分析LinkedHashMap源码的LRU实现

版权声明: https://blog.csdn.net/a837199685/article/details/43488217

一、前言

前段时间研究了memcached,而且操作系统的课程也刚刚完成,在两个里面多次出现LRU(last recently used最近最少使用)算法,虽然思想很简单。但是还是值得我们研究,无意间在看LinkedHashMap的源码的时候看见貌似这个类里面有默认的LRU实现。我们现在就来分析一下他的源代码

 /**
     * Returns <tt>true</tt> if this map should remove its eldest entry.
     * This method is invoked by <tt>put</tt> and <tt>putAll</tt> after
     * inserting a new entry into the map.  It provides the implementor
     * with the opportunity to remove the eldest entry each time a new one
     * is added.  This is useful if the map represents a cache: it allows
     * the map to reduce memory consumption by deleting stale entries.
     *
     * <p>Sample use: this override will allow the map to grow up to 100
     * entries and then delete the eldest entry each time a new entry is
     * added, maintaining a steady state of 100 entries.
     * <pre>
     *     private static final int MAX_ENTRIES = 100;
     *
     *     protected boolean removeEldestEntry(Map.Entry eldest) {
     *        return size() > MAX_ENTRIES;
     *     }
     * </pre>
     *
     * <p>This method typically does not modify the map in any way,
     * instead allowing the map to modify itself as directed by its
     * return value.  It <i>is</i> permitted for this method to modify
     * the map directly, but if it does so, it <i>must</i> return
     * <tt>false</tt> (indicating that the map should not attempt any
     * further modification).  The effects of returning <tt>true</tt>
     * after modifying the map from within this method are unspecified.
     *
     * <p>This implementation merely returns <tt>false</tt> (so that this
     * map acts like a normal map - the eldest element is never removed).
     *
     * @param    eldest The least recently inserted entry in the map, or if
     *           this is an access-ordered map, the least recently accessed
     *           entry.  This is the entry that will be removed it this
     *           method returns <tt>true</tt>.  If the map was empty prior
     *           to the <tt>put</tt> or <tt>putAll</tt> invocation resulting
     *           in this invocation, this will be the entry that was just
     *           inserted; in other words, if the map contains a single
     *           entry, the eldest entry is also the newest.
     * @return   <tt>true</tt> if the eldest entry should be removed
     *           from the map; <tt>false</tt> if it should be retained.
     */
    protected boolean removeEldestEntry(Map.Entry<K,V> eldest) {
        return false;//返回false代表不会删除map会自动扩容,返回true代表会删除
    }
很明显,上一个函数写得很清楚,该函数数默认返回false的,代表linkedhashmap会自动的进行扩容操作,如果返回true的话map则会删掉排在最后的一个元素(linkedhashmap是有序的)我们可以来看看addENtry函数是怎样的

/**
     * This override alters behavior of superclass put method. It causes newly
     * allocated entry to get inserted at the end of the linked list and
     * removes the eldest entry if appropriate.
     */
    void addEntry(int hash, K key, V value, int bucketIndex) {
        createEntry(hash, key, value, bucketIndex);

        // Remove eldest entry if instructed, else grow capacity if appropriate
        Entry<K,V> eldest = header.after;
        if (removeEldestEntry(eldest)) {//返回true,删掉entry
            removeEntryForKey(eldest.key);
        } else {//否则自动两倍扩容
            if (size >= threshold)
                resize(2 * table.length);
        }
    }

那么现在就剩下排序的问题了,大家都知道LRU的原理就是把最近使用的排在前面,最少使用的排在后面(addENTRY时会删除多余的元素),那么linkedhashmap是在什么时候开始为最近使用的排序呢?很明显我们要知道他什么时候使用就应该是i我们调用get方法的时候,那我们现在来看看get方法

    /**
     * Returns the value to which the specified key is mapped,
     * or {@code null} if this map contains no mapping for the key.
     *
     * <p>More formally, if this map contains a mapping from a key
     * {@code k} to a value {@code v} such that {@code (key==null ? k==null :
     * key.equals(k))}, then this method returns {@code v}; otherwise
     * it returns {@code null}.  (There can be at most one such mapping.)
     *
     * <p>A return value of {@code null} does not <i>necessarily</i>
     * indicate that the map contains no mapping for the key; it's also
     * possible that the map explicitly maps the key to {@code null}.
     * The {@link #containsKey containsKey} operation may be used to
     * distinguish these two cases.
     */
    public V get(Object key) {
        Entry<K,V> e = (Entry<K,V>)getEntry(key);//取得entry,
        if (e == null)
            return null;
        e.recordAccess(this);//这个方法很重要
        return e.value;
    }
还有一点笔者必须要提醒大家,我们传入参数的时候有个这个参数accessOrder,顾名思义,他是为了排序而生。true代表排序。false反之

 /**
     * The iteration ordering method for this linked hash map: <tt>true</tt>
     * for access-order, <tt>false</tt> for insertion-order.
     *
     * @serial
     */
    private final boolean accessOrder;

我们可以看到。当我们执行get方法的时候会调用一个recordAccess的方法传入this变量。ok,他应该是把操作交给entry类了吧。好吧我们来看看entry的源代码

 /**
     * LinkedHashMap entry.
     */
    private static class Entry<K,V> extends HashMap.Entry<K,V> {
        // These fields comprise the doubly linked list used for iteration.
        Entry<K,V> before, after;

        Entry(int hash, K key, V value, HashMap.Entry<K,V> next) {
            super(hash, key, value, next);
        }

        /**
         * Removes this entry from the linked list.
         */
        private void remove() {//删除该entry
            before.after = after;
            after.before = before;
        }

        /**
         * Inserts this entry before the specified existing entry in the list.//加入到头部
         */
        private void addBefore(Entry<K,V> existingEntry) {
            after  = existingEntry;
            before = existingEntry.before;
            before.after = this;
            after.before = this;
        }

        /**
         * This method is invoked by the superclass whenever the value
         * of a pre-existing entry is read by Map.get or modified by Map.set.
         * If the enclosing Map is access-ordered, it moves the entry
         * to the end of the list; otherwise, it does nothing.
         */
        void recordAccess(HashMap<K,V> m) {
            LinkedHashMap<K,V> lm = (LinkedHashMap<K,V>)m;
            if (lm.accessOrder) {//得到传过来的linkedhashmap的order值。如果是true这进行一下操作,先执行remove()接着执行addbefore()
                lm.modCount++;//根据方法名字大家都应该恍然大悟了吧
                remove();
                addBefore(lm.header);
            }
        }

        void recordRemoval(HashMap<K,V> m) {
            remove();
        }
    }

ok!linkedHashmap的Lru实现就是这么简单,但是个人认为不算很完美的LRU,大家有没有看到一个弊端,只要调用一次就跑到最前面去了,我觉得这不是一个很好的实现。

下面给出一个自己实现的一个简单的LRUCache类

package algori;

import java.util.ArrayList;
import java.util.Collection;
import java.util.LinkedHashMap;
import java.util.Map;
/**
 *  实现LRU算法
 * @author xiezhaodong
 *
 * @param <K>
 * @param <V>
 */
public class LRUCache <K,V> extends LinkedHashMap<K, V>{
	private static final int DEFAULT_CAPACITY=100;
	
	private static final float DEFAULT_FACTOR=0.75f;

	private int REAL_CAPACOTY;//记录真实容量
	public LRUCache(int initialCapacity, float loadFactor){	
		super(initialCapacity, loadFactor, true);
		this.REAL_CAPACOTY=initialCapacity;
	}
	
	public LRUCache() {
		this(DEFAULT_CAPACITY,DEFAULT_FACTOR);
	}
	
	//覆盖父类方法,超过容量以后去掉LRU中的数据
	@Override
	protected boolean removeEldestEntry(java.util.Map.Entry<K, V> eldest) {
		return size()>REAL_CAPACOTY;
	}
	
	
	public synchronized V getCache (K key) {  
	   return get(key); }  
	  
	
	public synchronized void putCache(K key, V value) {  
	  put (key, value); }  
	  
	
	public synchronized void clear() {  
	   clear(); }  
	  
	
	public synchronized int usedEntries() {  
	   return size(); }  
	  
	 
	public synchronized Collection<Map.Entry<K,V>> getAll() {  
	   return new ArrayList<Map.Entry<K,V>>(entrySet()); 
	   }  
	  
	}  


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