Docker介绍,安装docker,镜像管理,通过容器创建镜像,使用模板创建镜像

Docker介绍

官网 www.docker.com
github https://github.com/docker/docker.github.io
开源的容器引擎,可以让开发者打包应用以及依赖的库,然后发布到任何流行的linux发行版上,移植很方便
由go语言编写,基于apache2.0协议发布
基于linux kernel,要想在win下运行需要借助一个vm(虚拟机)来实现
自2013年开始,近些年发展迅猛
docker从1.13x开始,版本分为社区版ce和企业版ee,并且基于年月的时间线形式,当前最新稳定版为17.09 参考
http://blog.csdn.net/chenhaifeng2016/article/details/68062414

docker和传统的虚拟化比较

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在这里插入图片描述

docker核心概念:

镜像,是一个只读的模板,类似于安装系统用到的那个iso文件,我们通过镜像来完成各种应用的部署。

容器,镜像类似于操作系统,而容器类似于虚拟机本身。它可以被启动、开始、停止、删除等操作,每个容器都是相互隔离的。

仓库,存放镜像的一个场所,仓库分为公开仓库和私有仓库。 最大的公开仓库是Docker hub(hub.docker.com),国内公开仓库(dockerpool.com)

安装docker

先下载一个repo的yum源:

[root@shuai-01 ~]# curl https://download.docker.com/linux/centos/docker-ce.repo -o  /etc/yum.repos.d/docker.repo

不下载yum源也可以用本地的yum安装,只不过会版本比较老。

安装docker:

[root@shuai-01 ~]# yum install -y docker-ce

启动docker:

[root@shuai-01 ~]# systemctl start docker
[root@shuai-01 ~]# ps aux |grep docker
root       3168  4.6  5.0 592564 50040 ?        Ssl  12:53   0:00 /usr/bin/dockerd
root       3174  1.6  2.7 317248 27720 ?        Ssl  12:53   0:00 docke-containerd --config /var/run/docker/containerd/containerd.toml
root       3316  0.0  0.0 112680   976 pts/0    R+   12:53   0:00 grep --color=auto docker

docker会在启动时候自动添加一些iptables规则,最好将iptables规则保存起来。而且,作为docker服务器,一般不要动这台机器上的iptables规则。一旦弄疵了规则,docker服务就要重启,重启完服务还得重启容器。

镜像管理

docker下载一个centos镜像:

[root@shuai-01 ~]# docker pull centos

这个是在docker官方下载的镜像。在国外,可能下载速度回比较慢。可以通过配置docker加速器加快下载速度。

配置docker加速器:

[root@shuai-01 ~]# vim /etc/docker/daemon.json

{
 "registry-mirrors": ["https://dhq9bx4f.mirror.aliyuncs.com"]
}

这个URL是加速器地址,可以到阿里云申请。

配置完成之后。从起docker服务,下载镜像就会快些。

查看镜像:

[root@shuai-01 ~]# docker images
REPOSITORY          TAG                 IMAGE ID            CREATED             SIZE
ubuntu              latest              cd6d8154f1e1        4 weeks ago         84.1MB
centos              latest              5182e96772bf        2 months ago        200MB

名字 , 标签 , 唯一标识 ,创建时间 ,大小
搜索一下镜像:

[root@shuai-01 ~]# docker search jumpserver

这个就可以根据你得需要,去选择下载镜像。

给镜像打标签:

[root@shuai-01 ~]# docker images
REPOSITORY          TAG                 IMAGE ID            CREATED             SIZE
ubuntu              latest              cd6d8154f1e1        4 weeks ago         84.1MB
centos              latest              5182e96772bf        2 months ago        200MB
[root@shuai-01 ~]# docker tag centos shuailinux_centos
[root@shuai-01 ~]# docker images
REPOSITORY          TAG                 IMAGE ID            CREATED             SIZE
ubuntu              latest              cd6d8154f1e1        4 weeks ago         84.1MB
centos              latest              5182e96772bf        2 months ago        200MB
shuailinux_centos   latest              5182e96772bf        2 months ago        200MB
[root@shuai-01 ~]# docker tag centos tset:111
[root@shuai-01 ~]# docker images
REPOSITORY          TAG                 IMAGE ID            CREATED             SIZE
ubuntu              latest              cd6d8154f1e1        4 weeks ago         84.1MB
shuailinux_centos   latest              5182e96772bf        2 months ago        200MB
tset                111                 5182e96772bf        2 months ago        200MB
centos              latest              5182e96772bf        2 months ago        200MB

把镜像启动成容器:

[root@shuai-01 ~]# docker run -itd centos
cf4d1603dde4724819fda9a54eaacc96ae2702dcb0aec61e8a05f0e804d18095 
-i  : 让容器的标准输入打开  -t : 分配一个伪终端  -d : 标识后台启动
查看运行的容器,-a : 查看所有容器
[root@shuai-01 ~]# docker ps
CONTAINER ID        IMAGE               COMMAND             CREATED             STATUS              PORTS               NAMES
cf4d1603dde4        centos              "/bin/bash"         12 seconds ago      Up 4 seconds                            gracious_lalande

删除指定镜像:

[root@shuai-01 ~]# docker images
REPOSITORY          TAG                 IMAGE ID            CREATED             SIZE
ubuntu              latest              cd6d8154f1e1        4 weeks ago         84.1MB
centos              latest              5182e96772bf        2 months ago        200MB
shuailinux_centos   latest              5182e96772bf        2 months ago        200MB
tset                111                 5182e96772bf        2 months ago        200MB
[root@shuai-01 ~]# docker rmi tset
Error: No such image: tset
[root@shuai-01 ~]# docker rmi tset:111
Untagged: tset:111
[root@shuai-01 ~]# docker rmi shuailinux_centos
Untagged: shuailinux_centos:latest

通过容器创建镜像

进入到一个启动的容器里:

[root@shuai-01 ~]# docker ps
CONTAINER ID        IMAGE               COMMAND             CREATED             STATUS              PORTS               NAMES
cf4d1603dde4        centos              "/bin/bash"         6 hours ago         Up 6 hours                              gracious_lalande
[root@shuai-01 ~]# docker exec -it cf4d16 bash
[root@cf4d1603dde4 /]# ls
anaconda-post.log  dev  home  lib64  mnt  proc  run   	srv  tmp  var
bin                etc  lib   media  opt  root  sbin  sys  usr

在容器里面,也是可以运行一些命令,还可以使用yum.

[root@cf4d1603dde4 /]# ifconfig
bash: ifconfig: command not found
[root@cf4d1603dde4 /]# ip add
bash: ip: command not found
[root@cf4d1603dde4 /]# yum install -y net-tools

这个IP是docker自己搞得IP

[root@cf4d1603dde4 /]# ifconfig
eth0: flags=4163<UP,BROADCAST,RUNNING,MULTICAST>  mtu 1500
        inet 172.17.0.2  netmask 255.255.0.0  broadcast 172.17.255.255
        ether 02:42:ac:11:00:02  txqueuelen 0  (Ethernet)
        RX packets 5529  bytes 13443112 (12.8 MiB)
        RX errors 0  dropped 0  overruns 0  frame 0
        TX packets 3683  bytes 202645 (197.8 KiB)
        TX errors 0  dropped 0 overruns 0  carrier 0  collisions 0

lo: flags=73<UP,LOOPBACK,RUNNING>  mtu 65536
        inet 127.0.0.1  netmask 255.0.0.0
        loop  txqueuelen 1  (Local Loopback)
        RX packets 0  bytes 0 (0.0 B)
        RX errors 0  dropped 0  overruns 0  frame 0
        TX packets 0  bytes 0 (0.0 B)
        TX errors 0  dropped 0 overruns 0  carrier 0  collisions 0

你在本机系统里查看网卡会有docker专用的网卡。

[root@shuai-01 ~]# ifconfig
docker0: flags=4163<UP,BROADCAST,RUNNING,MULTICAST>  mtu 1500
        inet 172.17.0.1  netmask 255.255.0.0  broadcast 172.17.255.255
        inet6 fe80::42:1ff:fe28:f453  prefixlen 64  scopeid 0x20<link>
        ether 02:42:01:28:f4:53  txqueuelen 0  (Ethernet)
        RX packets 3683  bytes 151083 (147.5 KiB)
        RX errors 0  dropped 0  overruns 0  frame 0
        TX packets 5521  bytes 13442464 (12.8 MiB)
        TX errors 0  dropped 0 overruns 0  carrier 0  collisions 0
veth0b66efc: flags=4163<UP,BROADCAST,RUNNING,MULTICAST>  mtu 1500
        inet6 fe80::4097:2fff:fe59:66d7  prefixlen 64  scopeid 0x20<link>
        ether 42:97:2f:59:66:d7  txqueuelen 0  (Ethernet)
        RX packets 3683  bytes 202645 (197.8 KiB)
        RX errors 0  dropped 0  overruns 0  frame 0
        TX packets 5529  bytes 13443112 (12.8 MiB)
        TX errors 0  dropped 0 overruns 0  carrier 0  collisions 0

把容器创建成镜像:
docker commit -m “change somth” -a “somebody info” container_id new_image_name //container_id通过docker ps -a获取,后面的new_image_name为新镜像名字
例如: docker commit -m “install net-tools” -a “Aming” 2c74d574293f centos_with_nettool 这个命令有点像svn的提交,-m 加一些改动信息,-a 指定作者相关信息 2c74d这一串为容器id,再后面为新镜像的名字

[root@shuai-01 ~]# docker commit -m "install net-tools" -a "shuai" cf4d1603dde4 centos-with-net
sha256:cea798f6bbf6f28ed79d4eef50ee18cdde1a6e9aad7ed03931b8c644d8b37393
[root@shuai-01 ~]# docker images
REPOSITORY          TAG                 IMAGE ID            CREATED             SIZE
centos-with-net     latest              cea798f6bbf6        11 seconds ago      299MB
ubuntu              latest              cd6d8154f1e1        4 weeks ago         84.1MB
centos              latest              5182e96772bf        2 months ago        200MB

将新建的镜像运行起来:可以直接运行ifconfig命令

[root@shuai-01 ~]# docker run -itd centos-with-net bash
8749952da5172bf1bb3e72e577b501b45bd377311a874c95c12f3718b8909f1a
[root@shuai-01 ~]# docker ps
CONTAINER ID        IMAGE               COMMAND             CREATED             STATUS              PORTS               NAMES
8749952da517        centos-with-net     "/bin/bash"         14 seconds ago      Up 7 seconds                            cranky_swartz
cf4d1603dde4        centos              "/bin/bash"         7 hours ago         Up 7 hours                              gracious_lalande
[root@shuai-01 ~]# docker exec -it 8749952da517 bash
[root@8749952da517 /]# ifconfig
eth0: flags=4163<UP,BROADCAST,RUNNING,MULTICAST>  mtu 1500
        inet 172.17.0.3  netmask 255.255.0.0  broadcast 172.17.255.255
        ether 02:42:ac:11:00:03  txqueuelen 0  (Ethernet)
        RX packets 8  bytes 648 (648.0 B)
        RX errors 0  dropped 0  overruns 0  frame 0
        TX packets 0  bytes 0 (0.0 B)
        TX errors 0  dropped 0 overruns 0  carrier 0  collisions 0

lo: flags=73<UP,LOOPBACK,RUNNING>  mtu 65536
        inet 127.0.0.1  netmask 255.0.0.0
        loop  txqueuelen 1  (Local Loopback)
        RX packets 0  bytes 0 (0.0 B)
        RX errors 0  dropped 0  overruns 0  frame 0
        TX packets 0  bytes 0 (0.0 B)
        TX errors 0  dropped 0 overruns 0  carrier 0  collisions 0

docker使用模板创建镜像

先下载一个模板:

[root@shuai-01 ~]# wget https://download.openvz.org/template/precreated/centos-6-x86-minimal.tar.gz

把模板导成镜像文件:

[root@shuai-01 ~]# cat centos-6-x86-minimal.tar.gz |docker import - centos6
sha256:64326114b1eff608e49f436acd1a4058478b6ebbd5c222368e26bc6352228b87
[root@shuai-01 ~]# docker images
REPOSITORY          TAG                 IMAGE ID            CREATED             SIZE
centos6             latest              64326114b1ef        18 seconds ago      512MB
centos-with-net     latest              cea798f6bbf6        About an hour ago   299MB
ubuntu              latest              cd6d8154f1e1        4 weeks ago         84.1MB
centos              latest              5182e96772bf        2 months ago        200MB

启动制作的镜像:

[root@shuai-01 ~]# docker run -itd centos6 bash
0850110acb986d32e365206446e133c4a94d1f00ee2e3926d5ef9a9578b8e646
[root@shuai-01 ~]# docker ps
CONTAINER ID        IMAGE               COMMAND             CREATED             STATUS              PORTS               NAMES
0850110acb98        centos6             "bash"              17 seconds ago      Up 10 seconds                           compassionate_cori
8749952da517        centos-with-net     "/bin/bash"         About an hour ago   Up About an hour                        cranky_swartz
cf4d1603dde4        centos              "/bin/bash"         8 hours ago         Up 8 hours                              gracious_lalande
[root@shuai-01 ~]# docker exec -it 0850110acb98 bash

把镜像导出来为一个文件:

[root@shuai-01 ~]# docker save -o centos7_with_nettools.tar centos-with-net
[root@shuai-01 ~]# du -sh centos7_with_nettools.tar 
294M	centos7_with_nettools.tar

用文件恢复镜像:

删掉镜像前要先停掉容器

[root@shuai-01 ~]# docker rm -f 8749952da517
8749952da517
[root@shuai-01 ~]# docker images
REPOSITORY          TAG                 IMAGE ID            CREATED             SIZE
centos6             latest              64326114b1ef        14 minutes ago      512MB
centos-with-net     latest              cea798f6bbf6        About an hour ago   299MB
ubuntu              latest              cd6d8154f1e1        4 weeks ago         84.1MB
centos              latest              5182e96772bf        2 months ago        200MB
[root@shuai-01 ~]# docker rmi cea798f6bbf6
Untagged: centos-with-net:latest
Deleted: sha256:cea798f6bbf6f28ed79d4eef50ee18cdde1a6e9aad7ed03931b8c644d8b37393
Deleted: sha256:fabc68085404013af1f36dc08e6449d536557206ff47fc4e1565c4702d3659d9

从保存文件中导入镜像:

[root@shuai-01 ~]# docker images
REPOSITORY          TAG                 IMAGE ID            CREATED             SIZE
centos6             latest              64326114b1ef        14 minutes ago      512MB
ubuntu              latest              cd6d8154f1e1        4 weeks ago         84.1MB
centos              latest              5182e96772bf        2 months ago        200MB
[root@shuai-01 ~]# docker load < centos7_with_nettools.tar 
c9e25e335de2: Loading layer  99.07MB/99.07MB
Loaded image: centos-with-net:latest
[root@shuai-01 ~]# docker images
REPOSITORY          TAG                 IMAGE ID            CREATED             SIZE
centos6             latest              64326114b1ef        16 minutes ago      512MB
centos-with-net     latest              cea798f6bbf6        About an hour ago   299MB
ubuntu              latest              cd6d8154f1e1        4 weeks ago         84.1MB
centos              latest              5182e96772bf        2 months ago        200MB

docker push image_name //可以把自己的镜像传到dockerhub官方网站上去,但前提是需要先注册一个用户

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