == 0 -> no second)
** 3. load each element (kernel, ramdisk, second) at
**    the specified physical address (kernel_addr, etc)
** 4. prepare tags at tag_addr.  kernel_args[] is
**    appended to the kernel commandline in the tags.
** 5. r0 = 0, r1 = MACHINE_TYPE, r2 = tags_addr
** 6. if second_size != 0: jump to second_addr
**    else: jump to kernel_addr
*/
#if 0
typedef struct ptentry ptentry;
struct ptentry {
    char name[16];      /* asciiz partition name    */
    unsigned start;     /* starting block number    */
    unsigned length;    /* length in blocks         */
    unsigned flags;     /* set to zero              */
};
/* MSM Partition Table ATAG
**
** length: 2 + 7 * n
** atag:   0x4d534d70
**         <ptentry> x n
*/
#endif
#endif

有关boot.img文件的生成可以参考Android源码的 android/platform/system/core/master/mkbootimg/bootimg 文件,在线查看 booting文件地址:https://android.googlesource.com/platform/system/core/+/master/mkbootimg/mkbootimg

#!/usr/bin/env python
# Copyright 2015, The Android Open Source Project
#
# Licensed under the Apache License, Version 2.0 (the "License");
# you may not use this file except in compliance with the License.
# You may obtain a copy of the License at
#
#     http://www.apache.org/licenses/LICENSE-2.0
#
# Unless required by applicable law or agreed to in writing, software
# distributed under the License is distributed on an "AS IS" BASIS,
# WITHOUT WARRANTIES OR CONDITIONS OF ANY KIND, either express or implied.
# See the License for the specific language governing permissions and
# limitations under the License.
from __future__ import print_function
from sys import argv, exit, stderr
from argparse import ArgumentParser, FileType, Action
from os import fstat
from struct import pack
from hashlib import sha1
import sys
import re
def filesize(f):
    if f is None:
        return 0
    try:
        return fstat(f.fileno()).st_size
    except OSError:
        return 0
def update_sha(sha, f):
    if f:
        sha.update(f.read())
        f.seek(0)
        sha.update(pack('I', filesize(f)))
    else:
        sha.update(pack('I', 0))
def pad_file(f, padding):
    pad = (padding - (f.tell() & (padding - 1))) & (padding - 1)
    f.write(pack(str(pad) + 'x'))
def write_header(args):
    BOOT_MAGIC = 'ANDROID!'.encode()
    args.output.write(pack('8s', BOOT_MAGIC))
    args.output.write(pack('10I',
        filesize(args.kernel),                          # size in bytes
        args.base + args.kernel_offset,                 # physical load addr
        filesize(args.ramdisk),                         # size in bytes
        args.base + args.ramdisk_offset,                # physical load addr
        filesize(args.second),                          # size in bytes
        args.base + args.second_offset,                 # physical load addr
        args.base + args.tags_offset,                   # physical addr for kernel tags
        args.pagesize,                                  # flash page size we assume
        0,                                              # future expansion: MUST be 0
        (args.os_version << 11) | args.os_patch_level)) # os version and patch level
    args.output.write(pack('16s', args.board.encode())) # asciiz product name
    args.output.write(pack('512s', args.cmdline[:512].encode()))
    sha = sha1()
    update_sha(sha, args.kernel)
    update_sha(sha, args.ramdisk)
    update_sha(sha, args.second)
    img_id = pack('32s', sha.digest())
    args.output.write(img_id)
    args.output.write(pack('1024s', args.cmdline[512:].encode()))
    pad_file(args.output, args.pagesize)
    return img_id
class ValidateStrLenAction(Action):
    def __init__(self, option_strings, dest, nargs=None, **kwargs):
        if 'maxlen' not in kwargs:
            raise ValueError('maxlen must be set')
        self.maxlen = int(kwargs['maxlen'])
        del kwargs['maxlen']
        super(ValidateStrLenAction, self).__init__(option_strings, dest, **kwargs)
    def __call__(self, parser, namespace, values, option_string=None):
        if len(values) > self.maxlen:
            raise ValueError('String argument too long: max {0:d}, got {1:d}'.
                format(self.maxlen, len(values)))
        setattr(namespace, self.dest, values)
def write_padded_file(f_out, f_in, padding):
    if f_in is None:
        return
    f_out.write(f_in.read())
    pad_file(f_out, padding)
def parse_int(x):
    return int(x, 0)
def parse_os_version(x):
    match = re.search(r'^(\d{1,3})(?:\.(\d{1,3})(?:\.(\d{1,3}))?)?', x)
    if match:
        a = int(match.group(1))
        b = c = 0
        if match.lastindex >= 2:
            b = int(match.group(2))
        if match.lastindex == 3:
            c = int(match.group(3))
        # 7 bits allocated for each field
        assert a < 128
        assert b < 128
        assert c < 128
        return (a << 14) | (b << 7) | c
    return 0
def parse_os_patch_level(x):
    match = re.search(r'^(\d{4})-(\d{2})-(\d{2})', x)
    if match:
        y = int(match.group(1)) - 2000
        m = int(match.group(2))
        # 7 bits allocated for the year, 4 bits for the month
        assert y >= 0 and y < 128
        assert m > 0 and m <= 12
        return (y << 4) | m
    return 0
def parse_cmdline():
    parser = ArgumentParser()
    parser.add_argument('--kernel', help='path to the kernel', type=FileType('rb'),
                        required=True)
    parser.add_argument('--ramdisk', help='path to the ramdisk', type=FileType('rb'))
    parser.add_argument('--second', help='path to the 2nd bootloader', type=FileType('rb'))
    parser.add_argument('--cmdline', help='extra arguments to be passed on the '
                        'kernel command line', default='', action=ValidateStrLenAction, maxlen=1536)
    parser.add_argument('--base', help='base address', type=parse_int, default=0x10000000)
    parser.add_argument('--kernel_offset', help='kernel offset', type=parse_int, default=0x00008000)
    parser.add_argument('--ramdisk_offset', help='ramdisk offset', type=parse_int, default=0x01000000)
    parser.add_argument('--second_offset', help='2nd bootloader offset', type=parse_int,
                        default=0x00f00000)
    parser.add_argument('--os_version', help='operating system version', type=parse_os_version,
                        default=0)
    parser.add_argument('--os_patch_level', help='operating system patch level',
                        type=parse_os_patch_level, default=0)
    parser.add_argument('--tags_offset', help='tags offset', type=parse_int, default=0x00000100)
    parser.add_argument('--board', help='board name', default='', action=ValidateStrLenAction,
                        maxlen=16)
    parser.add_argument('--pagesize', help='page size', type=parse_int,
                        choices=[2**i for i in range(11,15)], default=2048)
    parser.add_argument('--id', help='print the image ID on standard output',
                        action='store_true')
    parser.add_argument('-o', '--output', help='output file name', type=FileType('wb'),
                        required=True)
    return parser.parse_args()
def write_data(args):
    write_padded_file(args.output, args.kernel, args.pagesize)
    write_padded_file(args.output, args.ramdisk, args.pagesize)
    write_padded_file(args.output, args.second, args.pagesize)
def main():
    args = parse_cmdline()
    img_id = write_header(args)
    write_data(args)
    if args.id:
        if isinstance(img_id, str):
            # Python 2's struct.pack returns a string, but py3 returns bytes.
            img_id = [ord(x) for x in img_id]
        print('0x' + ''.join('{:02x}'.format(c) for c in img_id))
if __name__ == '__main__':
    main()


根据上面的信息,从boot.img中提取出压缩的内核文件:

cd ../

dd if=boot.img of=kernel.gz bs=1 skip=20660




由于Android的内核文件经过了gzip压缩,因此要拿到最终的Android内核文件还需要进行解压缩:

gzip -d kernel.gz



补充说明:关于Android的内核文件的提取和解压方法很多,常用的工具也比较多,也可以使用下面的几个工具之一来进行boot.img文件的解包和gzip的解压缩操作。

bootimg.exe	https://github.com/cofface/android_bootimg 

bootimg-tools   https://github.com/pbatard/bootimg-tools.git  

unpackbootimg	http://bbs.pediy.com/showthread.php?t=197334

abootimg	https://github.com/ggrandou/abootimg



解压后的Android内核文件kernel中不包含符号信息。所以还要从Android设备中提取符号信息,尽管 /proc/kallsyms 文件中存储了所有内核符号信息,但是从分析的结果来看,文件中存储的内存地址值都是0,这是为了防止内核地址泄露。在dump 镜像文件boot.img的Android设备上执行下面的命令,就会发现Android设备上的所有内核符号都被屏蔽隐藏了。

adb shell

cat /proc/kallsyms




为了要获取Android内核中所有的内核符号信息,可以通过在root权限下,修改Andriod设备中的/proc/sys/kernel/kptr_restrict的值来实现,去掉Android内核符号的信息屏蔽。

adb shell
su

# 查看默认值
cat /proc/sys/kernel/kptr_restrict

# 关闭内核符号屏蔽
echo 0 > /proc/sys/kernel/kptr_restrict 

# 查看修改后的值
cat /proc/sys/kernel/kptr_restrict

cat /proc/kallsyms



关闭Android设备的内核符号的屏蔽以后,再次执行 cat /proc/kallsyms ,发现被隐藏的内核符号信息都显示出来了。


在root权限下,将Android设备中的内核符号信息dump出来,导出到 /home/androidcode/AndroidDevlop/Nexus5Boot/syms.txt文件中。因此,Android内核文件的内核符号信息都保存在syms.txt文件中了。

# cat /proc/kallsyms > /sdcard/syms.txt

# exit
$ exit

$ adb pull /sdcard/syms.txt syms.txt





三、IDA分析导出的Androd内核文件

将提取出来的Android内核 kernel文件 拖到IDA Pro 6.8中进行分析,设置处理器类型ARM Little-endian

 


ROM start addressLoading address 处填上0xc0008000,然后点击 OK 完成 。



*至于这里为什么要设置 ROM start address 和 Loading address的地址为 0xc0008000? 具体的可以参考 bootheader这个数据结构,在这里需要关注其中几个比较重要的值,这些值定义在boot/boardconfig.h中,不同的芯片对应vendor下不同的boardconfig,在这里我们的值分别是(分别是 kernel/ramdis/tags 载入ram的物理地址):

#define PHYSICAL_DRAM_BASE   0x00200000 
#define KERNEL_ADDR          (PHYSICAL_DRAM_BASE + 0x00008000)
#define RAMDISK_ADDR         (PHYSICAL_DRAM_BASE + 0x01000000)
#define TAGS_ADDR            (PHYSICAL_DRAM_BASE + 0x00000100)
#define NEWTAGS_ADDR         (PHYSICAL_DRAM_BASE + 0x00004000)
上面这些值分中 KERNEL_ADDR 就是 ZTEXTADDR,RAMDISK_ADDR 就是 INITRD_PHYS,而 TAGS_ADDR 就是PARAMS_PHYS。bootloader会从boot.img的分区中将kernel和ramdisk分别读入RAM上面定义的内存地址中,然后就会跳到ZTEXTADDR开始执行。

详细的参考:Android boot.img 结构

OK,现在就可以在IDA中查看和分析Android内核文件中的代码了,但是函数名称不是很友好,很多系统函数的名称都没有显示出来,只是显示成IDA中默认的普通函数名称。



前面我们已经将Androd内核文件中的内核符号信息都dump出来,这里大有用武之地。因此,向IDA中导入之前提取出来的内核符号信息就可以看到对应的函数名称了。需要用到下面的python脚本:

ksyms = open("C:\Users\Fly2016\Desktop\Binwalk工具\Nexus5_kernel\syms.txt")
for line in ksyms:
    addr = int(line[0:8],16)
    name = line[11:]
    idaapi.set_debug_name(addr,name)
    MakeNameEx(addr,name,SN_NOWARN)
    Message("%08X:%sn"%(addr,name))


在IDA的 File->Script Command中运行上述python脚本,之后就可以在IDA中成功添加内核符号信息使IDA显示出正确的系统调用的函数名称来。



大功告成,现在可以愉快的分析Android内核的代码了:



总结:通过这种dump设备固件的方法,可以逆向分析没有源码的固件二进制文件,对于Android设备来说又可以通过这种方法修改Android的内核文件来进行反调试或者其他的目的。将修改好的Android内核文件使用boot.img等打包解包工具还原打包回到boot.img文件中,然后 fastboot flash boot boot.img  更新Android设备的内核文件即可达到目的。



学习链接

从Android手机中提取内核 <主要参考>

root技术背后android手机内核提取及逆向分析

逆向修改手机内核,绕过反调试

提取Android内核的方法

android boot.img 结构

boot.img逆向分析

理解boot.img与静态分析Android/linux内核

阅读更多
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