【学习ios之路:UI系列】NSPredicate相关用法

  NSPredicate   

       NSPredicate是一个Foundation类,它指定数据被获取或者过滤的方式。

      它的查询语言就像SQL的WHERE和正则表达式的交叉一样,提供了具有表现力的,自然语言界面来定义一个集合被搜寻的逻辑条件。

      NSPredicate的几种用法

      ①常见形式

   NSPredicate *predicate = [NSPredicate predicateWithFormat:@"name == 'zhangdan'"];
    //注意:如果谓词串中的文本块未被引用,则被看做是键路径,即需要用引号表明是字符串,单引号,双引号均可.
    键路径可以在后台包含许多强大的功能
    ②计算谓词

      让谓词通过某个对象来计算自己的值,给出BOOL值.例如:

     NSPredicate  *predicate = [NSPredicate predicateWithFormat: @"name == 'zhangsan'"];
    BOOL match = [predicate evaluateWithObject: person];
    NSLog (@"%s", (match) ? "YES" : "NO");
    //注上面的person是人对象
      ③燃料过滤器

        filteredArrayUsingPredicate:是NSArray数组的一种类别方法,循环过滤数组中的内容,将值为YES的对象累积到结果数组中返回.

 NSPredicate  *predicate = [NSPredicate predicateWithFormat:@"n"];
 NSArray *results = [arr filteredArrayUsingPredicate: predicate]; NSLog (@"%@", results);


     ④格式说明书

     %d和%@表示插入数值和字符串,%K表示key    还可以引入变量名,用$,类似环境变量,如:@"name == $NAME",再用predicateWithSubstitutionVariables调用来构造新的谓词(键/值字典),其中键是变量名,值是要插入的内容,注意这种情况下不能把变量当成键路径,只能用作值.

  predicate = [NSPredicate predicateWithFormat: @"name == %@", @"zhangsan"];
  predicate = [NSPredicate predicateWithFormat: @"%K == %@", @"name", @"zhangsan"];

  NSPredicate *predicateTemplate =[NSPredicate predicateWithFormat:@"name == $NAME"];
  NSDictionary *dic = [NSDictionary dictionaryWithObjectsAndKeys:
                             @"zhangsan", @"NAME", nil];
  NSPredicate *predicate = [predicateTemplate predicateWithSubstitutionVariables: 
                                                                            dic];
  NSLog(@"%@", predicate);

    ⑤比较和逻辑运算符

    ==等于    >:大于     >=和=>:大于或等于    <:小于    <=和=<:小于或等于    !=和<>:不等于
    括号和逻辑运算AND、OR、NOT或者C样式的等效表达式&&   ||    !
    注意:不等号适用于数字和字符串

    NSArray *arrayFilter = [NSArray arrayWithObjects:@"abc1", @"abc2", nil];
    NSArray *arrayContent = [NSArray arrayWithObjects:@"a1",
                                                   @"abc1", @"abc4", @"abc2", nil];
    NSPredicate *thePredicate = [NSPredicate predicateWithFormat:
                                                 @"NOT (SELF in %@)", arrayFilter];
    [arrayContent filterUsingPredicate:thePredicate];
    ⑥数组字符串
    BETWEEN和IN后加某个数组,可以用{50,200},也可以用%@格式说明符插入自己的对象,也可以用变量.

    predicate = [NSPredicate predicateWithFormat:
                 @"engine.horsepower BETWEEN { 50, 200 }"];
    results = [cars filteredArrayUsingPredicate: predicate];
    NSLog (@"%@", results);
     
    
    predicate = [NSPredicate predicateWithFormat: @"name IN { 'Herbie', 
                                                       'Snugs', 'Badger', 'Flap' }"];
    results = [cars filteredArrayUsingPredicate: predicate];
    NSLog (@"%@", [results valueForKey: @"name"]);
     ⑦.字符串运算符

     BEGINSWITH        ENDSWITH         CONTAINS
     [c]:后缀表示不区分大小写       [d]:不区分发音符号      [cd]:后缀不区分大小写和不区分发音符号,
  例如:   @"name CONTAIN[cd] 'ang'"   //包含某个字符串
             @"name BEGINSWITH[c] 'sh'"     //以某个字符串开头
             @"name ENDSWITH[d] 'ang'"      //以某个字符串结束

    predicate = [NSPredicate predicateWithFormat: @"name BEGINSWITH 'Bad'"];
    results = [cars filteredArrayUsingPredicate: predicate];
    NSLog (@"%@", results);
    
    predicate = [NSPredicate predicateWithFormat: @"name ENDSWITH 'HERB'"];
    results = [cars filteredArrayUsingPredicate: predicate];
    NSLog (@"%@", results);
    
    predicate = [NSPredicate predicateWithFormat: @"name BEGINSWITH[cd] 'HERB'"];
    results = [cars filteredArrayUsingPredicate: predicate];
    NSLog (@"%@", results);

  ⑧.LIKE通配符--模糊查询(元字符 ? * )

  ? 匹配1个字符

  * 匹配多个字符

    LIKE:左边的表达式等于右边的表达式:?和*可作为通配符,其中?匹配1个字符,*匹配0个或者多个字符。
    LIKE也接受[cd]符号

    predicate = [NSPredicate predicateWithFormat: @"name LIKE[cd] '*er*'"];
    results = [cars filteredArrayUsingPredicate: predicate];
    NSLog (@"%@", results);
    
    predicate = [NSPredicate predicateWithFormat: @"name LIKE[cd] '???er*'"];
    results = [cars filteredArrayUsingPredicate: predicate];
    NSLog (@"%@", results);

⑨.MATCHES可以使用正则表达式

? 匹配1个字符

 * 匹配多个字符

 .  匹配任何单个字符

 ^ 匹配一行的首个字符串

 []  匹配括号内任意一个字符 .例如[a-zA-Z]

 +  匹配多个正好在它前面的字符
    NSString *regex1 = @"^A.+e$";   //以A开头,e结尾
    NSString *regex = @"[A-Za-z]+";
    NSPredicate *predicate = [NSPredicate predicateWithFormat:@"SELF MATCHES %@", regex];
    if ([predicate evaluateWithObject:aString]) {
      
    }
⑩.self就表示对象本身

    NSArray *arrayFilter = [NSArray arrayWithObjects:@"abc1", @"abc2", nil];
    NSArray *arrayContent = [NSArray arrayWithObjects:@"a1", @"abc1", @"abc4", @"abc2", nil];
    NSPredicate *thePredicate = [NSPredicate predicateWithFormat:@"NOT (SELF in %@)", arrayFilter];
    [arrayContent filterUsingPredicate:thePredicate];
①①.合计操作

   ANY,SOME:指定下列表达式中的任意元素。比如,ANY children.age < 18。
    ALL:指定下列表达式中的所有元素。比如,ALL children.age < 18。
    NONE:指定下列表达式中没有的元素。比如,NONE children.age < 18。它在逻辑上等于NOT (ANY ...)。
    IN:等于SQL的IN操作,左边的表达必须出现在右边指定的集合中。比如,name IN { 'Ben', 'Melissa', 'Nick' }。

①②.NSPredicate +predicateWithBlock:(块语法)

   NSPredicate *shortNamePredicate = [NSPredicate predicateWithBlock:
                                ^BOOL(id evaluatedObject, NSDictionary *bindings) {
        return [[evaluatedObject firstName] length] <= 5;
    }];
    // ["Alice Smith", "Bob Jones"]
    NSLog(@"Short Names: %@", [people filteredArrayUsingPredicate:shortNamePredicate]);
①③.NSCompoundPredicate
我们见过与&或被用在谓词格式字符串中以创建复合谓词。然而,我们也可以用NSCompoundPredicate来完成同样的工作。

<span style="font-size:18px;">    //例如,下列谓词是相等的:
    [NSCompoundPredicate andPredicateWithSubpredicates:
                                   @[[NSPredicate predicateWithFormat:@"age > 25"], 
                   [NSPredicate predicateWithFormat:@"firstName = %@", @"Quentin"]]];
    
    [NSPredicate predicateWithFormat:@"(age > 25) AND (firstName = %@)", @"Quentin"];</span>

谓词和正则表达式的综合:(判断手机号码,电话号码函数)

- (BOOL)isMobileNumber:(NSString *)mobileNum
{
    // 正则判断手机号码地址格式
    /**
     * 手机号码
     * 移动:134[0-8],135,136,137,138,139,150,151,157,158,159,182,187,188
     * 联通:130,131,132,152,155,156,185,186
     * 电信:133,1349,153,180,189
     */
    NSString * MOBILE = @"^1(3[0-9]|5[0-35-9]|8[025-9])\\d{8}$";
    /**
     * 中国移动:China Mobile
     * 134[0-8],135,136,137,138,139,150,151,157,158,159,182,187,188
     */
    NSString * CM = @"^1(34[0-8]|(3[5-9]|5[017-9]|8[278])\\d)\\d{7}$";
    /**
     * 中国联通:China Unicom
     * 130,131,132,152,155,156,185,186
     */
    NSString * CU = @"^1(3[0-2]|5[256]|8[56])\\d{8}$";
    /**
     * 中国电信:China Telecom
     * 133,1349,153,180,189
     */
    NSString * CT = @"^1((33|53|8[09])[0-9]|349)\\d{7}$";
    /**
     * 大陆地区固话及小灵通
     * 区号:010,020,021,022,023,024,025,027,028,029
     * 号码:七位或八位
     */
    // NSString * PHS = @"^0(10|2[0-5789]|\\d{3})\\d{7,8}$";
    
    NSPredicate *regextestmobile = [NSPredicate predicateWithFormat:
                                                        @"SELF MATCHES %@", MOBILE];
  NSPredicate *regextestcm = [NSPredicate predicateWithFormat:@"SELF MATCHES %@", CM];
  NSPredicate *regextestcu = [NSPredicate predicateWithFormat:@"SELF MATCHES %@", CU];
  NSPredicate *regextestct = [NSPredicate predicateWithFormat:@"SELF MATCHES %@", CT];
    
    if (([regextestmobile evaluateWithObject:mobileNum] == YES)
        || ([regextestcm evaluateWithObject:mobileNum] == YES)
        || ([regextestct evaluateWithObject:mobileNum] == YES)
        || ([regextestcu evaluateWithObject:mobileNum] == YES))
    {
        if([regextestcm evaluateWithObject:mobileNum] == YES) {
            NSLog(@"China Mobile");
        } else if([regextestct evaluateWithObject:mobileNum] == YES) {
            NSLog(@"China Telecom");
        } else if ([regextestcu evaluateWithObject:mobileNum] == YES) {
            NSLog(@"China Unicom");
        } else {
            NSLog(@"Unknow");
        }
        
        return YES;
    }
    else
    {
        return NO;
    }
}




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