LeetCode 685 Redundant Connection II (并查集 判树)

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In this problem, a rooted tree is a directed graph such that, there is exactly one node (the root) for which all other nodes are descendants of this node, plus every node has exactly one parent, except for the root node which has no parents.

The given input is a directed graph that started as a rooted tree with N nodes (with distinct values 1, 2, ..., N), with one additional directed edge added. The added edge has two different vertices chosen from 1 to N, and was not an edge that already existed.

The resulting graph is given as a 2D-array of edges. Each element of edges is a pair [u, v] that represents a directed edge connecting nodes u and v, where u is a parent of child v.

Return an edge that can be removed so that the resulting graph is a rooted tree of N nodes. If there are multiple answers, return the answer that occurs last in the given 2D-array.

Example 1:

Input: [[1,2], [1,3], [2,3]]
Output: [2,3]
Explanation: The given directed graph will be like this:
  1
 / \
v   v
2-->3

Example 2:

Input: [[1,2], [2,3], [3,4], [4,1], [1,5]]
Output: [4,1]
Explanation: The given directed graph will be like this:
5 <- 1 -> 2
     ^    |
     |    v
     4 <- 3

Note:

  • The size of the input 2D-array will be between 3 and 1000.
  • Every integer represented in the 2D-array will be between 1 and N, where N is the size of the input array.

题目链接:https://leetcode.com/problems/redundant-connection-ii/

题目分析:简单题,题目有说输入是一棵合法的有根树添了一条边,故比直接给一个有向图判树要简便一些,分两种情况

1)存在入度为0的点:容易得到要删的必然是一个入度为2的点的某条入边,且删除后要保证连通,连通性可用并查集判

2)不存在入度为0的点:这种情况更简单,根必然是一个入度为1的点,且只要这个点出度不为0,必然可以做为树根

1ms,时间击败99.48%

class Solution {
    
    public int[] fa;
    
    public int find(int x) {
        if (x == fa[x]) {
            return x;
        }
        fa[x] = find(fa[x]);
        return fa[x];
    }
    
    public void union(int x, int y) {
        int r1 = find(x);
        int r2 = find(y);
        if (r1 != r2) {
            fa[r2] = r1;
        }
    }
    
    public boolean isConnect(int pos, int n, int[][] edges) {
        fa = new int[n + 1];
        for (int i = 1; i <= n; i++) {
            fa[i] = i;
        }
        for (int i = 0; i < n; i++) {
            if (pos == i) {
                continue;
            }
            union(edges[i][0], edges[i][1]);
        }
        int rt = find(1);
        for (int i = 2; i <= n; i++) {
            if (find(i) != rt) {
                return false;
            }
        }
        return true;
    }
    
    public int[] findRedundantDirectedConnection(int[][] edges) {
        int n = edges.length;
        int[] inDegree = new int[n + 1];
        int[] outDegree = new int[n + 1];
        for (int i = 0; i < n; i++) {
            inDegree[edges[i][1]]++;
            outDegree[edges[i][0]]++;
        }
        int rt = -1;
        for (int i = 1; i <= n; i++) {
            if (inDegree[i] == 0) {
                rt = i;
                break;
            }
        }
        if (rt != -1) {
            for (int i = n - 1; i >= 0; i--) {
                if (inDegree[edges[i][1]] == 2 && isConnect(i, n, edges)) {
                    return edges[i];
                }
            }
        } else {
            for (int i = n - 1; i >= 0; i--) {
                if (inDegree[edges[i][1]] == 1 && outDegree[edges[i][1]] > 0) {
                    return edges[i];
                }
            }
        }
        
        return new int[2];
    }
}

 

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