# Coursera普林斯顿大学算法课第一次作业

Timing：PercolationStats.java里StdRandom.mean()和StdRandom.stddev()都只能调用一次；Percolation.java里实现numberOfOpenSites时切记不能使用循环累加，定义一个私有属性来计数即可；实现open()时相邻的四个sites位置直接加减n或1即可。

Backwash:实现isFull()时需要另外实例化一个不包含最下端虚拟节点的WeightedQuickUnionUF，可以解决Test 13: check for backwash with predetermined sites，Test 14: check for backwash with predetermined sites that have multiple percolating paths和Test 15: call all methods in random order until all sites are open, allowing isOpen() to be called on a site more than once三项测试无法通过的问题。

Backwash问题是指因为虚拟底部结点的存在，导致底部任一结点渗漏成功的话底部所有结点都会认为渗漏成功。原因是通过底部虚拟结点形成了回流。从而导致isFull()方法出错。

Percolation.java

import edu.princeton.cs.algs4.WeightedQuickUnionUF;

public class Percolation {

private boolean[] op; // true=open while false=blocked
private int side; // number of rows or columns
private int numOp; // number of open sites
private WeightedQuickUnionUF uf;
private WeightedQuickUnionUF ufTop;

public Percolation(int n) {

if(n <= 0) throw new IllegalArgumentException("Input should be positif!\n");

this.side = n;
this.op = new boolean[n*n+2]; // with 2 virtual sites
this.uf = new WeightedQuickUnionUF(n*n+2);
this.ufTop = new WeightedQuickUnionUF(n*n+1); // with only the upper virtual site

for(int i=1; i<n*n+1; i++) op[i] = false;
op[0] = op[n*n+1] = true;
this.numOp = 0;

}

// both ROW and COL should be integer within 1~n
private void checkBounds(int row, int col){
if(row < 1 || row > this.side || col < 1 || col > this.side){
throw new IllegalArgumentException("Index out of bounds!\n");
}
}

// get position of sites in 3 arrays: op, uf.parent & uf.size
private int getPosition(int row, int col){
return (row - 1) * this.side + col;
}

private void union(int aPos, int bPos, WeightedQuickUnionUF wq){
if(!wq.connected(aPos, bPos)){
wq.union(aPos, bPos);
}
}

private boolean isOpen(int pos){
return op[pos];
}

public void open(int row, int col) {

checkBounds(row, col);
if(isOpen(row, col)) return;

int pos = getPosition(row, col);
op[pos] = true;
numOp++;

// positions of adjacent sites
int rowPrev = pos - side, rowNext = pos + side,
colPrev = pos - 1, colNext = pos + 1;

// try connect the adjacent open sites
if(row == 1){
union(0, pos, uf);
union(0, pos, ufTop);
}else if(isOpen(rowPrev)){
union(rowPrev, pos, uf);
union(rowPrev, pos, ufTop);
}

if(row == side){
union(side * side + 1, pos, uf);
}else if(isOpen(rowNext)){
union(rowNext, pos, uf);
union(rowNext, pos, ufTop);
}

if(col != 1 && isOpen(colPrev)) {
union(colPrev, pos, uf);
union(colPrev, pos, ufTop);
}

if(col != side && isOpen(colNext)) {
union(colNext, pos, uf);
union(colNext, pos, ufTop);
}
}

public boolean isOpen(int row, int col) {
checkBounds(row, col);
return isOpen(getPosition(row, col));

}

/**
* check for backwash with predetermined sites that have multiple percolating paths
* in this case ufTop should be used instead of uf
* @param row
* @param col
* @return
*/
public boolean isFull(int row, int col) {
checkBounds(row, col);
//return uf.connected(0, getPosition(row, col)); -> didn't pass the test!
return ufTop.connected(0, getPosition(row, col));

}

// should pass the timing check
public int numberOfOpenSites(){
return this.numOp;
}

public boolean percolates(){
return uf.connected(0, side * side + 1);
}

}


PercolationStats.java

import edu.princeton.cs.algs4.StdIn;
import edu.princeton.cs.algs4.StdOut;
import edu.princeton.cs.algs4.StdRandom;
import edu.princeton.cs.algs4.StdStats;
import edu.princeton.cs.algs4.Stopwatch;

public class PercolationStats {

private double[] results; // estimated threshold for each trial
private double avg;
private double std;

public PercolationStats(int n, int trials){

if(n <= 0 || trials <= 0) throw new IllegalArgumentException();

results = new double[trials];
for(int i = 0; i < trials; i++){
int step = 0;
Percolation pr = new Percolation(n);
while(!pr.percolates()){
int row = StdRandom.uniform(n) + 1;
int col = StdRandom.uniform(n) + 1;
if(!pr.isOpen(row, col)){
pr.open(row, col);
step++;
}
}
results[i] = (double)step / (n * n);
}

this.avg = StdStats.mean(results);
this.std = StdStats.stddev(results);

}

public static void main(String[] args){

StdOut.printf("%-25s\n", "Please input 2 integers");
int N = StdIn.readInt();
int T = StdIn.readInt();

Stopwatch wt = new Stopwatch();

PercolationStats ps = new PercolationStats(N, T);

// elapsed CPU time in seconds
double elapsed = wt.elapsedTime();

StdOut.printf("%-25s= %.15f\n", "elapsed CPU time", elapsed);
StdOut.printf("%-25s= %.7f\n", "mean", ps.mean());
StdOut.printf("%-25s= %.17f\n", "stddev", ps.stddev());
StdOut.printf("%-25s= [%.15f, %.15f]\n", "%95 confidence interval",
ps.confidenceLo(), ps.confidenceHi());
}

public double mean(){
return this.avg;
}

public double stddev(){
return this.std;
}

public double confidenceLo(){
return mean() - 1.96 * stddev() / Math.sqrt(results.length);
}

public double confidenceHi(){
return mean() + 1.96 * stddev() / Math.sqrt(results.length);
}

}


Reference: http://blog.evernightfireworks.com/princeton_algorithms_percolation/

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