scala =>符号含义总结

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It has several meanings in Scala, all related to its mathematical meaning as implication.
  • In a value, it introduces a function literal(通译为匿名函数,有时候也叫函数显式声明,函数字面量), or lambda(参考lambda表达式的文章,其实也是匿名函数).
    e.g. the bit inside the curly braces in: 
List(1,2,3).map { (x: Int) => x * 2 }
  • In a type, with symbols on both sides of the arrow (e.g. A => T(A,B) => T(A,B,C) => T, etc.) it's sugar(syntactic sugar语法糖) for Function<n>[A[,B,...],T], that is, a function that takes parameters of type A[,B...], and returns a value of type T.(语法糖通过更简洁的语法达到目的,直接把所需要的参数、类型、函数最简化,然后把解析的工作交给编译器来完成,这步称为去糖化。例如,(A,B)=>T,包含了函数,参数以及类型,实际上是一个匿名函数,func(A,B,T)或者func(A T,B T))。

=> is syntactic sugar for creating instances of functions. Recall that every function in scala is an instance of a class.
For example, the type Int => String, is equivalent to the type Function1[Int,String] i.e. a function that takes an argument of type Int and returns a String. 
scala> val f: Function1[Int,String] = myInt => "my int: "+myInt.toString
  f: (Int) => String = <function1>

  scala> f(0)
  res0: String = my int: 0

  scala> val f2: Int => String = myInt => "my int v2: "+myInt.toString
  f2: (Int) => String = <function1>

  scala> f2(1)
  res1: String = my int v2: 1

scala> val f2: Function2[Int,Int,String] = (myInt1,myInt2) => "This is my function to transfer " + myInt1 + " and " + myInt2 + " as a string component."
f2: (Int, Int) => String = <function2>

scala> f2(1,2)
  res6: String = This is my function to transfer 1 and 2 as a string component.

  scala> val f22:(Int,Int)=>String = (myInt1,myInt2) => "This is my function to transfer " + myInt1 + " and " + myInt2 + " as a string component."
  f22: (Int, Int) => String = <function2>
  scala> f22(2,4)
  res7: String = This is my function to transfer 2 and 4 as a string component.


Here myInt is binded to the argument value passed to f and f2.
() => T is the type of a function that takes no arguments and returns a T. It is equivalent to Function0[T]. () is called a zero parameter list I believe.
scala> val f: () => Unit = () => { println("x")}
f: () => Unit = <function0>

scala> f()
x

scala> val f2: Function0[Unit] = () => println("x2")
f: () => Unit = <function0>

scala> f2()
x2

As the most simplified answer, you can substitute whatever is on the left-hand side of => with the word "LEFT" and whatever is on the right-hand side with the word "RIGHT".
Then, the meaning of "LEFT => RIGHT" becomes:
Take LEFT then do RIGHT.
This means that if you have a "()=>" that you can take nothing (that is, no parameters) and then do whatever is on the right-hand side.
This is the most common meaning.

    • Empty parens on the left hand side (e.g. () => T) indicate that the function takes no parameters (also sometimes called a "thunk");
       
定时器的示例程序还可以做一些改进。首先,timeFlies 函数只被用过一次,也就是当做回调函数传给 oncePerSecond 的时候,对于这种函数,在用到的时候即时构造更合理,因为可以省去定义和命名的麻烦,在 Scala 中,这样的函数称为匿名函数(anonymousfunctions),也就是没有名字的函数。使用匿名函数代替 timeFlies 函数后的程序代码如下:

 object TimerAnonymous {
def oncePerSecond(callback: () => Unit) {
<span style="white-space:pre"> </span>while (true) { callback(); Thread sleep 1000 }
 }
 
def main(args: Array[String]) {
<span style="white-space:pre"> </span>oncePerSecond(() =>
<span style="white-space:pre"> </span>println("time flies like an arrow..."))
 }
}

代码中的右箭头‘=>’表明程序中存在一个匿名函数,箭头左边是匿名函数的参数列表,右边是函数体。在本例中,参数列表为空(箭头左边是一对空括号),而函数体和改造前定义的 timeFlies 函数保持一致。


函数求值有两种策略,一种是传值调用,一种是传名调用,其中编译器的"传名调用"实现,往往是将参数放到一个临时函数之中,再将这个临时函数传入函数体。这个临时函数就叫做 Thunk 函数,也称为柯里化。
function f(m){
  return m * 2;   
}

f(x + 5);
// 等同于
var thunk = function () {
  return x + 5;
};

function f(thunk){
  return thunk() * 2;
}

    • Empty parens on the right hand side denote that it returns () — the sole value of type Unit, whose name can also be written ()—confused yet? :)
      A function that returns Unit is also known as a procedure, normally a method that's called only for its side effect.

Scala对于不返回值的函数有特殊的表示法。如果函数体包含在花括号当中但没有前面的=号,那么返回值类型就是Unit。这样的函数被称做过程(procedure)。过程不返回值,我们调用它仅仅是为了它的副作用。例如:

scala> def box(s: String) {
    | var border = "-" * s.length + "--\n"
    | println(border + "|" + s + "|\n" + border)
    | }
box: (s: String)Unit

scala> box("Hello")
-------
|Hello|
-------

关于side effect的翻译
点击了一个按钮,用户所期待的行为不叫“side effects”,用户没有期待的行为才叫“side effects”。
函数一般认为是没有状态的,每次用相同的输入调用时应当给出相同的输出,且不会影响程序的其它部分。如果函数对程序的状态有影响,这种影响就叫作“side effects”。

总之,“side effects”指的就是那些本不应有或者用户意料之外的作用,翻译成“副作用”我觉得挺恰当的。它可以看成医学上“副作用”一词的合理引申。

举个简单的例子好了:

int counter = 0;

// with side effectint incCounter() {
    counter += 1;
    return counter;}

// without side effectint incNumber(int m) {
    return m + 1;}

incCounter 修改了它 scope 以外的东西,它跑过一遍之后会修改外部环境,我们讲这叫 side effect。intNumber 跑完之后本来什么样还是什么样,这就叫没有 side effects。翻成「副作用」没有问题。


  • In the type declaration for a method or function parameter, with no symbol on the left hand side (e.g. def f(param: => T)) it's a "by-name parameter"(传名参数,或者翻译为叫名参数), meaning that is evaluated every time it's used within the body of the function, and not before. Ordinary "by-value" parameters (传值参数)are evaluated before entry into the function/method.

By-Value参数,我们都比较熟悉,参数在进入函数前就进行计算,最后传入的最终的计算结果。
By-Name参数,表示参数在进入函数后,每次在函数体内调用的时候才会计算。

def myByName1(param: () => Boolean): Unit = {
    println("start")
    println(param)      //println(param.apply())也可以
    println("end")
  }

//要实现传名函数,要定义的类型开始于“=>”,而不是“() =>”。
//myByName1{7>9}不会有效,因为缺少“() =>”

myByName1{() =>
    println("enter")
    7 > 9
}

  • In a case clause(case子句), they separate the pattern (and optional guard) from the result expression, e.g. case x => y.

switch
val friend =
  firstArg match {
  case "salt" => "pepper"
  case "chips" => "salsa"
  case "eggs" => "bacon"
  case  _ => "huh?"
  }

exception
try {
  val file = new FileReader("input.txt")
} catch {
  case ex: FileNotFoundException => ex.printStackTrace()
  case ex: IOException =>   //ex.printStackTrace()可以省略
} finally {
  file.close()
}

这个try-catch表达式的行为与其它语言中的异常处理一致。程序体被执行,如果抛出异常,每个catch子句依次被尝试。本例中,如果异常是FileNotFoundException,那么第一个子句将被执行。如果是IOException类型,第二个子句将被执行。如果都不是,那么try-catch将终结并把异常上升出去。

注意

你将很快发现与Java的一个差别是Scala里不需要你捕获检查异常:checked exception,或把它们声明在throws子句中。如果你愿意,可以用ATthrows标注声明一个throws子句,但这不是必需的。


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