云计算报告中英文版(Cloud Computing)

                                              Cloud Computing



Cloud computing, as a hot technology in IT industry, has always been a hot issue in society, and now it has been continuously developed and widely used. Based on the definition and principle, characteristics, service model and core technology of cloud computing, this paper discusses the application and security of cloud computing and the development trend of cloud computing.

Key words: cloud computing, service mode, core technology, cloud application, cloud security.





1. Overview of cloud computing

1.1 Definition of cloud computing

Wikipedia defines cloud computing as an Internet-based computing method in which shared software and hardware resources and information can be provided to various computer terminals and other devices as required, using the computer infrastructure provided by the service provider for computing and resources. To put it simply, it brings together a number of computer resources and application services (application, such as browsing web pages and downloading movies), which may be formed by countless data centers connected over the Internet, resulting in so-called cloud computing.


1. 云计算概述

1.1 云计算定义 


1.2 Basic features of cloud computing

The idea behind cloud computing is simple. It's simply about pooling computer resources and putting them on the web. But the implementation of cloud computing is more complex. For example, if you just buy a server and set up an FTP server in your company, you can share resources among your colleagues in your company. But if it's singles' day, Taobao's shopping festival, and billions of people around the world visit Alibaba's Taobao site, dozens of petabytes (1PB=1024TB=1024×1024GB) of page views in a single day, and hundreds of gigabytes of traffic per second, this is not a question that a few servers can solve. At this time, we need to design a reliable cloud computing system to meet the requirements of the smooth operation of the business. And this cloud computing system has to meet the requirements of super capacity, super concurrency (simultaneous access), super speed and super security. The specific basic characteristics of cloud computing can be roughly shown in figure 1:

                                                           Figure1 the basic characteristics of cloud computing

1.2 云计算基本特征


                                                                                    图1 云计算基本特征

2. Cloud service mode

2.1 Concept of cloud services

We refer to the software services provided as "cloud services", which means that one or more software functions can be accessed over the Internet using a standard interface. Cloud services are services that can be IT, software, internet-related, or other services that are available in an on-demand, scalable manner over the web. It means that computing power can also flow as a commodity over the Internet.

2 云服务模式

2.1 云服务概念


2.2 Main forms of cloud service deployment

According to deployment, cloud computing can be divided into four cloud service deployment models: public cloud, private cloud, community cloud and mixed cloud. Different deployment models also have different technical requirements on the infrastructure. Therefore, it is necessary to understand the differences between these cloud computing deployment modes. The specific four cloud computing deployment modes are shown in figure 2:

                                                              Figure2 Cloud computing deployment modes


2.2 云服务部署的主要形式



                                                                                   图2 云计算部署模式

2.3 Architecture level of cloud services

Cloud service architecture provides users with various levels of services at various levels, which is the typical cloud computing service system generally accepted by the industry —— infrastructure services (IaaS), platforms and services (PaaS), and software and services (SaaS). The specific hierarchy diagram of cloud architecture is shown in figure 3:


                                                                Figure3 hierarchy diagram of cloud architecture

We can understand these three levels in this way: the IaaS layer is the lowest hardware resource, including CPU (computing resource), hard disk (storage resource), network card (network resource) and so on; the PaaS layer is slightly higher, which is equivalent to that the customer does not intend to use CPU, hard disk and network card directly. It is hoped that the service provider will install the operating system (such as Windows、Linux) and provide the database system software to the customer for use. Finally, the SaaS layer can understand that the service provider should install the basic software such as operating system, and install the specific application software (such as ftp client, video software), and finally provide it to the customer for use.

2.3 云服务架构层次




                                                                                  图3 云计算架构层次图


3 Core technology of cloud computing

3.1 Data storage of cloud computing

Cloud computing is a new computing model, which is mainly characterized by the system has a large data set and provides services to users based on the data set. In order to ensure high availability, reliability and economy, it adopts distributed storage to store data, which can store multiple copies for the same data. Therefore, the data storage technology of cloud computing must have the characteristics of high throughput and high transfer rate. For example, typical cloud computing data storage technologies include Google non-open source GFS (Google File System) and Hadoop HDFS (Hadoop Distributed File System).


3.1 云计算的数据存储

云计算是一种新型的计算模式,它的主要特征是系统拥有大规模数据集并且基于数据集向用户提供服务。为了保证高可用、高可靠和经济性,它采用了分布式存储的方式来存储数据,这种数据存储可冗余可为同一份数据存储多个副本。因而云计算的数据存储技术必须具有高吞吐率和高传输率的特点。例如典型的云计算数据存储技术有谷歌非开源的GFS(Google File System)及Hadoop的HDFS(Hadoop Distributed File System)

3.2 Virtualization technology

Virtualization is a broad term, meaning that the computing elements run on a virtualized basis rather than on a real basis, a solution to simplify management and optimize resources. As a popular point, we use virtualization technology to uniformly manage physical resources. Virtualization is the foundation of cloud computing. In fact, virtualization is a so-called virtual machine running multiple "virtual server" on one physical server. Virtual machines appear to be independent servers, but they actually share the physical server's CPU, memory, hard disk, network card, and other resources. The physical machine functions as a host, a virtual machine as a client, and the middle of them requires a ‘supervisor’ - hypervisor to complete the work of physical resource virtualization. Common Hypervisor, such as VMware, KVM, Xen, Virtual Box.


3.2 虚拟化技术

虚拟化是广义上的术语,是指计算元件在虚拟化的基础上而不是在真实的基础上运行,是一个为了简化管理,优化资源的解决方案。说的通俗点,我们使用虚拟化技术对物理资源进行统一管理。虚拟化是云计算的基础。实际上,虚拟化就是在一台物理服务器上运行多台“虚拟服务器”,就是所谓的虚拟机。表面上看,虚拟机都是独立的服务器,但实际上它们共享物理服务器的CPU、内存、硬盘、网卡等资源。物理机作为宿主机(host),虚拟机作为客户机,而它们中间则需要一个“监督者”——Hypervisor来完成物理资源虚拟化的工作。常见的Hypervisor如VMware、KVM、Xen、Virtual Box。

3.3 Cloud platform management technology

Cloud platform management is a console running in cloud computing services, an important tool for cloud computing services monitoring, management, analysis and optimization, and an information architecture supporting and guaranteeing cloud computing services. The schematic diagram of its cloud management platform is shown in figure4:


                                                 Figure4 Schematic diagram of cloud management platform

To put it simply, we provide the ability to virtualize and simulate the running of CPU through Hypervisor software, but its user interaction is not friendly, so in order to manage virtual machine resources more conveniently and effectively, we need a cloud management platform such as OpenStack. This cloud management platform can provide users with a graphical interface based on the web. Isn't that more friendly than the command line?


3.3 云平台管理技术



                                                                              图4 云管理平台示意图


4. Application and security of cloud computing

4.1 Application of cloud computing

Cloud application is a subset of cloud computing and the embodiment of cloud computing technology in the application layer. Cloud Applications work by turning traditional software from a "local-install" to a "pay-as-you-go" service. It connects to and operates a cluster of remote servers via the Internet or local area network (LAN), and finally performs business and operation. Cloud applications can reduce IT costs and improve work efficiency. Typical cloud applications include cloud Internet, cloud education, cloud games and cloud social networking.


4  云计算的应用和安全

4.1 云计算的应用


4.2 Security of cloud computing

Cloud computing market plays a positive role in promoting cloud security. Where there is cloud computing, there is cloud security. Huge cloud computing customers also have high requirements for cloud security, so cloud computing should first solve the trusted problem, rely on trusted technology to solve the reliability of data storage; according to the service QoS guarantee technology, solve the quality of service; comprehensive use of encryption, digital signature, authentication, authorization and other security technologies to build a complete cloud security system.


4.2 云计算的安全



5 Development trend of cloud computing

Since August 9, 2006, when Google CEO Eric Schmidt first proposed the concept of cloud computing at the search engine conference, it has been nearly more than a decade since its development, and its technology is actually approaching maturity. In real life, cloud computing really brings great convenience to our life, which promotes the development and progress of the entire information industry. Today's education industry, communication industry, medical industry and other industries have begun to have the specific application of cloud computing, and began to slowly spread. The Chinese government also attaches great importance to the development of cloud computing, and the awareness of large enterprises on cloud computing is also constantly improving. Many companies, such as Huawei, Alibaba and Tencent, also provide their own cloud solutions. Moreover, according to the market survey of cloud computing in recent years, the development of cloud computing is still in a growing trend. Therefore, I believe that the future of cloud computing will continue to develop, its technology will be more and more exquisite, it will spread to every corner of the world.




With the continuous development of global information, cloud computing is the development trend of the entire IT industry. The data development direction of contemporary IT industry tends to be quantitative, diversified and centralized, so cloud storage and cloud security are particularly important. In addition, cloud computing is an indispensable technology in emerging technologies such as big data, Internet of things, blockchain and artificial intelligence. There is a close connection between them, so cloud computing is the foundation. Therefore, cloud computing conforms to the development of The Times, makes the pace of future development faster, and makes resources more fully used and Shared. We will also usher in a more transparent, more convenient and adequate access to information cloud era!



随着全球信息化的不断发展,云计算是整个IT产业发展的趋势。 当代IT行业的数据发展方向趋向于海量化、多元化、集中化,因而云存储和云安全也显得格外重要。并且云计算是当前大数据、物联网、区块链和人工智能等新兴技术中不可或缺的一门技术,它们之间存在着紧密的联系,可以说云计算是基础。所以说云计算,它顺应了时代的发展,它使未来发展的脚步更快,使资源得到更加充分的使用和共享。我们也将迎来一个更加透明的,信息获取更加便捷充足的云时代!








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