Android网络编程Okhttp3用法详解

   okHttp、volley、android-async-http对比:

  • volley是一个简单的异步http库,仅此而已。缺点是不支持同步,这点会限制开发模式;不能post大数据,所以不适合用来上传文件
  • android-async-http。与volley一样是异步网络库,但volley是封装的httpUrlConnection,它是封装的httpClient,而android平台不推荐用HttpClient了,所以这个库已经不适合android平台了。
  • okhttp是高性能的http库,支持同步、异步,而且实现了spdy、http2、websocket协议,api很简洁易用,和volley一样实现了http协议的缓存。

   okHttp介绍:

      通过上面的对比说明,让你不得不做出明智的选择,OkHttp是一个相对成熟的解决方案,据说Android4.4的源码中可以看到HttpURLConnection已经替换成OkHttp实现了,所以决定选择采用okhttp。

      官网地址:http://square.github.io/okhttp/

      官方API地址:http://m.blog.csdn.net/article/details?id=50747352

      github源码地址:https://github.com/square/okhttp

   okHttp主要类:

       1.)OkHttpClient.java

       2.)Request.java

       3.)Call.java

       4.)RequestBody.java

       5.)Response.java


OkHttp3使用:

1.在build.gradle中添加引用

    compile 'com.squareup.okhttp3:okhttp:3.2.0'
    compile 'com.squareup.okio:okio:1.7.0'

2.在manifest中添加网络权限

<uses-permission android:name="android.permission.INTERNET" />

3.创建一个OkHttpManager类

   OkHttpManager.java 属性

private static final String TAG = OkHttpManager.class.getSimpleName();
    private static final MediaType MEDIA_TYPE_JSON = MediaType.parse("application/x-www-form-urlencoded; charset=utf-8");//mdiatype 这个需要和服务端保持一致
    //下面两个随便用哪个都可以
    //    private static final MediaType MEDIA_TYPE_FILE = MediaType.parse("application/octet-stream");
    private static final MediaType MEDIA_TYPE_FILE = MediaType.parse("image/jpg");
    private static volatile OkHttpManager mInstance;//单利引用
    private OkHttpClient mOkHttpClient;//okHttpClient 实例
    private Handler okHttpHandler;//全局处理子线程和M主线程通信

   OkhttpManager.java 构造函数

   /**
     * 初始化OkHttpManager
     */

   public OkHttpManager(Context context) {
        //初始化OkHttpClient
        mOkHttpClient = new OkHttpClient().newBuilder()
                .connectTimeout(10, TimeUnit.SECONDS)//设置超时时间
                .readTimeout(10, TimeUnit.SECONDS)//设置读取超时时间
                .writeTimeout(10, TimeUnit.SECONDS)//设置写入超时时间
                .build();
        //初始化Handler
        okHttpHandler = new Handler(context.getMainLooper());
    }

   OkHttpManager.java 获取单利引用 这里用到了双重检查锁实现单例

    /**
     * 获取单例引用
     *
     * @return
     */

    public static OkHttpManager getInstance(Context context) {
        OkHttpManager inst = mInstance;
        if (inst == null) {
            synchronized (OkHttpManager.class) {
                inst = mInstance;
                if (inst == null) {
                    inst = new OkHttpManager(context.getApplicationContext());
                    mInstance = inst;
                }
            }
        }
        return inst;
    }
4.实现okHttp同步请求
   okHttp get同步请求
    /**
     * 1.1 okHttp get同步请求
     *
     * @param actionUrl 接口地址
     * @param paramsMap 请求参数
     */
    public void getBySyn(String actionUrl, Map<String, Object> paramsMap) {
        StringBuilder tempParams = new StringBuilder();
        try {
            //处理参数
            int pos = 0;
            for (String key : paramsMap.keySet()) {
                if (pos > 0) {
                    tempParams.append("&");
                }
                //对参数进行URLEncoder
                tempParams.append(String.format("%s=%s", key, URLEncoder.encode(paramsMap.get(key).toString(), "utf-8")));
                pos++;
            }
            //补全请求地址  这里的Config.SERVER_ADDRESS改成自己的BaseUrl
            String requestUrl = String.format("%s%s?%s", Config.SERVER_ADDRESS, actionUrl, tempParams.toString());
            //创建一个请求
            Request request = addHeaders().url(requestUrl).build();
            //创建一个Call
            final Call call = mOkHttpClient.newCall(request);
            //执行请求
            final Response response = call.execute();
            response.body().string();
        } catch (Exception e) {
            Log.e(TAG, e.toString());
        }
    }
   okHttp post同步请求
    /**
     * 1.2 okHttp post同步请求
     *
     * @param actionUrl 接口地址
     * @param paramsMap 请求参数
     */
    public void postBySyn(String actionUrl, Map<String, Object> paramsMap) {
        try {
            //处理参数
            StringBuilder tempParams = new StringBuilder();
            int pos = 0;
            for (String key : paramsMap.keySet()) {
                if (pos > 0) {
                    tempParams.append("&");
                }
                tempParams.append(String.format("%s=%s", key, URLEncoder.encode(paramsMap.get(key).toString(), "utf-8")));
                pos++;
            }
            //补全请求地址
            String requestUrl = String.format("%s%s", Config.SERVER_ADDRESS, actionUrl);
            //生成参数
            String params = tempParams.toString();
            //创建一个请求实体对象 RequestBody
            RequestBody body = RequestBody.create(MEDIA_TYPE_JSON, params);
            //创建一个请求
            final Request request = addHeaders().url(requestUrl).post(body).build();
            //创建一个Call
            final Call call = mOkHttpClient.newCall(request);
            //执行请求
            Response response = call.execute();
            //请求执行成功
            if (response.isSuccessful()) {
                //获取返回数据 可以是String,bytes ,byteStream
                Log.e(TAG, "response ----->" + response.body().string());
            }
        } catch (Exception e) {
            Log.e(TAG, e.toString());
        }
    }
  okHttp post同步请求表单提交
    /**
     * 1.3 okHttp post同步请求表单提交
     *
     * @param actionUrl 接口地址
     * @param paramsMap 请求参数
     */
    private void postBySynWithForm(String actionUrl, Map<String, Object> paramsMap) {
        try {
            //创建一个FormBody.Builder
            FormBody.Builder builder = new FormBody.Builder();
            for (String key : paramsMap.keySet()) {
                //追加表单信息
                builder.add(key, paramsMap.get(key).toString());
            }
            //生成表单实体对象
            RequestBody formBody = builder.build();
            //补全请求地址
            String requestUrl = String.format("%s%s", Config.SERVER_ADDRESS, actionUrl);
            //创建一个请求
            final Request request = addHeaders().url(requestUrl).post(formBody).build();
            //创建一个Call
            final Call call = mOkHttpClient.newCall(request);
            //执行请求
            Response response = call.execute();
            if (response.isSuccessful()) {
                Log.e(TAG, "response ----->" + response.body().string());
            }
        } catch (Exception e) {
            Log.e(TAG, e.toString());
        }
    }

5.实现okHttp异步请求

  okHttp get异步请求
    /**
     * 2.1 okHttp get异步请求
     *
     * @param actionUrl 接口地址
     * @param paramsMap 请求参数
     * @param callBack  请求返回数据回调
     * @return
     */
    public void getByAsyn(String actionUrl, Map<String, Object> paramsMap, final OkHttpCallback callBack) {
        StringBuilder tempParams = new StringBuilder();
        try {
            int pos = 0;
            for (String key : paramsMap.keySet()) {
                if (pos > 0) {
                    tempParams.append("&");
                }
                tempParams.append(String.format("%s=%s", key, URLEncoder.encode(paramsMap.get(key).toString(), "utf-8")));
                pos++;
            }
            //http://117.78.49.154:18083/userproduct/api/4.0.0/config/getConfig
            String requestUrl = String.format("%s%s?%s", Config.SERVER_ADDRESS, actionUrl, tempParams.toString());
            Log.i(TAG, "requestUrl=" + requestUrl);
            final Request request = addHeaders().url(requestUrl).build();
            final Call call = mOkHttpClient.newCall(request);
            call.enqueue(new Callback() {
                @Override
                public void onFailure(Call call, IOException e) {
                    onFailedCallBack(e, callBack);
                }

                @Override
                public void onResponse(Call call, Response response) throws IOException {
                    if (response.isSuccessful()) {
                        try {
                            Log.i(TAG, "onResponse response=" + response);
                            String responseStr = response.body().string();
                            Log.i(TAG, "onResponse responseStr=" + responseStr);
                            JSONObject oriData = new JSONObject(responseStr.trim());
                            ServerResponse serverResponse = ServerResponse.parseFromResponse(oriData);
                            //回调
                            onSuccessCallBack(oriData, serverResponse, callBack);
                        } catch (Exception e) {
                            e.printStackTrace();
                        }
                    }
                }
            });
        } catch (Exception e) {
            Log.e(TAG, e.toString());
        }
    }
  okHttp post异步请求
    /**
     * 2.2 okHttp post异步请求
     *
     * @param actionUrl 接口地址
     * @param paramsMap 请求参数
     * @param callBack  请求返回数据回调
     * @return
     */
    public void postByAsyn(String actionUrl, Map<String, Object> paramsMap, final OkHttpCallback callBack) {
        try {
            StringBuilder tempParams = new StringBuilder();
            int pos = 0;
            for (String key : paramsMap.keySet()) {
                if (pos > 0) {
                    tempParams.append("&");
                }
                tempParams.append(String.format("%s=%s", key, URLEncoder.encode(paramsMap.get(key).toString(), "utf-8")));
                pos++;
            }
            String params = tempParams.toString();
            RequestBody body = RequestBody.create(MEDIA_TYPE_JSON, params);
            String requestUrl = String.format("%s%s", Config.SERVER_ADDRESS, actionUrl);
            final Request request = addHeaders().url(requestUrl).post(body).build();
            final Call call = mOkHttpClient.newCall(request);
            call.enqueue(new Callback() {
                @Override
                public void onFailure(Call call, IOException e) {
                    onFailedCallBack(e, callBack);
                }

                @Override
                public void onResponse(Call call, Response response) throws IOException {
                    if (response.isSuccessful()) {
                        try {
                            String responseStr = response.body().string();
                            Log.i(TAG, "onResponse responseStr=" + responseStr);
                            JSONObject oriData = new JSONObject(responseStr.trim());
                            ServerResponse serverResponse = ServerResponse.parseFromResponse(oriData);

                            onSuccessCallBack(oriData, serverResponse, callBack);
                        } catch (Exception e) {
                            e.printStackTrace();
                        }
                    }
                }
            });
        } catch (Exception e) {
            Log.e(TAG, e.toString());
        }
    }
   okHttp post异步请求表单提交
    /**
     * 2.3 okHttp post异步请求表单提交
     *
     * @param actionUrl 接口地址
     * @param paramsMap 请求参数
     * @param callBack  请求返回数据回调
     * @return
     */
    public void postByAsynWithForm(String actionUrl, Map<String, Object> paramsMap, final OkHttpCallback callBack) {
        try {
            FormBody.Builder builder = new FormBody.Builder();
            for (String key : paramsMap.keySet()) {
                builder.add(key, paramsMap.get(key).toString());
            }
            RequestBody formBody = builder.build();
            String requestUrl = String.format("%s%s", Config.SERVER_ADDRESS, actionUrl);
            final Request request = addHeaders().url(requestUrl).post(formBody).build();
            final Call call = mOkHttpClient.newCall(request);
            call.enqueue(new Callback() {
                @Override
                public void onFailure(Call call, IOException e) {
                    onFailedCallBack(e, callBack);
                }

                @Override
                public void onResponse(Call call, Response response) throws IOException {
                    if (response.isSuccessful()) {
                        try {
                            String responseStr = response.body().string();
                            Log.i(TAG, "onResponse responseStr=" + responseStr);
                            JSONObject oriData = new JSONObject(responseStr.trim());
                            ServerResponse serverResponse = ServerResponse.parseFromResponse(oriData);

                            onSuccessCallBack(oriData, serverResponse, callBack);
                        } catch (Exception e) {
                            e.printStackTrace();
                        }
                    }
                }
            });
        } catch (Exception e) {
            Log.e(TAG, e.toString());
        }
    }

   接口OkHttpCallback .java实现

    public interface OkHttpCallback {
        /**
         * 响应成功
         */
        void onSuccess(JSONObject oriData, ServerResponse response);


        /**
         * 响应失败
         */
        void onFailure(IOException e);
    }
6.上传图片 带参数
public void postFiles(String actionUrl, Map<String, Object> paramsMap, Map<String, File> fileMap, final OkHttpCallback callBack) {
        MultipartBody.Builder requestBody = new MultipartBody.Builder().setType(MultipartBody.FORM);

        //入参-字符串
        for (Map.Entry entry : paramsMap.entrySet()) {
            requestBody.addFormDataPart(entry.getKey().toString(), entry.getValue().toString());
        }
        //入参-文件
        for (Map.Entry entry : fileMap.entrySet()) {
            File file = (File) entry.getValue();
            RequestBody fileBody = RequestBody.create(MEDIA_TYPE_FILE, file);
            String fileName = file.getName();
            requestBody.addFormDataPart(entry.getKey().toString(), fileName, fileBody);
        }

        Request request = addHeaders().url(actionUrl).post(requestBody.build()).build();
        mOkHttpClient.newCall(request).enqueue(new Callback() {
            @Override
            public void onFailure(Call call, IOException e) {
                onFailedCallBack(e, callBack);
            }


            @Override
            public void onResponse(Call call, Response response) throws IOException {
                Log.i(TAG, "onResponse response=" + response);
                if (response.isSuccessful()) {
                    try {
                        String responseStr = response.body().string();
                        Log.i(TAG, "onResponse responseStr=" + responseStr);
                        JSONObject oriData = new JSONObject(responseStr.trim());
                        ServerResponse serverResponse = ServerResponse.parseFromResponse(oriData);

                        onSuccessCallBack(oriData, serverResponse, callBack);
                    } catch (Exception e) {
                        e.printStackTrace();
                    }
                }
            }
        });
    }
7.添加请求头
    private Request.Builder addHeaders() {
        Request.Builder builder = new Request.Builder()
                //addHeader,可添加多个请求头  header,唯一,会覆盖
                .addHeader("Connection", "keep-alive")
                .addHeader("platform", "2")
                .addHeader("phoneModel", Build.MODEL)
                .addHeader("systemVersion", Build.VERSION.RELEASE)
                .addHeader("appVersion", "3.2.0")
                .header("sid", "eyJhZGRDaGFubmVsIjoiYXBwIiwiYWRkUHJvZHVjdCI6InFia3BsdXMiLCJhZGRUaW1lIjoxNTAzOTk1NDQxOTEzLCJyb2xlIjoiUk9MRV9VU0VSIiwidXBkYXRlVGltZSI6MTUwMzk5NTQ0MTkxMywidXNlcklkIjoxNjQxMTQ3fQ==.b0e5fd6266ab475919ee810a82028c0ddce3f5a0e1faf5b5e423fb2aaf05ffbf");
        return builder;
    }
8.成功与失败回调处理

    成功回调处理

   private void onSuccessCallBack(final JSONObject oriData, final ServerResponse response, final OkHttpCallback callBack) {
        //因为okhttp3 UI的处理不能在子线程中,要在主线程中,所以要这样写
        okHttpHandler.post(new Runnable() {
            @Override
            public void run() {
                if (null != callBack) {
                    callBack.onSuccess(oriData, response);
                }
            }
        });
    }

   失败回调处理

   private void onFailedCallBack(final IOException e, final OkHttpCallback callBack) {
        okHttpHandler.post(new Runnable() {
            @Override
            public void run() {
                if (null != callBack) {
                    callBack.onFailure(e);
                }
            }
        });
    }
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