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Django2.0:【Django2.0教程】15.上下篇博客和按月分类 视频学习笔记

视频链接:15.上下篇博客和按月分类

filter筛选条件

filter()返回QuerySet。

  • 等于:直接筛选
  • 大于:__gt
  • 大于等于:__gte
  • 小于:__it
  • 小于等于:__ite
  • 包含:__contains
  • 包含(忽略大小写):__icontains (SQLite不支持对大小写的区分)
  • 开头是:__startswith
  • 结尾是:__endswith
  • 其中之一:__in
  • 范围:__range

添加“上一篇”和“下一篇”,修改blog/view.py:

...
def blog_detail(request, blog_pk):
    blog = get_object_or_404(Blog, pk=blog_pk)
    context = {}
    context['blog'] = blog
    context['previous_blog'] = Blog.objects.filter(created_time__gt=blog.created_time).last()
    context['next_blog'] = Blog.objects.filter(created_time__lt=blog.created_time).first()
    return render_to_response('blog/blog_detail.html', context)

...
last()获取查询到的最后一条;first()获取查询到的第一条。
修改blog/templates/blog/blog_detail.html:
...
{% block content %}
    <div class="container">
        <div class="row">
            <div class="col-xs-10 col-xs-offset-1">
                <h3>{{ blog.title }}</h3>
                <ul class="blog-info-description">
                    <li>作者:{{ blog.author }}</li>
                    <li>
                        分类:<a href='{% url 'blogs_with_type' blog.blog_type.pk %}'>{{ blog.blog_type }}</a>
                    </li>
                    <li>发表日期:{{ blog.created_time|date:"Y-m-d H:n:s" }}</li>
                </ul>
                <div class="blog-content">{{ blog.content }}</div>
                <div class="blog-more">
                    <p>
                        上一篇:
                        {% if previous_blog %}
                            <a href="{% url 'blog_detail' previous_blog.pk %}">{{ previous_blog.title }}</a>   
                        {% else %}
                            没有了
                        {% endif %}
                    </p>
                    <p>
                        下一篇:
                        {% if next_blog %}
                            <a href="{% url 'blog_detail' next_blog.pk %}">{{ next_blog.title }}</a>     
                        {% else %}
                            没有了
                        {% endif %}

                    </p>
                </div>
            </div>
        </div>
    </div>
{% endblock %}
修改blog/static/blog/blog.css:
...
div.blog-more {
    margin-top: 1em;
}

exclude排除条件

用法和filter()一样,也返回QuerySet。比如取pk不等于3的:

Blog.objects.exclude(pk=3)

条件中的双下划线

  • 字段查询类型:例如filter()不能直接用”>=”之类的运算符,需要某种东西代替,比如“__gt=”表示大于。
  • 外键拓展:例如,blog/views.py中的blogs_with_type()可改为:
...
def blogs_with_type(request, blog_type_pk):
    blog_type = get_object_or_404(BlogType, pk=blog_type_pk)   
    blogs_all_list = Blog.objects.filter(blog_type__id=blog_type_pk)
    ...


  • 日期拓展;例如,查询创建年份为2017年的博文:
  • Blog.objects.filter(created_time__year=2017)

  • 支持链式查询
  • 按月分类

    修改blog/views.py:

    ...
    def blogs_with_date(request, year, month):
        blogs_all_list = Blog.objects.filter(created_time__year=year, created_time__month=month) # 获取年月符合要求的博文
        paginator = Paginator(blogs_all_list, settings.BLOGS_NUM_PER_PAGE)
        page_num = request.GET.get('page', 1) # 获取url的页码参数。GET返回字典,page_num默认为1
        page_of_blogs = paginator.get_page(page_num)
        current_page_num = page_of_blogs.number # 获取当前页码
        # 获取前后各页
        page_range = list(range(max(current_page_num - 2, 1), current_page_num)) + list(range(current_page_num, min(current_page_num + 2, paginator.num_pages) + 1))
        # 加上省略号
        if page_range[0] - 1 >= 2:
            page_range.insert(0, '...')
        if paginator.num_pages - page_range[-1] >= 2:
            page_range.append('...')
        #  加上首尾页码
        if page_range[0] != 1:
            page_range.insert(0, 1)
        if page_range[-1] != paginator.num_pages:
            page_range.append(paginator.num_pages)
    
        context = {}
        context['page_of_blogs'] = page_of_blogs
        context['blog_types'] = BlogType.objects.all()
        context['page_range'] = page_range
        context['blog_dates'] = Blog.objects.dates('created_time', 'month', order='DESC') # created_time按月降序
        context['blogs_with_date'] = "%s年%s月" % (year, month)
        return render_to_response('blog/blogs_with_date.html', context)
    
    ...

    新建blog/templates/blogs_with_date.html:

    {% extends 'blog/blog_list.html'%}
    
    {% block title %}
        {{ blog_type.type_name }}
    {% endblock%}
    
    {% block nav_blog_active %}
        active
    {% endblock %}
    
    {% block blog_list_title %}
        日期归档:{{ blogs_with_date }}
        <a href="{% url 'blog_list' %}">查看全部博文</a>
    {% endblock %}
    

    修改blog/urls.py:

    from django.urls import path
    from . import views
    
    urlpatterns = [
        path('', views.blog_list, name='blog_list'),
        path('<int:blog_pk>', views.blog_detail, name='blog_detail'),
        path('type/<int:blog_type_pk>', views.blogs_with_type, name='blogs_with_type'),
        path('date/<int:year>/<int:month>', views.blogs_with_date, name='blogs_with_date'),
    ]
    

    修改blog/templates/blog_list.html:

    ...
    <div class="hidden-xs col-sm-4 col-md-3 col-lg-2">
                    <div class="panel panel-default">
                        <div class="panel-heading">博客分类</div>
                        <div class="panel-body">
                            <ul class="blog-types">
                                {% for blog_type in blog_types %}
                                    <li>
                                        <a href="{% url 'blogs_with_type' blog_type.pk %}">{{ blog_type.type_name }}</a>
                                    </li>
                                {% empty %}
                                    <li>暂无分类</li>
                                {% endfor %}
                            </ul>
                        </div>
                    </div> 
                    <div class="panel panel-default">
                        <div class="panel-heading">日期归档</div>
                        <div class="panel-body">
                            <ul class="blog-types">
                                {% for blog_date in blog_dates %}
                                    <li><a href="{% url 'blogs_with_date' blog_date.year blog_date.month %}">{{ blog_date|date:"Y年m月" }}</a></li>
                                {% endfor %}
                            </ul>
                        </div>
                    </div>             
                </div>
    ...

    整理代码,减少重复

    修改blog/views.py:

    from django.shortcuts import render_to_response, get_object_or_404
    from django.core.paginator import Paginator
    from django.conf import settings
    from .models import Blog, BlogType
    
    def get_blog_list_common_data(request, blogs_all_list):
        paginator = Paginator(blogs_all_list, settings.BLOGS_NUM_PER_PAGE)
        page_num = request.GET.get('page', 1) # 获取url的页码参数。GET返回字典,page_num默认为1
        page_of_blogs = paginator.get_page(page_num)
        current_page_num = page_of_blogs.number # 获取当前页码
        # 获取前后各页
        page_range = list(range(max(current_page_num - 2, 1), current_page_num)) + list(range(current_page_num, min(current_page_num + 2, paginator.num_pages) + 1))
        # 加上省略号
        if page_range[0] - 1 >= 2:
            page_range.insert(0, '...')
        if paginator.num_pages - page_range[-1] >= 2:
            page_range.append('...')
        #  加上首尾页码
        if page_range[0] != 1:
            page_range.insert(0, 1)
        if page_range[-1] != paginator.num_pages:
            page_range.append(paginator.num_pages)
    
        context = {}
        context['page_of_blogs'] = page_of_blogs
        # context['blogs_count'] = Blog.objects.all().count()
        context['blog_types'] = BlogType.objects.all()
        context['page_range'] = page_range
        context['blog_dates'] = Blog.objects.dates('created_time', 'month', order='DESC') # created_time按月降序
        return context
    
    def blog_list(request):
        blogs_all_list = Blog.objects.all()
        context = get_blog_list_common_data(request, blogs_all_list)
        return render_to_response('blog/blog_list.html', context)
    
    def blog_detail(request, blog_pk):
        blog = get_object_or_404(Blog, pk=blog_pk)
        context = {}
        context['blog'] = blog
        context['previous_blog'] = Blog.objects.filter(created_time__gt=blog.created_time).last()
        context['next_blog'] = Blog.objects.filter(created_time__lt=blog.created_time).first()
        return render_to_response('blog/blog_detail.html', context)
    
    def blogs_with_type(request, blog_type_pk):
        blog_type = get_object_or_404(BlogType, pk=blog_type_pk)   
        blogs_all_list = Blog.objects.filter(blog_type=blog_type)
    
        context = get_blog_list_common_data(request, blogs_all_list)
        context['blog_type'] = blog_type
        return render_to_response('blog/blogs_with_type.html', context)
    
    def blogs_with_date(request, year, month):
        blogs_all_list = Blog.objects.filter(created_time__year=year, created_time__month=month)
    
        context = get_blog_list_common_data(request, blogs_all_list)
        context['blogs_with_date'] = "%s年%s月" % (year, month)
        return render_to_response('blog/blogs_with_date.html', context)
    
    阅读更多
    版权声明:本文为博主原创文章,未经博主允许不得转载。 https://blog.csdn.net/ZhangK9509/article/details/80344222
    个人分类: Django
    所属专栏: Django2.0学习笔记
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