pom.xml详解

一、什么是POM

Project Object Model,项目对象模型。通过xml格式保存的pom.xml文件。作用类似ant的build.xml文件,功能更强大。该文件用于管理:源代码、配置文件、开发者的信息和角色、问题追踪系统、组织信息、项目授权、项目的url、项目的依赖关系等等。

一个完整的pom.xml文件,放置在项目的根目录下。

<project xmlns="http://maven.apache.org/POM/4.0.0"
  xmlns:xsi="http://www.w3.org/2001/XMLSchema-instance"
  xsi:schemaLocation="http://maven.apache.org/POM/4.0.0
                      http://maven.apache.org/maven-v4_0_0.xsd">
  <modelVersion>4.0.0</modelVersion>
  <!– The Basics –>
  <groupId>…</groupId>
  <artifactId>…</artifactId>
  <version>…</version>
  <packaging>…</packaging>
  <dependencies>…</dependencies>
  <parent>…</parent>
  <dependencyManagement>…</dependencyManagement>
  <modules>…</modules>
  <properties>…</properties>
  <!– Build Settings –>
  <build>…</build>
  <reporting>…</reporting>
  <!– More Project Information –>
  <name>…</name>
  <description>…</description>
  <url>…</url>
  <inceptionYear>…</inceptionYear>
  <licenses>…</licenses>
  <organization>…</organization>
  <developers>…</developers>
  <contributors>…</contributors>
  <!– Environment Settings –>
  <issueManagement>…</issueManagement>
  <ciManagement>…</ciManagement>
  <mailingLists>…</mailingLists>
  <scm>…</scm>
  <prerequisites>…</prerequisites>
  <repositories>…</repositories>
  <pluginRepositories>…</pluginRepositories>
  <distributionManagement>…</distributionManagement>
  <profiles>…</profiles>
</project>

二、基本设置

1、maven的协作相关属性

<project xmlns="http://maven.apache.org/POM/4.0.0"
  xmlns:xsi="http://www.w3.org/2001/XMLSchema-instance"
  xsi:schemaLocation="http://maven.apache.org/POM/4.0.0
                      http://maven.apache.org/maven-v4_0_0.xsd">
  <modelVersion>4.0.0</modelVersion>
  <groupId>org.codehaus.mojo</groupId>
  <artifactId>my-project</artifactId>
  <version>1.0</version>
  <packaging>war</packaging>
</project>
  1. groupId : 组织标识,例如:org.codehaus.mojo,在M2_REPO目录下,将是: org/codehaus/mojo目录。
  2. artifactId : 项目名称,例如:my-project,在M2_REPO目录下,将是:org/codehaus/mojo/my-project目录。
  3. version : 版本号,例如:1.0,在M2_REPO目录下,将是:org/codehaus/mojo/my-project/1.0目录。
  4. packaging : 打包的格式,可以为:pom , jar , maven-plugin , ejb , war , ear , rar , par

2、POM之间的关系

主要用于POM文件的复用。

a)依赖关系:依赖关系列表(dependency list)是POM的重要部分

 <dependencies>
    <dependency>
      <groupId>junit</groupId>
      <artifactId>junit</artifactId>
      <version>4.0</version>
      <scope>test</scope>
    </dependency>
    …
  </dependencies>
  1. groupId , artifactId , version :
  2. scope : compile(default),provided,runtime,test,system
  3. exclusions

b)继承关系:继承其他pom.xml配置的机制。

比如父pom.xml:

<project>
  [...]
  <dependencies>
    <dependency>
      <groupId>junit</groupId>
      <artifactId>junit</artifactId>
      <version>4.4</version>
      <scope>test</scope>
    </dependency>
  </dependencies>
  [...]
</project>
在子pom.xml文件继承它的依赖(还可以继承其他的:developers and contributors、plugin lists、reports lists、plugin executions with matching ids、plugin configuration):
[...]
<parent>
<groupId>com.devzuz.mvnbook.proficio</groupId>
  <artifactId>proficio</artifactId>
  <version>1.0-SNAPSHOT</version>
</parent>
[...]
在这种机制下,maven还提供了一个类似java.lang.Object的顶级父pom.xml文件:
<project>
  <modelVersion>4.0.0</modelVersion>
  <name>Maven Default Project</name>
  <repositories>
    <repository>
      <id>central</id>
      <name>Maven Repository Switchboard</name>
      <layout>default</layout>
      <url>http://repo1.maven.org/maven2</url>
      <snapshots>
        <enabled>false</enabled>
      </snapshots>
    </repository>
  </repositories>
  <pluginRepositories>
    <pluginRepository>
      <id>central</id>
      <name>Maven Plugin Repository</name>
      <url>http://repo1.maven.org/maven2</url>
      <layout>default</layout>
      <snapshots>
        <enabled>false</enabled>
      </snapshots>
      <releases>
        <updatePolicy>never</updatePolicy>
      </releases>
    </pluginRepository>
  </pluginRepositories>
  <build>
    <directory>target</directory>
    <outputDirectory>target/classes</outputDirectory>
    <finalName>${project.artifactId}-${project.version}</finalName>
    <testOutputDirectory>target/test-classes</testOutputDirectory>
    <sourceDirectory>src/main/java</sourceDirectory>
    <scriptSourceDirectory>src/main/scripts</scriptSourceDirectory>
    <testSourceDirectory>src/test/java</testSourceDirectory>
    <resources>
      <resource>
        <directory>src/main/resources</directory>
      </resource>
    </resources>
    <testResources>
      <testResource>
        <directory>src/test/resources</directory>
      </testResource>
    </testResources>
    <pluginManagement>
       <plugins>
         <plugin>
           <artifactId>maven-antrun-plugin</artifactId>
           <version>1.1</version>
         </plugin>      
         <plugin>
           <artifactId>maven-assembly-plugin</artifactId>
           <version>2.2-beta-2</version>
         </plugin>
         <plugin>
           <artifactId>maven-clean-plugin</artifactId>
           <version>2.2</version>
         </plugin>
         <plugin>
           <artifactId>maven-compiler-plugin</artifactId>
           <version>2.0.2</version>
         </plugin>
         <plugin>
           <artifactId>maven-dependency-plugin</artifactId>
           <version>2.0</version>
         </plugin>
         <plugin>
           <artifactId>maven-deploy-plugin</artifactId>
           <version>2.3</version>
         </plugin>
         <plugin>
           <artifactId>maven-ear-plugin</artifactId>
           <version>2.3.1</version>
         </plugin>
         <plugin>
           <artifactId>maven-ejb-plugin</artifactId>
           <version>2.1</version>
         </plugin>
         <plugin>
           <artifactId>maven-install-plugin</artifactId>
           <version>2.2</version>
         </plugin>
         <plugin>
           <artifactId>maven-jar-plugin</artifactId>
           <version>2.2</version>
         </plugin>
         <plugin>
           <artifactId>maven-javadoc-plugin</artifactId>
           <version>2.4</version>
         </plugin>
         <plugin>
           <artifactId>maven-plugin-plugin</artifactId>
           <version>2.4.1</version>
         </plugin>
         <plugin>
           <artifactId>maven-rar-plugin</artifactId>
           <version>2.2</version>
         </plugin>
         <plugin>               
           <artifactId>maven-release-plugin</artifactId>
           <version>2.0-beta-7</version>
         </plugin>
         <plugin>               
           <artifactId>maven-resources-plugin</artifactId>
           <version>2.2</version>
         </plugin>
         <plugin>
           <artifactId>maven-site-plugin</artifactId>
           <version>2.0-beta-6</version>
         </plugin>
         <plugin>
           <artifactId>maven-source-plugin</artifactId>
           <version>2.0.4</version>
         </plugin>         
         <plugin>
            <artifactId>maven-surefire-plugin</artifactId>
            <version>2.4.2</version>
         </plugin>
         <plugin>
           <artifactId>maven-war-plugin</artifactId>
           <version>2.1-alpha-1</version>
         </plugin>
       </plugins>
     </pluginManagement>
  </build>
  <reporting>
    <outputDirectory>target/site</outputDirectory>
  </reporting>
  <profiles>
    <profile>
      <id>release-profile</id>
      <activation>
        <property>
          <name>performRelease</name>
          <value>true</value>
        </property>
      </activation>
      <build>
        <plugins>
          <plugin>
            <inherited>true</inherited>
            <groupId>org.apache.maven.plugins</groupId>
            <artifactId>maven-source-plugin</artifactId>
            <executions>
              <execution>
                <id>attach-sources</id>
                <goals>
                  <goal>jar</goal>
                </goals>
              </execution>
            </executions>
          </plugin>
          <plugin>
            <inherited>true</inherited>
            <groupId>org.apache.maven.plugins</groupId>
            <artifactId>maven-javadoc-plugin</artifactId>
            <executions>
              <execution>
                <id>attach-javadocs</id>
                <goals>
                  <goal>jar</goal>
                </goals>
              </execution>
            </executions>
          </plugin>
          <plugin>
            <inherited>true</inherited>
            <groupId>org.apache.maven.plugins</groupId>
            <artifactId>maven-deploy-plugin</artifactId>
            <configuration>
              <updateReleaseInfo>true</updateReleaseInfo>
            </configuration>
          </plugin>
        </plugins>
      </build>
    </profile>
  </profiles>
</project>
可以通过下面命令查看当前pom.xml受到超pom.xml文件的影响:
mvn help:effective-pom

c)聚合关系:用于将多个maven项目聚合为一个大的项目。

<project xmlns="http://maven.apache.org/POM/4.0.0"
  xmlns:xsi="http://www.w3.org/2001/XMLSchema-instance"
  xsi:schemaLocation="http://maven.apache.org/POM/4.0.0
                      http://maven.apache.org/maven-v4_0_0.xsd">
  <modelVersion>4.0.0</modelVersion>
  <groupId>org.codehaus.mojo</groupId>
  <artifactId>my-parent</artifactId>
  <version>2.0</version>
  <modules>
    <module>my-project<module>
  </modules>
</project>

3、属性

maven的属性,是值的占位符,类似EL,类似ant的属性,比如${X},可用于pom文件任何赋值的位置。有以下分类:

  1. env.X:操作系统环境变量,比如${env.PATH}
  2. project.x:pom文件中的属性,比如:<project><version>1.0</version></project>,引用方式:${project.version}
  3. settings.x:settings.xml文件中的属性,比如:<settings><offline>false</offline></settings>,引用方式:${settings.offline}
  4. Java System Properties:java.lang.System.getProperties()中的属性,比如java.home,引用方式:${java.home}
  5. 自定义:在pom文件中可以:<properties><installDir>c:/apps/cargo-installs</installDir></properties>,引用方式:${installDir}

4、构建设置

构建有两种build标签:

<project xmlns="http://maven.apache.org/POM/4.0.0"
  xmlns:xsi="http://www.w3.org/2001/XMLSchema-instance"
  xsi:schemaLocation="http://maven.apache.org/POM/4.0.0
                      http://maven.apache.org/maven-v4_0_0.xsd">
  …
  <!– "Project Build" contains more elements than just the BaseBuild set –>
  <build>…</build>
  <profiles>
    <profile>
      <!– "Profile Build" contains a subset of "Project Build"s elements –>
      <build>…</build>
    </profile>
  </profiles>
</project>

build中的主要标签:Resources和Plugins。

Resources:用于排除或包含某些资源文件

    <resources>
      <resource>
        <targetPath>META-INF/plexus</targetPath>
        <filtering>false</filtering>
        <directory>${basedir}/src/main/plexus</directory>
        <includes>
          <include>configuration.xml</include>
        </includes>
        <excludes>
          <exclude>**/*.properties</exclude>
        </excludes>
      </resource>
    </resources>
Plugins:设置构建的插件
 <build>
    …
    <plugins>
      <plugin>
        <groupId>org.apache.maven.plugins</groupId>
        <artifactId>maven-jar-plugin</artifactId>
        <version>2.0</version>
        <extensions>false</extensions>
        <inherited>true</inherited>
        <configuration>
          <classifier>test</classifier>
        </configuration>
        <dependencies>…</dependencies>
        <executions>…</executions>
      </plugin>
































































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