Java并发编程规则:同步容器与并发容器

版权声明:本文为博主原创文章,未经博主允许不得转载。 https://blog.csdn.net/boonya/article/details/53811727

同步性和并发性都是线程安全的知识,只要同时满足条件就可以编写支持并发线程安全的程序。

同步容器

首先,同步容器是线程安全的。Java中设计了同步容器的数据结构对象,如:Vector和HashTable。但必须说明的是,同步容器在复合操作(迭代、运算、逻辑处理等)时如果没有线程同步策略,那么程序就不是线程安全的。Java定义Vector是线程安全的。但是在多线程环境下,多个线程进行remove、get操作就会出现ArrayIndexOutOfBoundsException问题。修复此类问题的最好方式就是加锁。

复合操作不安全示例:

import java.util.Vector;


public class VectorC1 {
	
	public static Object getLast(Vector vector){
		int index=vector.size()-1;
		return vector.get(index);
	} 
	
    public static void deleteLast(Vector vector){
    	        int index=vector.size()-1;
		vector.remove(index);
	} 

}

修复复合操作示例:

import java.util.Vector;


public class VectorC2 {
	
	public static Object getLast(Vector vector){
		synchronized (vector) {
			int index=vector.size()-1;
			return vector.get(index);
		}
	} 
	
    public static void deleteLast(Vector vector){
	    synchronized (vector) {
	    	        int index=vector.size()-1;
			vector.remove(index);
		}
    	
	} 

}

迭代操作不安全示例:

import java.util.Vector;


public class VectorFor1 {
	
	public static void doService(Vector vector){
		for (int i = 0,j=vector.size(); i < j; i++) {
			doSomething(vector.get(i)); 
		}
	} 
	
    public static void doSomething(Object obj){
    	
	} 

}

修复迭代操作不安全示例:

import java.util.Vector;


public class VectorFor2 {
	
	public static void doService(Vector vector){
		synchronized (vector) {
			for (int i = 0,j=vector.size(); i < j; i++) {
				doSomething(vector.get(i)); 
			}
		}
	} 
	
    public static void doSomething(Object obj){
    	
	} 

}
对Collection进行迭代的标准方式是使用Iterator。如果容器在迭代期间发生了改变,其他线程执行操作类似contains*,remove*(隐藏迭代器)等方法都有可能抛出ConcurrentModificationException异常。同步容器所有状态是串行访问,从而实现了线程安全,但是削弱了并发性,使程序的吞吐量降低。

并发容器

Java5.0通过几种并发容器来改进同步容器。用以替代同步哈希Map的设计,如:ConcurrentHashMap和ConcurrentMap。CopyOnWriteArrayList是List相应的同步实现。用并发容器替代同步容器,以很小的风险带了了扩展性显著的提高。

Java5.0同样提供了两个新的容器类型:Queue(null)和BlockingQueue(阻塞队列)。(Queue用于临时存储下一步执行等待的执行单元逻辑元素;FIFO先进先出的ConcurrentLinkedQueue;PriorityQueue优先顺序级别的队列。)

Java6.0中基于哈希Map的设计还新增了ConcurrentSkipListMap和ConcurrentSkipListSet,用来作为同步的SortedMap和SortedSet的替代品。

ConcurrentHashMap

ConcurrentHashMap具备更加细致的锁机制(分离锁),并且相比于HashTable和synchornizedMap,ConcurrentHashMap几乎没有什么劣势,因此大多数情况下用ConcurrentHashMap取代同步Map可以获得更好的可伸缩性。只有当你的程序需要独占访问加锁时,ConcurrentHashMap才无法胜任。

ConcurrentMap接口:

package java.util.concurrent;
import java.util.Map;

/**
 * A {@link java.util.Map} providing additional atomic
 * <tt>putIfAbsent</tt>, <tt>remove</tt>, and <tt>replace</tt> methods.
 *
 * <p>Memory consistency effects: As with other concurrent
 * collections, actions in a thread prior to placing an object into a
 * {@code ConcurrentMap} as a key or value
 * <a href="package-summary.html#MemoryVisibility"><i>happen-before</i></a>
 * actions subsequent to the access or removal of that object from
 * the {@code ConcurrentMap} in another thread.
 *
 * <p>This interface is a member of the
 * <a href="{@docRoot}/../technotes/guides/collections/index.html">
 * Java Collections Framework</a>.
 *
 * @since 1.5
 * @author Doug Lea
 * @param <K> the type of keys maintained by this map
 * @param <V> the type of mapped values
 */
public interface ConcurrentMap<K, V> extends Map<K, V> {
    /**
     * If the specified key is not already associated
     * with a value, associate it with the given value.
     * This is equivalent to
     * <pre>
     *   if (!map.containsKey(key))
     *       return map.put(key, value);
     *   else
     *       return map.get(key);</pre>
     * except that the action is performed atomically.
     *
     * @param key key with which the specified value is to be associated
     * @param value value to be associated with the specified key
     * @return the previous value associated with the specified key, or
     *         <tt>null</tt> if there was no mapping for the key.
     *         (A <tt>null</tt> return can also indicate that the map
     *         previously associated <tt>null</tt> with the key,
     *         if the implementation supports null values.)
     * @throws UnsupportedOperationException if the <tt>put</tt> operation
     *         is not supported by this map
     * @throws ClassCastException if the class of the specified key or value
     *         prevents it from being stored in this map
     * @throws NullPointerException if the specified key or value is null,
     *         and this map does not permit null keys or values
     * @throws IllegalArgumentException if some property of the specified key
     *         or value prevents it from being stored in this map
     *
     */
    V putIfAbsent(K key, V value);

    /**
     * Removes the entry for a key only if currently mapped to a given value.
     * This is equivalent to
     * <pre>
     *   if (map.containsKey(key) && map.get(key).equals(value)) {
     *       map.remove(key);
     *       return true;
     *   } else return false;</pre>
     * except that the action is performed atomically.
     *
     * @param key key with which the specified value is associated
     * @param value value expected to be associated with the specified key
     * @return <tt>true</tt> if the value was removed
     * @throws UnsupportedOperationException if the <tt>remove</tt> operation
     *         is not supported by this map
     * @throws ClassCastException if the key or value is of an inappropriate
     *         type for this map
     *         (<a href="../Collection.html#optional-restrictions">optional</a>)
     * @throws NullPointerException if the specified key or value is null,
     *         and this map does not permit null keys or values
     *         (<a href="../Collection.html#optional-restrictions">optional</a>)
     */
    boolean remove(Object key, Object value);

    /**
     * Replaces the entry for a key only if currently mapped to a given value.
     * This is equivalent to
     * <pre>
     *   if (map.containsKey(key) && map.get(key).equals(oldValue)) {
     *       map.put(key, newValue);
     *       return true;
     *   } else return false;</pre>
     * except that the action is performed atomically.
     *
     * @param key key with which the specified value is associated
     * @param oldValue value expected to be associated with the specified key
     * @param newValue value to be associated with the specified key
     * @return <tt>true</tt> if the value was replaced
     * @throws UnsupportedOperationException if the <tt>put</tt> operation
     *         is not supported by this map
     * @throws ClassCastException if the class of a specified key or value
     *         prevents it from being stored in this map
     * @throws NullPointerException if a specified key or value is null,
     *         and this map does not permit null keys or values
     * @throws IllegalArgumentException if some property of a specified key
     *         or value prevents it from being stored in this map
     */
    boolean replace(K key, V oldValue, V newValue);

    /**
     * Replaces the entry for a key only if currently mapped to some value.
     * This is equivalent to
     * <pre>
     *   if (map.containsKey(key)) {
     *       return map.put(key, value);
     *   } else return null;</pre>
     * except that the action is performed atomically.
     *
     * @param key key with which the specified value is associated
     * @param value value to be associated with the specified key
     * @return the previous value associated with the specified key, or
     *         <tt>null</tt> if there was no mapping for the key.
     *         (A <tt>null</tt> return can also indicate that the map
     *         previously associated <tt>null</tt> with the key,
     *         if the implementation supports null values.)
     * @throws UnsupportedOperationException if the <tt>put</tt> operation
     *         is not supported by this map
     * @throws ClassCastException if the class of the specified key or value
     *         prevents it from being stored in this map
     * @throws NullPointerException if the specified key or value is null,
     *         and this map does not permit null keys or values
     * @throws IllegalArgumentException if some property of the specified key
     *         or value prevents it from being stored in this map
     */
    V replace(K key, V value);
}

ConcurrentMap的ConcurrentHashMap实现:

package java.util.concurrent;
import java.util.concurrent.locks.*;
import java.util.*;
import java.io.Serializable;
import java.io.IOException;
import java.io.ObjectInputStream;
import java.io.ObjectOutputStream;
import java.io.ObjectStreamField;

/**
 * A hash table supporting full concurrency of retrievals and
 * adjustable expected concurrency for updates. This class obeys the
 * same functional specification as {@link java.util.Hashtable}, and
 * includes versions of methods corresponding to each method of
 * <tt>Hashtable</tt>. However, even though all operations are
 * thread-safe, retrieval operations do <em>not</em> entail locking,
 * and there is <em>not</em> any support for locking the entire table
 * in a way that prevents all access.  This class is fully
 * interoperable with <tt>Hashtable</tt> in programs that rely on its
 * thread safety but not on its synchronization details.
 *
 * <p> Retrieval operations (including <tt>get</tt>) generally do not
 * block, so may overlap with update operations (including
 * <tt>put</tt> and <tt>remove</tt>). Retrievals reflect the results
 * of the most recently <em>completed</em> update operations holding
 * upon their onset.  For aggregate operations such as <tt>putAll</tt>
 * and <tt>clear</tt>, concurrent retrievals may reflect insertion or
 * removal of only some entries.  Similarly, Iterators and
 * Enumerations return elements reflecting the state of the hash table
 * at some point at or since the creation of the iterator/enumeration.
 * They do <em>not</em> throw {@link ConcurrentModificationException}.
 * However, iterators are designed to be used by only one thread at a time.
 *
 * <p> The allowed concurrency among update operations is guided by
 * the optional <tt>concurrencyLevel</tt> constructor argument
 * (default <tt>16</tt>), which is used as a hint for internal sizing.  The
 * table is internally partitioned to try to permit the indicated
 * number of concurrent updates without contention. Because placement
 * in hash tables is essentially random, the actual concurrency will
 * vary.  Ideally, you should choose a value to accommodate as many
 * threads as will ever concurrently modify the table. Using a
 * significantly higher value than you need can waste space and time,
 * and a significantly lower value can lead to thread contention. But
 * overestimates and underestimates within an order of magnitude do
 * not usually have much noticeable impact. A value of one is
 * appropriate when it is known that only one thread will modify and
 * all others will only read. Also, resizing this or any other kind of
 * hash table is a relatively slow operation, so, when possible, it is
 * a good idea to provide estimates of expected table sizes in
 * constructors.
 *
 * <p>This class and its views and iterators implement all of the
 * <em>optional</em> methods of the {@link Map} and {@link Iterator}
 * interfaces.
 *
 * <p> Like {@link Hashtable} but unlike {@link HashMap}, this class
 * does <em>not</em> allow <tt>null</tt> to be used as a key or value.
 *
 * <p>This class is a member of the
 * <a href="{@docRoot}/../technotes/guides/collections/index.html">
 * Java Collections Framework</a>.
 *
 * @since 1.5
 * @author Doug Lea
 * @param <K> the type of keys maintained by this map
 * @param <V> the type of mapped values
 */
public class ConcurrentHashMap<K, V> extends AbstractMap<K, V>
        implements ConcurrentMap<K, V>, Serializable {
    private static final long serialVersionUID = 7249069246763182397L;

    /*
     * The basic strategy is to subdivide the table among Segments,
     * each of which itself is a concurrently readable hash table.  To
     * reduce footprint, all but one segments are constructed only
     * when first needed (see ensureSegment). To maintain visibility
     * in the presence of lazy construction, accesses to segments as
     * well as elements of segment's table must use volatile access,
     * which is done via Unsafe within methods segmentAt etc
     * below. These provide the functionality of AtomicReferenceArrays
     * but reduce the levels of indirection. Additionally,
     * volatile-writes of table elements and entry "next" fields
     * within locked operations use the cheaper "lazySet" forms of
     * writes (via putOrderedObject) because these writes are always
     * followed by lock releases that maintain sequential consistency
     * of table updates.
     *
     * Historical note: The previous version of this class relied
     * heavily on "final" fields, which avoided some volatile reads at
     * the expense of a large initial footprint.  Some remnants of
     * that design (including forced construction of segment 0) exist
     * to ensure serialization compatibility.
     */

    /* ---------------- Constants -------------- */

    /**
     * The default initial capacity for this table,
     * used when not otherwise specified in a constructor.
     */
    static final int DEFAULT_INITIAL_CAPACITY = 16;

    /**
     * The default load factor for this table, used when not
     * otherwise specified in a constructor.
     */
    static final float DEFAULT_LOAD_FACTOR = 0.75f;

    /**
     * The default concurrency level for this table, used when not
     * otherwise specified in a constructor.
     */
    static final int DEFAULT_CONCURRENCY_LEVEL = 16;

    /**
     * The maximum capacity, used if a higher value is implicitly
     * specified by either of the constructors with arguments.  MUST
     * be a power of two <= 1<<30 to ensure that entries are indexable
     * using ints.
     */
    static final int MAXIMUM_CAPACITY = 1 << 30;

    /**
     * The minimum capacity for per-segment tables.  Must be a power
     * of two, at least two to avoid immediate resizing on next use
     * after lazy construction.
     */
    static final int MIN_SEGMENT_TABLE_CAPACITY = 2;

    /**
     * The maximum number of segments to allow; used to bound
     * constructor arguments. Must be power of two less than 1 << 24.
     */
    static final int MAX_SEGMENTS = 1 << 16; // slightly conservative

    /**
     * Number of unsynchronized retries in size and containsValue
     * methods before resorting to locking. This is used to avoid
     * unbounded retries if tables undergo continuous modification
     * which would make it impossible to obtain an accurate result.
     */
    static final int RETRIES_BEFORE_LOCK = 2;

    /* ---------------- Fields -------------- */

    /**
     * holds values which can't be initialized until after VM is booted.
     */
    private static class Holder {

        /**
        * Enable alternative hashing of String keys?
        *
        * <p>Unlike the other hash map implementations we do not implement a
        * threshold for regulating whether alternative hashing is used for
        * String keys. Alternative hashing is either enabled for all instances
        * or disabled for all instances.
        */
        static final boolean ALTERNATIVE_HASHING;

        static {
            // Use the "threshold" system property even though our threshold
            // behaviour is "ON" or "OFF".
            String altThreshold = java.security.AccessController.doPrivileged(
                new sun.security.action.GetPropertyAction(
                    "jdk.map.althashing.threshold"));

            int threshold;
            try {
                threshold = (null != altThreshold)
                        ? Integer.parseInt(altThreshold)
                        : Integer.MAX_VALUE;

                // disable alternative hashing if -1
                if (threshold == -1) {
                    threshold = Integer.MAX_VALUE;
                }

                if (threshold < 0) {
                    throw new IllegalArgumentException("value must be positive integer.");
                }
            } catch(IllegalArgumentException failed) {
                throw new Error("Illegal value for 'jdk.map.althashing.threshold'", failed);
            }
            ALTERNATIVE_HASHING = threshold <= MAXIMUM_CAPACITY;
        }
    }

    /**
     * A randomizing value associated with this instance that is applied to
     * hash code of keys to make hash collisions harder to find.
     */
    private transient final int hashSeed = randomHashSeed(this);

    private static int randomHashSeed(ConcurrentHashMap instance) {
        if (sun.misc.VM.isBooted() && Holder.ALTERNATIVE_HASHING) {
            return sun.misc.Hashing.randomHashSeed(instance);
        }

        return 0;
    }

    /**
     * Mask value for indexing into segments. The upper bits of a
     * key's hash code are used to choose the segment.
     */
    final int segmentMask;

    /**
     * Shift value for indexing within segments.
     */
    final int segmentShift;

    /**
     * The segments, each of which is a specialized hash table.
     */
    final Segment<K,V>[] segments;

    transient Set<K> keySet;
    transient Set<Map.Entry<K,V>> entrySet;
    transient Collection<V> values;

    /**
     * ConcurrentHashMap list entry. Note that this is never exported
     * out as a user-visible Map.Entry.
     */
    static final class HashEntry<K,V> {
        final int hash;
        final K key;
        volatile V value;
        volatile HashEntry<K,V> next;

        HashEntry(int hash, K key, V value, HashEntry<K,V> next) {
            this.hash = hash;
            this.key = key;
            this.value = value;
            this.next = next;
        }

        /**
         * Sets next field with volatile write semantics.  (See above
         * about use of putOrderedObject.)
         */
        final void setNext(HashEntry<K,V> n) {
            UNSAFE.putOrderedObject(this, nextOffset, n);
        }

        // Unsafe mechanics
        static final sun.misc.Unsafe UNSAFE;
        static final long nextOffset;
        static {
            try {
                UNSAFE = sun.misc.Unsafe.getUnsafe();
                Class k = HashEntry.class;
                nextOffset = UNSAFE.objectFieldOffset
                    (k.getDeclaredField("next"));
            } catch (Exception e) {
                throw new Error(e);
            }
        }
    }

    /**
     * Gets the ith element of given table (if nonnull) with volatile
     * read semantics. Note: This is manually integrated into a few
     * performance-sensitive methods to reduce call overhead.
     */
    @SuppressWarnings("unchecked")
    static final <K,V> HashEntry<K,V> entryAt(HashEntry<K,V>[] tab, int i) {
        return (tab == null) ? null :
            (HashEntry<K,V>) UNSAFE.getObjectVolatile
            (tab, ((long)i << TSHIFT) + TBASE);
    }

    /**
     * Sets the ith element of given table, with volatile write
     * semantics. (See above about use of putOrderedObject.)
     */
    static final <K,V> void setEntryAt(HashEntry<K,V>[] tab, int i,
                                       HashEntry<K,V> e) {
        UNSAFE.putOrderedObject(tab, ((long)i << TSHIFT) + TBASE, e);
    }

    /**
     * Applies a supplemental hash function to a given hashCode, which
     * defends against poor quality hash functions.  This is critical
     * because ConcurrentHashMap uses power-of-two length hash tables,
     * that otherwise encounter collisions for hashCodes that do not
     * differ in lower or upper bits.
     */
    private int hash(Object k) {
        int h = hashSeed;

        if ((0 != h) && (k instanceof String)) {
            return sun.misc.Hashing.stringHash32((String) k);
        }

        h ^= k.hashCode();

        // Spread bits to regularize both segment and index locations,
        // using variant of single-word Wang/Jenkins hash.
        h += (h <<  15) ^ 0xffffcd7d;
        h ^= (h >>> 10);
        h += (h <<   3);
        h ^= (h >>>  6);
        h += (h <<   2) + (h << 14);
        return h ^ (h >>> 16);
    }

    /**
     * Segments are specialized versions of hash tables.  This
     * subclasses from ReentrantLock opportunistically, just to
     * simplify some locking and avoid separate construction.
     */
    static final class Segment<K,V> extends ReentrantLock implements Serializable {
        /*
         * Segments maintain a table of entry lists that are always
         * kept in a consistent state, so can be read (via volatile
         * reads of segments and tables) without locking.  This
         * requires replicating nodes when necessary during table
         * resizing, so the old lists can be traversed by readers
         * still using old version of table.
         *
         * This class defines only mutative methods requiring locking.
         * Except as noted, the methods of this class perform the
         * per-segment versions of ConcurrentHashMap methods.  (Other
         * methods are integrated directly into ConcurrentHashMap
         * methods.) These mutative methods use a form of controlled
         * spinning on contention via methods scanAndLock and
         * scanAndLockForPut. These intersperse tryLocks with
         * traversals to locate nodes.  The main benefit is to absorb
         * cache misses (which are very common for hash tables) while
         * obtaining locks so that traversal is faster once
         * acquired. We do not actually use the found nodes since they
         * must be re-acquired under lock anyway to ensure sequential
         * consistency of updates (and in any case may be undetectably
         * stale), but they will normally be much faster to re-locate.
         * Also, scanAndLockForPut speculatively creates a fresh node
         * to use in put if no node is found.
         */

        private static final long serialVersionUID = 2249069246763182397L;

        /**
         * The maximum number of times to tryLock in a prescan before
         * possibly blocking on acquire in preparation for a locked
         * segment operation. On multiprocessors, using a bounded
         * number of retries maintains cache acquired while locating
         * nodes.
         */
        static final int MAX_SCAN_RETRIES =
            Runtime.getRuntime().availableProcessors() > 1 ? 64 : 1;

        /**
         * The per-segment table. Elements are accessed via
         * entryAt/setEntryAt providing volatile semantics.
         */
        transient volatile HashEntry<K,V>[] table;

        /**
         * The number of elements. Accessed only either within locks
         * or among other volatile reads that maintain visibility.
         */
        transient int count;

        /**
         * The total number of mutative operations in this segment.
         * Even though this may overflows 32 bits, it provides
         * sufficient accuracy for stability checks in CHM isEmpty()
         * and size() methods.  Accessed only either within locks or
         * among other volatile reads that maintain visibility.
         */
        transient int modCount;

        /**
         * The table is rehashed when its size exceeds this threshold.
         * (The value of this field is always <tt>(int)(capacity *
         * loadFactor)</tt>.)
         */
        transient int threshold;

        /**
         * The load factor for the hash table.  Even though this value
         * is same for all segments, it is replicated to avoid needing
         * links to outer object.
         * @serial
         */
        final float loadFactor;

        Segment(float lf, int threshold, HashEntry<K,V>[] tab) {
            this.loadFactor = lf;
            this.threshold = threshold;
            this.table = tab;
        }

        final V put(K key, int hash, V value, boolean onlyIfAbsent) {
            HashEntry<K,V> node = tryLock() ? null :
                scanAndLockForPut(key, hash, value);
            V oldValue;
            try {
                HashEntry<K,V>[] tab = table;
                int index = (tab.length - 1) & hash;
                HashEntry<K,V> first = entryAt(tab, index);
                for (HashEntry<K,V> e = first;;) {
                    if (e != null) {
                        K k;
                        if ((k = e.key) == key ||
                            (e.hash == hash && key.equals(k))) {
                            oldValue = e.value;
                            if (!onlyIfAbsent) {
                                e.value = value;
                                ++modCount;
                            }
                            break;
                        }
                        e = e.next;
                    }
                    else {
                        if (node != null)
                            node.setNext(first);
                        else
                            node = new HashEntry<K,V>(hash, key, value, first);
                        int c = count + 1;
                        if (c > threshold && tab.length < MAXIMUM_CAPACITY)
                            rehash(node);
                        else
                            setEntryAt(tab, index, node);
                        ++modCount;
                        count = c;
                        oldValue = null;
                        break;
                    }
                }
            } finally {
                unlock();
            }
            return oldValue;
        }

        /**
         * Doubles size of table and repacks entries, also adding the
         * given node to new table
         */
        @SuppressWarnings("unchecked")
        private void rehash(HashEntry<K,V> node) {
            /*
             * Reclassify nodes in each list to new table.  Because we
             * are using power-of-two expansion, the elements from
             * each bin must either stay at same index, or move with a
             * power of two offset. We eliminate unnecessary node
             * creation by catching cases where old nodes can be
             * reused because their next fields won't change.
             * Statistically, at the default threshold, only about
             * one-sixth of them need cloning when a table
             * doubles. The nodes they replace will be garbage
             * collectable as soon as they are no longer referenced by
             * any reader thread that may be in the midst of
             * concurrently traversing table. Entry accesses use plain
             * array indexing because they are followed by volatile
             * table write.
             */
            HashEntry<K,V>[] oldTable = table;
            int oldCapacity = oldTable.length;
            int newCapacity = oldCapacity << 1;
            threshold = (int)(newCapacity * loadFactor);
            HashEntry<K,V>[] newTable =
                (HashEntry<K,V>[]) new HashEntry[newCapacity];
            int sizeMask = newCapacity - 1;
            for (int i = 0; i < oldCapacity ; i++) {
                HashEntry<K,V> e = oldTable[i];
                if (e != null) {
                    HashEntry<K,V> next = e.next;
                    int idx = e.hash & sizeMask;
                    if (next == null)   //  Single node on list
                        newTable[idx] = e;
                    else { // Reuse consecutive sequence at same slot
                        HashEntry<K,V> lastRun = e;
                        int lastIdx = idx;
                        for (HashEntry<K,V> last = next;
                             last != null;
                             last = last.next) {
                            int k = last.hash & sizeMask;
                            if (k != lastIdx) {
                                lastIdx = k;
                                lastRun = last;
                            }
                        }
                        newTable[lastIdx] = lastRun;
                        // Clone remaining nodes
                        for (HashEntry<K,V> p = e; p != lastRun; p = p.next) {
                            V v = p.value;
                            int h = p.hash;
                            int k = h & sizeMask;
                            HashEntry<K,V> n = newTable[k];
                            newTable[k] = new HashEntry<K,V>(h, p.key, v, n);
                        }
                    }
                }
            }
            int nodeIndex = node.hash & sizeMask; // add the new node
            node.setNext(newTable[nodeIndex]);
            newTable[nodeIndex] = node;
            table = newTable;
        }

        /**
         * Scans for a node containing given key while trying to
         * acquire lock, creating and returning one if not found. Upon
         * return, guarantees that lock is held. UNlike in most
         * methods, calls to method equals are not screened: Since
         * traversal speed doesn't matter, we might as well help warm
         * up the associated code and accesses as well.
         *
         * @return a new node if key not found, else null
         */
        private HashEntry<K,V> scanAndLockForPut(K key, int hash, V value) {
            HashEntry<K,V> first = entryForHash(this, hash);
            HashEntry<K,V> e = first;
            HashEntry<K,V> node = null;
            int retries = -1; // negative while locating node
            while (!tryLock()) {
                HashEntry<K,V> f; // to recheck first below
                if (retries < 0) {
                    if (e == null) {
                        if (node == null) // speculatively create node
                            node = new HashEntry<K,V>(hash, key, value, null);
                        retries = 0;
                    }
                    else if (key.equals(e.key))
                        retries = 0;
                    else
                        e = e.next;
                }
                else if (++retries > MAX_SCAN_RETRIES) {
                    lock();
                    break;
                }
                else if ((retries & 1) == 0 &&
                         (f = entryForHash(this, hash)) != first) {
                    e = first = f; // re-traverse if entry changed
                    retries = -1;
                }
            }
            return node;
        }

        /**
         * Scans for a node containing the given key while trying to
         * acquire lock for a remove or replace operation. Upon
         * return, guarantees that lock is held.  Note that we must
         * lock even if the key is not found, to ensure sequential
         * consistency of updates.
         */
        private void scanAndLock(Object key, int hash) {
            // similar to but simpler than scanAndLockForPut
            HashEntry<K,V> first = entryForHash(this, hash);
            HashEntry<K,V> e = first;
            int retries = -1;
            while (!tryLock()) {
                HashEntry<K,V> f;
                if (retries < 0) {
                    if (e == null || key.equals(e.key))
                        retries = 0;
                    else
                        e = e.next;
                }
                else if (++retries > MAX_SCAN_RETRIES) {
                    lock();
                    break;
                }
                else if ((retries & 1) == 0 &&
                         (f = entryForHash(this, hash)) != first) {
                    e = first = f;
                    retries = -1;
                }
            }
        }

        /**
         * Remove; match on key only if value null, else match both.
         */
        final V remove(Object key, int hash, Object value) {
            if (!tryLock())
                scanAndLock(key, hash);
            V oldValue = null;
            try {
                HashEntry<K,V>[] tab = table;
                int index = (tab.length - 1) & hash;
                HashEntry<K,V> e = entryAt(tab, index);
                HashEntry<K,V> pred = null;
                while (e != null) {
                    K k;
                    HashEntry<K,V> next = e.next;
                    if ((k = e.key) == key ||
                        (e.hash == hash && key.equals(k))) {
                        V v = e.value;
                        if (value == null || value == v || value.equals(v)) {
                            if (pred == null)
                                setEntryAt(tab, index, next);
                            else
                                pred.setNext(next);
                            ++modCount;
                            --count;
                            oldValue = v;
                        }
                        break;
                    }
                    pred = e;
                    e = next;
                }
            } finally {
                unlock();
            }
            return oldValue;
        }

        final boolean replace(K key, int hash, V oldValue, V newValue) {
            if (!tryLock())
                scanAndLock(key, hash);
            boolean replaced = false;
            try {
                HashEntry<K,V> e;
                for (e = entryForHash(this, hash); e != null; e = e.next) {
                    K k;
                    if ((k = e.key) == key ||
                        (e.hash == hash && key.equals(k))) {
                        if (oldValue.equals(e.value)) {
                            e.value = newValue;
                            ++modCount;
                            replaced = true;
                        }
                        break;
                    }
                }
            } finally {
                unlock();
            }
            return replaced;
        }

        final V replace(K key, int hash, V value) {
            if (!tryLock())
                scanAndLock(key, hash);
            V oldValue = null;
            try {
                HashEntry<K,V> e;
                for (e = entryForHash(this, hash); e != null; e = e.next) {
                    K k;
                    if ((k = e.key) == key ||
                        (e.hash == hash && key.equals(k))) {
                        oldValue = e.value;
                        e.value = value;
                        ++modCount;
                        break;
                    }
                }
            } finally {
                unlock();
            }
            return oldValue;
        }

        final void clear() {
            lock();
            try {
                HashEntry<K,V>[] tab = table;
                for (int i = 0; i < tab.length ; i++)
                    setEntryAt(tab, i, null);
                ++modCount;
                count = 0;
            } finally {
                unlock();
            }
        }
    }

    // Accessing segments

    /**
     * Gets the jth element of given segment array (if nonnull) with
     * volatile element access semantics via Unsafe. (The null check
     * can trigger harmlessly only during deserialization.) Note:
     * because each element of segments array is set only once (using
     * fully ordered writes), some performance-sensitive methods rely
     * on this method only as a recheck upon null reads.
     */
    @SuppressWarnings("unchecked")
    static final <K,V> Segment<K,V> segmentAt(Segment<K,V>[] ss, int j) {
        long u = (j << SSHIFT) + SBASE;
        return ss == null ? null :
            (Segment<K,V>) UNSAFE.getObjectVolatile(ss, u);
    }

    /**
     * Returns the segment for the given index, creating it and
     * recording in segment table (via CAS) if not already present.
     *
     * @param k the index
     * @return the segment
     */
    @SuppressWarnings("unchecked")
    private Segment<K,V> ensureSegment(int k) {
        final Segment<K,V>[] ss = this.segments;
        long u = (k << SSHIFT) + SBASE; // raw offset
        Segment<K,V> seg;
        if ((seg = (Segment<K,V>)UNSAFE.getObjectVolatile(ss, u)) == null) {
            Segment<K,V> proto = ss[0]; // use segment 0 as prototype
            int cap = proto.table.length;
            float lf = proto.loadFactor;
            int threshold = (int)(cap * lf);
            HashEntry<K,V>[] tab = (HashEntry<K,V>[])new HashEntry[cap];
            if ((seg = (Segment<K,V>)UNSAFE.getObjectVolatile(ss, u))
                == null) { // recheck
                Segment<K,V> s = new Segment<K,V>(lf, threshold, tab);
                while ((seg = (Segment<K,V>)UNSAFE.getObjectVolatile(ss, u))
                       == null) {
                    if (UNSAFE.compareAndSwapObject(ss, u, null, seg = s))
                        break;
                }
            }
        }
        return seg;
    }

    // Hash-based segment and entry accesses

    /**
     * Get the segment for the given hash
     */
    @SuppressWarnings("unchecked")
    private Segment<K,V> segmentForHash(int h) {
        long u = (((h >>> segmentShift) & segmentMask) << SSHIFT) + SBASE;
        return (Segment<K,V>) UNSAFE.getObjectVolatile(segments, u);
    }

    /**
     * Gets the table entry for the given segment and hash
     */
    @SuppressWarnings("unchecked")
    static final <K,V> HashEntry<K,V> entryForHash(Segment<K,V> seg, int h) {
        HashEntry<K,V>[] tab;
        return (seg == null || (tab = seg.table) == null) ? null :
            (HashEntry<K,V>) UNSAFE.getObjectVolatile
            (tab, ((long)(((tab.length - 1) & h)) << TSHIFT) + TBASE);
    }

    /* ---------------- Public operations -------------- */

    /**
     * Creates a new, empty map with the specified initial
     * capacity, load factor and concurrency level.
     *
     * @param initialCapacity the initial capacity. The implementation
     * performs internal sizing to accommodate this many elements.
     * @param loadFactor  the load factor threshold, used to control resizing.
     * Resizing may be performed when the average number of elements per
     * bin exceeds this threshold.
     * @param concurrencyLevel the estimated number of concurrently
     * updating threads. The implementation performs internal sizing
     * to try to accommodate this many threads.
     * @throws IllegalArgumentException if the initial capacity is
     * negative or the load factor or concurrencyLevel are
     * nonpositive.
     */
    @SuppressWarnings("unchecked")
    public ConcurrentHashMap(int initialCapacity,
                             float loadFactor, int concurrencyLevel) {
        if (!(loadFactor > 0) || initialCapacity < 0 || concurrencyLevel <= 0)
            throw new IllegalArgumentException();
        if (concurrencyLevel > MAX_SEGMENTS)
            concurrencyLevel = MAX_SEGMENTS;
        // Find power-of-two sizes best matching arguments
        int sshift = 0;
        int ssize = 1;
        while (ssize < concurrencyLevel) {
            ++sshift;
            ssize <<= 1;
        }
        this.segmentShift = 32 - sshift;
        this.segmentMask = ssize - 1;
        if (initialCapacity > MAXIMUM_CAPACITY)
            initialCapacity = MAXIMUM_CAPACITY;
        int c = initialCapacity / ssize;
        if (c * ssize < initialCapacity)
            ++c;
        int cap = MIN_SEGMENT_TABLE_CAPACITY;
        while (cap < c)
            cap <<= 1;
        // create segments and segments[0]
        Segment<K,V> s0 =
            new Segment<K,V>(loadFactor, (int)(cap * loadFactor),
                             (HashEntry<K,V>[])new HashEntry[cap]);
        Segment<K,V>[] ss = (Segment<K,V>[])new Segment[ssize];
        UNSAFE.putOrderedObject(ss, SBASE, s0); // ordered write of segments[0]
        this.segments = ss;
    }

    /**
     * Creates a new, empty map with the specified initial capacity
     * and load factor and with the default concurrencyLevel (16).
     *
     * @param initialCapacity The implementation performs internal
     * sizing to accommodate this many elements.
     * @param loadFactor  the load factor threshold, used to control resizing.
     * Resizing may be performed when the average number of elements per
     * bin exceeds this threshold.
     * @throws IllegalArgumentException if the initial capacity of
     * elements is negative or the load factor is nonpositive
     *
     * @since 1.6
     */
    public ConcurrentHashMap(int initialCapacity, float loadFactor) {
        this(initialCapacity, loadFactor, DEFAULT_CONCURRENCY_LEVEL);
    }

    /**
     * Creates a new, empty map with the specified initial capacity,
     * and with default load factor (0.75) and concurrencyLevel (16).
     *
     * @param initialCapacity the initial capacity. The implementation
     * performs internal sizing to accommodate this many elements.
     * @throws IllegalArgumentException if the initial capacity of
     * elements is negative.
     */
    public ConcurrentHashMap(int initialCapacity) {
        this(initialCapacity, DEFAULT_LOAD_FACTOR, DEFAULT_CONCURRENCY_LEVEL);
    }

    /**
     * Creates a new, empty map with a default initial capacity (16),
     * load factor (0.75) and concurrencyLevel (16).
     */
    public ConcurrentHashMap() {
        this(DEFAULT_INITIAL_CAPACITY, DEFAULT_LOAD_FACTOR, DEFAULT_CONCURRENCY_LEVEL);
    }

    /**
     * Creates a new map with the same mappings as the given map.
     * The map is created with a capacity of 1.5 times the number
     * of mappings in the given map or 16 (whichever is greater),
     * and a default load factor (0.75) and concurrencyLevel (16).
     *
     * @param m the map
     */
    public ConcurrentHashMap(Map<? extends K, ? extends V> m) {
        this(Math.max((int) (m.size() / DEFAULT_LOAD_FACTOR) + 1,
                      DEFAULT_INITIAL_CAPACITY),
             DEFAULT_LOAD_FACTOR, DEFAULT_CONCURRENCY_LEVEL);
        putAll(m);
    }

    /**
     * Returns <tt>true</tt> if this map contains no key-value mappings.
     *
     * @return <tt>true</tt> if this map contains no key-value mappings
     */
    public boolean isEmpty() {
        /*
         * Sum per-segment modCounts to avoid mis-reporting when
         * elements are concurrently added and removed in one segment
         * while checking another, in which case the table was never
         * actually empty at any point. (The sum ensures accuracy up
         * through at least 1<<31 per-segment modifications before
         * recheck.)  Methods size() and containsValue() use similar
         * constructions for stability checks.
         */
        long sum = 0L;
        final Segment<K,V>[] segments = this.segments;
        for (int j = 0; j < segments.length; ++j) {
            Segment<K,V> seg = segmentAt(segments, j);
            if (seg != null) {
                if (seg.count != 0)
                    return false;
                sum += seg.modCount;
            }
        }
        if (sum != 0L) { // recheck unless no modifications
            for (int j = 0; j < segments.length; ++j) {
                Segment<K,V> seg = segmentAt(segments, j);
                if (seg != null) {
                    if (seg.count != 0)
                        return false;
                    sum -= seg.modCount;
                }
            }
            if (sum != 0L)
                return false;
        }
        return true;
    }

    /**
     * Returns the number of key-value mappings in this map.  If the
     * map contains more than <tt>Integer.MAX_VALUE</tt> elements, returns
     * <tt>Integer.MAX_VALUE</tt>.
     *
     * @return the number of key-value mappings in this map
     */
    public int size() {
        // Try a few times to get accurate count. On failure due to
        // continuous async changes in table, resort to locking.
        final Segment<K,V>[] segments = this.segments;
        int size;
        boolean overflow; // true if size overflows 32 bits
        long sum;         // sum of modCounts
        long last = 0L;   // previous sum
        int retries = -1; // first iteration isn't retry
        try {
            for (;;) {
                if (retries++ == RETRIES_BEFORE_LOCK) {
                    for (int j = 0; j < segments.length; ++j)
                        ensureSegment(j).lock(); // force creation
                }
                sum = 0L;
                size = 0;
                overflow = false;
                for (int j = 0; j < segments.length; ++j) {
                    Segment<K,V> seg = segmentAt(segments, j);
                    if (seg != null) {
                        sum += seg.modCount;
                        int c = seg.count;
                        if (c < 0 || (size += c) < 0)
                            overflow = true;
                    }
                }
                if (sum == last)
                    break;
                last = sum;
            }
        } finally {
            if (retries > RETRIES_BEFORE_LOCK) {
                for (int j = 0; j < segments.length; ++j)
                    segmentAt(segments, j).unlock();
            }
        }
        return overflow ? Integer.MAX_VALUE : size;
    }

    /**
     * Returns the value to which the specified key is mapped,
     * or {@code null} if this map contains no mapping for the key.
     *
     * <p>More formally, if this map contains a mapping from a key
     * {@code k} to a value {@code v} such that {@code key.equals(k)},
     * then this method returns {@code v}; otherwise it returns
     * {@code null}.  (There can be at most one such mapping.)
     *
     * @throws NullPointerException if the specified key is null
     */
    public V get(Object key) {
        Segment<K,V> s; // manually integrate access methods to reduce overhead
        HashEntry<K,V>[] tab;
        int h = hash(key);
        long u = (((h >>> segmentShift) & segmentMask) << SSHIFT) + SBASE;
        if ((s = (Segment<K,V>)UNSAFE.getObjectVolatile(segments, u)) != null &&
            (tab = s.table) != null) {
            for (HashEntry<K,V> e = (HashEntry<K,V>) UNSAFE.getObjectVolatile
                     (tab, ((long)(((tab.length - 1) & h)) << TSHIFT) + TBASE);
                 e != null; e = e.next) {
                K k;
                if ((k = e.key) == key || (e.hash == h && key.equals(k)))
                    return e.value;
            }
        }
        return null;
    }

    /**
     * Tests if the specified object is a key in this table.
     *
     * @param  key   possible key
     * @return <tt>true</tt> if and only if the specified object
     *         is a key in this table, as determined by the
     *         <tt>equals</tt> method; <tt>false</tt> otherwise.
     * @throws NullPointerException if the specified key is null
     */
    @SuppressWarnings("unchecked")
    public boolean containsKey(Object key) {
        Segment<K,V> s; // same as get() except no need for volatile value read
        HashEntry<K,V>[] tab;
        int h = hash(key);
        long u = (((h >>> segmentShift) & segmentMask) << SSHIFT) + SBASE;
        if ((s = (Segment<K,V>)UNSAFE.getObjectVolatile(segments, u)) != null &&
            (tab = s.table) != null) {
            for (HashEntry<K,V> e = (HashEntry<K,V>) UNSAFE.getObjectVolatile
                     (tab, ((long)(((tab.length - 1) & h)) << TSHIFT) + TBASE);
                 e != null; e = e.next) {
                K k;
                if ((k = e.key) == key || (e.hash == h && key.equals(k)))
                    return true;
            }
        }
        return false;
    }

    /**
     * Returns <tt>true</tt> if this map maps one or more keys to the
     * specified value. Note: This method requires a full internal
     * traversal of the hash table, and so is much slower than
     * method <tt>containsKey</tt>.
     *
     * @param value value whose presence in this map is to be tested
     * @return <tt>true</tt> if this map maps one or more keys to the
     *         specified value
     * @throws NullPointerException if the specified value is null
     */
    public boolean containsValue(Object value) {
        // Same idea as size()
        if (value == null)
            throw new NullPointerException();
        final Segment<K,V>[] segments = this.segments;
        boolean found = false;
        long last = 0;
        int retries = -1;
        try {
            outer: for (;;) {
                if (retries++ == RETRIES_BEFORE_LOCK) {
                    for (int j = 0; j < segments.length; ++j)
                        ensureSegment(j).lock(); // force creation
                }
                long hashSum = 0L;
                int sum = 0;
                for (int j = 0; j < segments.length; ++j) {
                    HashEntry<K,V>[] tab;
                    Segment<K,V> seg = segmentAt(segments, j);
                    if (seg != null && (tab = seg.table) != null) {
                        for (int i = 0 ; i < tab.length; i++) {
                            HashEntry<K,V> e;
                            for (e = entryAt(tab, i); e != null; e = e.next) {
                                V v = e.value;
                                if (v != null && value.equals(v)) {
                                    found = true;
                                    break outer;
                                }
                            }
                        }
                        sum += seg.modCount;
                    }
                }
                if (retries > 0 && sum == last)
                    break;
                last = sum;
            }
        } finally {
            if (retries > RETRIES_BEFORE_LOCK) {
                for (int j = 0; j < segments.length; ++j)
                    segmentAt(segments, j).unlock();
            }
        }
        return found;
    }

    /**
     * Legacy method testing if some key maps into the specified value
     * in this table.  This method is identical in functionality to
     * {@link #containsValue}, and exists solely to ensure
     * full compatibility with class {@link java.util.Hashtable},
     * which supported this method prior to introduction of the
     * Java Collections framework.

     * @param  value a value to search for
     * @return <tt>true</tt> if and only if some key maps to the
     *         <tt>value</tt> argument in this table as
     *         determined by the <tt>equals</tt> method;
     *         <tt>false</tt> otherwise
     * @throws NullPointerException if the specified value is null
     */
    public boolean contains(Object value) {
        return containsValue(value);
    }

    /**
     * Maps the specified key to the specified value in this table.
     * Neither the key nor the value can be null.
     *
     * <p> The value can be retrieved by calling the <tt>get</tt> method
     * with a key that is equal to the original key.
     *
     * @param key key with which the specified value is to be associated
     * @param value value to be associated with the specified key
     * @return the previous value associated with <tt>key</tt>, or
     *         <tt>null</tt> if there was no mapping for <tt>key</tt>
     * @throws NullPointerException if the specified key or value is null
     */
    @SuppressWarnings("unchecked")
    public V put(K key, V value) {
        Segment<K,V> s;
        if (value == null)
            throw new NullPointerException();
        int hash = hash(key);
        int j = (hash >>> segmentShift) & segmentMask;
        if ((s = (Segment<K,V>)UNSAFE.getObject          // nonvolatile; recheck
             (segments, (j << SSHIFT) + SBASE)) == null) //  in ensureSegment
            s = ensureSegment(j);
        return s.put(key, hash, value, false);
    }

    /**
     * {@inheritDoc}
     *
     * @return the previous value associated with the specified key,
     *         or <tt>null</tt> if there was no mapping for the key
     * @throws NullPointerException if the specified key or value is null
     */
    @SuppressWarnings("unchecked")
    public V putIfAbsent(K key, V value) {
        Segment<K,V> s;
        if (value == null)
            throw new NullPointerException();
        int hash = hash(key);
        int j = (hash >>> segmentShift) & segmentMask;
        if ((s = (Segment<K,V>)UNSAFE.getObject
             (segments, (j << SSHIFT) + SBASE)) == null)
            s = ensureSegment(j);
        return s.put(key, hash, value, true);
    }

    /**
     * Copies all of the mappings from the specified map to this one.
     * These mappings replace any mappings that this map had for any of the
     * keys currently in the specified map.
     *
     * @param m mappings to be stored in this map
     */
    public void putAll(Map<? extends K, ? extends V> m) {
        for (Map.Entry<? extends K, ? extends V> e : m.entrySet())
            put(e.getKey(), e.getValue());
    }

    /**
     * Removes the key (and its corresponding value) from this map.
     * This method does nothing if the key is not in the map.
     *
     * @param  key the key that needs to be removed
     * @return the previous value associated with <tt>key</tt>, or
     *         <tt>null</tt> if there was no mapping for <tt>key</tt>
     * @throws NullPointerException if the specified key is null
     */
    public V remove(Object key) {
        int hash = hash(key);
        Segment<K,V> s = segmentForHash(hash);
        return s == null ? null : s.remove(key, hash, null);
    }

    /**
     * {@inheritDoc}
     *
     * @throws NullPointerException if the specified key is null
     */
    public boolean remove(Object key, Object value) {
        int hash = hash(key);
        Segment<K,V> s;
        return value != null && (s = segmentForHash(hash)) != null &&
            s.remove(key, hash, value) != null;
    }

    /**
     * {@inheritDoc}
     *
     * @throws NullPointerException if any of the arguments are null
     */
    public boolean replace(K key, V oldValue, V newValue) {
        int hash = hash(key);
        if (oldValue == null || newValue == null)
            throw new NullPointerException();
        Segment<K,V> s = segmentForHash(hash);
        return s != null && s.replace(key, hash, oldValue, newValue);
    }

    /**
     * {@inheritDoc}
     *
     * @return the previous value associated with the specified key,
     *         or <tt>null</tt> if there was no mapping for the key
     * @throws NullPointerException if the specified key or value is null
     */
    public V replace(K key, V value) {
        int hash = hash(key);
        if (value == null)
            throw new NullPointerException();
        Segment<K,V> s = segmentForHash(hash);
        return s == null ? null : s.replace(key, hash, value);
    }

    /**
     * Removes all of the mappings from this map.
     */
    public void clear() {
        final Segment<K,V>[] segments = this.segments;
        for (int j = 0; j < segments.length; ++j) {
            Segment<K,V> s = segmentAt(segments, j);
            if (s != null)
                s.clear();
        }
    }

    /**
     * Returns a {@link Set} view of the keys contained in this map.
     * The set is backed by the map, so changes to the map are
     * reflected in the set, and vice-versa.  The set supports element
     * removal, which removes the corresponding mapping from this map,
     * via the <tt>Iterator.remove</tt>, <tt>Set.remove</tt>,
     * <tt>removeAll</tt>, <tt>retainAll</tt>, and <tt>clear</tt>
     * operations.  It does not support the <tt>add</tt> or
     * <tt>addAll</tt> operations.
     *
     * <p>The view's <tt>iterator</tt> is a "weakly consistent" iterator
     * that will never throw {@link ConcurrentModificationException},
     * and guarantees to traverse elements as they existed upon
     * construction of the iterator, and may (but is not guaranteed to)
     * reflect any modifications subsequent to construction.
     */
    public Set<K> keySet() {
        Set<K> ks = keySet;
        return (ks != null) ? ks : (keySet = new KeySet());
    }

    /**
     * Returns a {@link Collection} view of the values contained in this map.
     * The collection is backed by the map, so changes to the map are
     * reflected in the collection, and vice-versa.  The collection
     * supports element removal, which removes the corresponding
     * mapping from this map, via the <tt>Iterator.remove</tt>,
     * <tt>Collection.remove</tt>, <tt>removeAll</tt>,
     * <tt>retainAll</tt>, and <tt>clear</tt> operations.  It does not
     * support the <tt>add</tt> or <tt>addAll</tt> operations.
     *
     * <p>The view's <tt>iterator</tt> is a "weakly consistent" iterator
     * that will never throw {@link ConcurrentModificationException},
     * and guarantees to traverse elements as they existed upon
     * construction of the iterator, and may (but is not guaranteed to)
     * reflect any modifications subsequent to construction.
     */
    public Collection<V> values() {
        Collection<V> vs = values;
        return (vs != null) ? vs : (values = new Values());
    }

    /**
     * Returns a {@link Set} view of the mappings contained in this map.
     * The set is backed by the map, so changes to the map are
     * reflected in the set, and vice-versa.  The set supports element
     * removal, which removes the corresponding mapping from the map,
     * via the <tt>Iterator.remove</tt>, <tt>Set.remove</tt>,
     * <tt>removeAll</tt>, <tt>retainAll</tt>, and <tt>clear</tt>
     * operations.  It does not support the <tt>add</tt> or
     * <tt>addAll</tt> operations.
     *
     * <p>The view's <tt>iterator</tt> is a "weakly consistent" iterator
     * that will never throw {@link ConcurrentModificationException},
     * and guarantees to traverse elements as they existed upon
     * construction of the iterator, and may (but is not guaranteed to)
     * reflect any modifications subsequent to construction.
     */
    public Set<Map.Entry<K,V>> entrySet() {
        Set<Map.Entry<K,V>> es = entrySet;
        return (es != null) ? es : (entrySet = new EntrySet());
    }

    /**
     * Returns an enumeration of the keys in this table.
     *
     * @return an enumeration of the keys in this table
     * @see #keySet()
     */
    public Enumeration<K> keys() {
        return new KeyIterator();
    }

    /**
     * Returns an enumeration of the values in this table.
     *
     * @return an enumeration of the values in this table
     * @see #values()
     */
    public Enumeration<V> elements() {
        return new ValueIterator();
    }

    /* ---------------- Iterator Support -------------- */

    abstract class HashIterator {
        int nextSegmentIndex;
        int nextTableIndex;
        HashEntry<K,V>[] currentTable;
        HashEntry<K, V> nextEntry;
        HashEntry<K, V> lastReturned;

        HashIterator() {
            nextSegmentIndex = segments.length - 1;
            nextTableIndex = -1;
            advance();
        }

        /**
         * Set nextEntry to first node of next non-empty table
         * (in backwards order, to simplify checks).
         */
        final void advance() {
            for (;;) {
                if (nextTableIndex >= 0) {
                    if ((nextEntry = entryAt(currentTable,
                                             nextTableIndex--)) != null)
                        break;
                }
                else if (nextSegmentIndex >= 0) {
                    Segment<K,V> seg = segmentAt(segments, nextSegmentIndex--);
                    if (seg != null && (currentTable = seg.table) != null)
                        nextTableIndex = currentTable.length - 1;
                }
                else
                    break;
            }
        }

        final HashEntry<K,V> nextEntry() {
            HashEntry<K,V> e = nextEntry;
            if (e == null)
                throw new NoSuchElementException();
            lastReturned = e; // cannot assign until after null check
            if ((nextEntry = e.next) == null)
                advance();
            return e;
        }

        public final boolean hasNext() { return nextEntry != null; }
        public final boolean hasMoreElements() { return nextEntry != null; }

        public final void remove() {
            if (lastReturned == null)
                throw new IllegalStateException();
            ConcurrentHashMap.this.remove(lastReturned.key);
            lastReturned = null;
        }
    }

    final class KeyIterator
        extends HashIterator
        implements Iterator<K>, Enumeration<K>
    {
        public final K next()        { return super.nextEntry().key; }
        public final K nextElement() { return super.nextEntry().key; }
    }

    final class ValueIterator
        extends HashIterator
        implements Iterator<V>, Enumeration<V>
    {
        public final V next()        { return super.nextEntry().value; }
        public final V nextElement() { return super.nextEntry().value; }
    }

    /**
     * Custom Entry class used by EntryIterator.next(), that relays
     * setValue changes to the underlying map.
     */
    final class WriteThroughEntry
        extends AbstractMap.SimpleEntry<K,V>
    {
        WriteThroughEntry(K k, V v) {
            super(k,v);
        }

        /**
         * Set our entry's value and write through to the map. The
         * value to return is somewhat arbitrary here. Since a
         * WriteThroughEntry does not necessarily track asynchronous
         * changes, the most recent "previous" value could be
         * different from what we return (or could even have been
         * removed in which case the put will re-establish). We do not
         * and cannot guarantee more.
         */
        public V setValue(V value) {
            if (value == null) throw new NullPointerException();
            V v = super.setValue(value);
            ConcurrentHashMap.this.put(getKey(), value);
            return v;
        }
    }

    final class EntryIterator
        extends HashIterator
        implements Iterator<Entry<K,V>>
    {
        public Map.Entry<K,V> next() {
            HashEntry<K,V> e = super.nextEntry();
            return new WriteThroughEntry(e.key, e.value);
        }
    }

    final class KeySet extends AbstractSet<K> {
        public Iterator<K> iterator() {
            return new KeyIterator();
        }
        public int size() {
            return ConcurrentHashMap.this.size();
        }
        public boolean isEmpty() {
            return ConcurrentHashMap.this.isEmpty();
        }
        public boolean contains(Object o) {
            return ConcurrentHashMap.this.containsKey(o);
        }
        public boolean remove(Object o) {
            return ConcurrentHashMap.this.remove(o) != null;
        }
        public void clear() {
            ConcurrentHashMap.this.clear();
        }
    }

    final class Values extends AbstractCollection<V> {
        public Iterator<V> iterator() {
            return new ValueIterator();
        }
        public int size() {
            return ConcurrentHashMap.this.size();
        }
        public boolean isEmpty() {
            return ConcurrentHashMap.this.isEmpty();
        }
        public boolean contains(Object o) {
            return ConcurrentHashMap.this.containsValue(o);
        }
        public void clear() {
            ConcurrentHashMap.this.clear();
        }
    }

    final class EntrySet extends AbstractSet<Map.Entry<K,V>> {
        public Iterator<Map.Entry<K,V>> iterator() {
            return new EntryIterator();
        }
        public boolean contains(Object o) {
            if (!(o instanceof Map.Entry))
                return false;
            Map.Entry<?,?> e = (Map.Entry<?,?>)o;
            V v = ConcurrentHashMap.this.get(e.getKey());
            return v != null && v.equals(e.getValue());
        }
        public boolean remove(Object o) {
            if (!(o instanceof Map.Entry))
                return false;
            Map.Entry<?,?> e = (Map.Entry<?,?>)o;
            return ConcurrentHashMap.this.remove(e.getKey(), e.getValue());
        }
        public int size() {
            return ConcurrentHashMap.this.size();
        }
        public boolean isEmpty() {
            return ConcurrentHashMap.this.isEmpty();
        }
        public void clear() {
            ConcurrentHashMap.this.clear();
        }
    }

    /* ---------------- Serialization Support -------------- */

    /**
     * Save the state of the <tt>ConcurrentHashMap</tt> instance to a
     * stream (i.e., serialize it).
     * @param s the stream
     * @serialData
     * the key (Object) and value (Object)
     * for each key-value mapping, followed by a null pair.
     * The key-value mappings are emitted in no particular order.
     */
    private void writeObject(java.io.ObjectOutputStream s) throws IOException {
        // force all segments for serialization compatibility
        for (int k = 0; k < segments.length; ++k)
            ensureSegment(k);
        s.defaultWriteObject();

        final Segment<K,V>[] segments = this.segments;
        for (int k = 0; k < segments.length; ++k) {
            Segment<K,V> seg = segmentAt(segments, k);
            seg.lock();
            try {
                HashEntry<K,V>[] tab = seg.table;
                for (int i = 0; i < tab.length; ++i) {
                    HashEntry<K,V> e;
                    for (e = entryAt(tab, i); e != null; e = e.next) {
                        s.writeObject(e.key);
                        s.writeObject(e.value);
                    }
                }
            } finally {
                seg.unlock();
            }
        }
        s.writeObject(null);
        s.writeObject(null);
    }

    /**
     * Reconstitute the <tt>ConcurrentHashMap</tt> instance from a
     * stream (i.e., deserialize it).
     * @param s the stream
     */
    @SuppressWarnings("unchecked")
    private void readObject(java.io.ObjectInputStream s)
        throws IOException, ClassNotFoundException {
        // Don't call defaultReadObject()
        ObjectInputStream.GetField oisFields = s.readFields();
        final Segment<K,V>[] oisSegments = (Segment<K,V>[])oisFields.get("segments", null);

        final int ssize = oisSegments.length;
        if (ssize < 1 || ssize > MAX_SEGMENTS
            || (ssize & (ssize-1)) != 0 )  // ssize not power of two
            throw new java.io.InvalidObjectException("Bad number of segments:"
                                                     + ssize);
        int sshift = 0, ssizeTmp = ssize;
        while (ssizeTmp > 1) {
            ++sshift;
            ssizeTmp >>>= 1;
        }
        UNSAFE.putIntVolatile(this, SEGSHIFT_OFFSET, 32 - sshift);
        UNSAFE.putIntVolatile(this, SEGMASK_OFFSET, ssize - 1);
        UNSAFE.putObjectVolatile(this, SEGMENTS_OFFSET, oisSegments);

        // set hashMask
        UNSAFE.putIntVolatile(this, HASHSEED_OFFSET, randomHashSeed(this));

        // Re-initialize segments to be minimally sized, and let grow.
        int cap = MIN_SEGMENT_TABLE_CAPACITY;
        final Segment<K,V>[] segments = this.segments;
        for (int k = 0; k < segments.length; ++k) {
            Segment<K,V> seg = segments[k];
            if (seg != null) {
                seg.threshold = (int)(cap * seg.loadFactor);
                seg.table = (HashEntry<K,V>[]) new HashEntry[cap];
            }
        }

        // Read the keys and values, and put the mappings in the table
        for (;;) {
            K key = (K) s.readObject();
            V value = (V) s.readObject();
            if (key == null)
                break;
            put(key, value);
        }
    }

    // Unsafe mechanics
    private static final sun.misc.Unsafe UNSAFE;
    private static final long SBASE;
    private static final int SSHIFT;
    private static final long TBASE;
    private static final int TSHIFT;
    private static final long HASHSEED_OFFSET;
    private static final long SEGSHIFT_OFFSET;
    private static final long SEGMASK_OFFSET;
    private static final long SEGMENTS_OFFSET;

    static {
        int ss, ts;
        try {
            UNSAFE = sun.misc.Unsafe.getUnsafe();
            Class tc = HashEntry[].class;
            Class sc = Segment[].class;
            TBASE = UNSAFE.arrayBaseOffset(tc);
            SBASE = UNSAFE.arrayBaseOffset(sc);
            ts = UNSAFE.arrayIndexScale(tc);
            ss = UNSAFE.arrayIndexScale(sc);
            HASHSEED_OFFSET = UNSAFE.objectFieldOffset(
                ConcurrentHashMap.class.getDeclaredField("hashSeed"));
            SEGSHIFT_OFFSET = UNSAFE.objectFieldOffset(
                ConcurrentHashMap.class.getDeclaredField("segmentShift"));
            SEGMASK_OFFSET = UNSAFE.objectFieldOffset(
                ConcurrentHashMap.class.getDeclaredField("segmentMask"));
            SEGMENTS_OFFSET = UNSAFE.objectFieldOffset(
                ConcurrentHashMap.class.getDeclaredField("segments"));
        } catch (Exception e) {
            throw new Error(e);
        }
        if ((ss & (ss-1)) != 0 || (ts & (ts-1)) != 0)
            throw new Error("data type scale not a power of two");
        SSHIFT = 31 - Integer.numberOfLeadingZeros(ss);
        TSHIFT = 31 - Integer.numberOfLeadingZeros(ts);
    }

}

CopyOnWriteArrayList

CopyOnWriteArrayList是同步List的并发替代品,它提供了更好的并发性,并避免了在迭代期间加锁和复制。

List实现类CopyOnWriteArrayList:

package java.util.concurrent;
import java.util.*;
import java.util.concurrent.locks.*;
import sun.misc.Unsafe;

/**
 * A thread-safe variant of {@link java.util.ArrayList} in which all mutative
 * operations (<tt>add</tt>, <tt>set</tt>, and so on) are implemented by
 * making a fresh copy of the underlying array.
 *
 * <p> This is ordinarily too costly, but may be <em>more</em> efficient
 * than alternatives when traversal operations vastly outnumber
 * mutations, and is useful when you cannot or don't want to
 * synchronize traversals, yet need to preclude interference among
 * concurrent threads.  The "snapshot" style iterator method uses a
 * reference to the state of the array at the point that the iterator
 * was created. This array never changes during the lifetime of the
 * iterator, so interference is impossible and the iterator is
 * guaranteed not to throw <tt>ConcurrentModificationException</tt>.
 * The iterator will not reflect additions, removals, or changes to
 * the list since the iterator was created.  Element-changing
 * operations on iterators themselves (<tt>remove</tt>, <tt>set</tt>, and
 * <tt>add</tt>) are not supported. These methods throw
 * <tt>UnsupportedOperationException</tt>.
 *
 * <p>All elements are permitted, including <tt>null</tt>.
 *
 * <p>Memory consistency effects: As with other concurrent
 * collections, actions in a thread prior to placing an object into a
 * {@code CopyOnWriteArrayList}
 * <a href="package-summary.html#MemoryVisibility"><i>happen-before</i></a>
 * actions subsequent to the access or removal of that element from
 * the {@code CopyOnWriteArrayList} in another thread.
 *
 * <p>This class is a member of the
 * <a href="{@docRoot}/../technotes/guides/collections/index.html">
 * Java Collections Framework</a>.
 *
 * @since 1.5
 * @author Doug Lea
 * @param <E> the type of elements held in this collection
 */
public class CopyOnWriteArrayList<E>
    implements List<E>, RandomAccess, Cloneable, java.io.Serializable {
    private static final long serialVersionUID = 8673264195747942595L;

    /** The lock protecting all mutators */
    transient final ReentrantLock lock = new ReentrantLock();

    /** The array, accessed only via getArray/setArray. */
    private volatile transient Object[] array;

    /**
     * Gets the array.  Non-private so as to also be accessible
     * from CopyOnWriteArraySet class.
     */
    final Object[] getArray() {
        return array;
    }

    /**
     * Sets the array.
     */
    final void setArray(Object[] a) {
        array = a;
    }

    /**
     * Creates an empty list.
     */
    public CopyOnWriteArrayList() {
        setArray(new Object[0]);
    }

    /**
     * Creates a list containing the elements of the specified
     * collection, in the order they are returned by the collection's
     * iterator.
     *
     * @param c the collection of initially held elements
     * @throws NullPointerException if the specified collection is null
     */
    public CopyOnWriteArrayList(Collection<? extends E> c) {
        Object[] elements = c.toArray();
        // c.toArray might (incorrectly) not return Object[] (see 6260652)
        if (elements.getClass() != Object[].class)
            elements = Arrays.copyOf(elements, elements.length, Object[].class);
        setArray(elements);
    }

    /**
     * Creates a list holding a copy of the given array.
     *
     * @param toCopyIn the array (a copy of this array is used as the
     *        internal array)
     * @throws NullPointerException if the specified array is null
     */
    public CopyOnWriteArrayList(E[] toCopyIn) {
        setArray(Arrays.copyOf(toCopyIn, toCopyIn.length, Object[].class));
    }

    /**
     * Returns the number of elements in this list.
     *
     * @return the number of elements in this list
     */
    public int size() {
        return getArray().length;
    }

    /**
     * Returns <tt>true</tt> if this list contains no elements.
     *
     * @return <tt>true</tt> if this list contains no elements
     */
    public boolean isEmpty() {
        return size() == 0;
    }

    /**
     * Test for equality, coping with nulls.
     */
    private static boolean eq(Object o1, Object o2) {
        return (o1 == null ? o2 == null : o1.equals(o2));
    }

    /**
     * static version of indexOf, to allow repeated calls without
     * needing to re-acquire array each time.
     * @param o element to search for
     * @param elements the array
     * @param index first index to search
     * @param fence one past last index to search
     * @return index of element, or -1 if absent
     */
    private static int indexOf(Object o, Object[] elements,
                               int index, int fence) {
        if (o == null) {
            for (int i = index; i < fence; i++)
                if (elements[i] == null)
                    return i;
        } else {
            for (int i = index; i < fence; i++)
                if (o.equals(elements[i]))
                    return i;
        }
        return -1;
    }

    /**
     * static version of lastIndexOf.
     * @param o element to search for
     * @param elements the array
     * @param index first index to search
     * @return index of element, or -1 if absent
     */
    private static int lastIndexOf(Object o, Object[] elements, int index) {
        if (o == null) {
            for (int i = index; i >= 0; i--)
                if (elements[i] == null)
                    return i;
        } else {
            for (int i = index; i >= 0; i--)
                if (o.equals(elements[i]))
                    return i;
        }
        return -1;
    }

    /**
     * Returns <tt>true</tt> if this list contains the specified element.
     * More formally, returns <tt>true</tt> if and only if this list contains
     * at least one element <tt>e</tt> such that
     * <tt>(o==null ? e==null : o.equals(e))</tt>.
     *
     * @param o element whose presence in this list is to be tested
     * @return <tt>true</tt> if this list contains the specified element
     */
    public boolean contains(Object o) {
        Object[] elements = getArray();
        return indexOf(o, elements, 0, elements.length) >= 0;
    }

    /**
     * {@inheritDoc}
     */
    public int indexOf(Object o) {
        Object[] elements = getArray();
        return indexOf(o, elements, 0, elements.length);
    }

    /**
     * Returns the index of the first occurrence of the specified element in
     * this list, searching forwards from <tt>index</tt>, or returns -1 if
     * the element is not found.
     * More formally, returns the lowest index <tt>i</tt> such that
     * <tt>(i >= index && (e==null ? get(i)==null : e.equals(get(i))))</tt>,
     * or -1 if there is no such index.
     *
     * @param e element to search for
     * @param index index to start searching from
     * @return the index of the first occurrence of the element in
     *         this list at position <tt>index</tt> or later in the list;
     *         <tt>-1</tt> if the element is not found.
     * @throws IndexOutOfBoundsException if the specified index is negative
     */
    public int indexOf(E e, int index) {
        Object[] elements = getArray();
        return indexOf(e, elements, index, elements.length);
    }

    /**
     * {@inheritDoc}
     */
    public int lastIndexOf(Object o) {
        Object[] elements = getArray();
        return lastIndexOf(o, elements, elements.length - 1);
    }

    /**
     * Returns the index of the last occurrence of the specified element in
     * this list, searching backwards from <tt>index</tt>, or returns -1 if
     * the element is not found.
     * More formally, returns the highest index <tt>i</tt> such that
     * <tt>(i <= index && (e==null ? get(i)==null : e.equals(get(i))))</tt>,
     * or -1 if there is no such index.
     *
     * @param e element to search for
     * @param index index to start searching backwards from
     * @return the index of the last occurrence of the element at position
     *         less than or equal to <tt>index</tt> in this list;
     *         -1 if the element is not found.
     * @throws IndexOutOfBoundsException if the specified index is greater
     *         than or equal to the current size of this list
     */
    public int lastIndexOf(E e, int index) {
        Object[] elements = getArray();
        return lastIndexOf(e, elements, index);
    }

    /**
     * Returns a shallow copy of this list.  (The elements themselves
     * are not copied.)
     *
     * @return a clone of this list
     */
    public Object clone() {
        try {
            CopyOnWriteArrayList c = (CopyOnWriteArrayList)(super.clone());
            c.resetLock();
            return c;
        } catch (CloneNotSupportedException e) {
            // this shouldn't happen, since we are Cloneable
            throw new InternalError();
        }
    }

    /**
     * Returns an array containing all of the elements in this list
     * in proper sequence (from first to last element).
     *
     * <p>The returned array will be "safe" in that no references to it are
     * maintained by this list.  (In other words, this method must allocate
     * a new array).  The caller is thus free to modify the returned array.
     *
     * <p>This method acts as bridge between array-based and collection-based
     * APIs.
     *
     * @return an array containing all the elements in this list
     */
    public Object[] toArray() {
        Object[] elements = getArray();
        return Arrays.copyOf(elements, elements.length);
    }

    /**
     * Returns an array containing all of the elements in this list in
     * proper sequence (from first to last element); the runtime type of
     * the returned array is that of the specified array.  If the list fits
     * in the specified array, it is returned therein.  Otherwise, a new
     * array is allocated with the runtime type of the specified array and
     * the size of this list.
     *
     * <p>If this list fits in the specified array with room to spare
     * (i.e., the array has more elements than this list), the element in
     * the array immediately following the end of the list is set to
     * <tt>null</tt>.  (This is useful in determining the length of this
     * list <i>only</i> if the caller knows that this list does not contain
     * any null elements.)
     *
     * <p>Like the {@link #toArray()} method, this method acts as bridge between
     * array-based and collection-based APIs.  Further, this method allows
     * precise control over the runtime type of the output array, and may,
     * under certain circumstances, be used to save allocation costs.
     *
     * <p>Suppose <tt>x</tt> is a list known to contain only strings.
     * The following code can be used to dump the list into a newly
     * allocated array of <tt>String</tt>:
     *
     * <pre>
     *     String[] y = x.toArray(new String[0]);</pre>
     *
     * Note that <tt>toArray(new Object[0])</tt> is identical in function to
     * <tt>toArray()</tt>.
     *
     * @param a the array into which the elements of the list are to
     *          be stored, if it is big enough; otherwise, a new array of the
     *          same runtime type is allocated for this purpose.
     * @return an array containing all the elements in this list
     * @throws ArrayStoreException if the runtime type of the specified array
     *         is not a supertype of the runtime type of every element in
     *         this list
     * @throws NullPointerException if the specified array is null
     */
    @SuppressWarnings("unchecked")
    public <T> T[] toArray(T a[]) {
        Object[] elements = getArray();
        int len = elements.length;
        if (a.length < len)
            return (T[]) Arrays.copyOf(elements, len, a.getClass());
        else {
            System.arraycopy(elements, 0, a, 0, len);
            if (a.length > len)
                a[len] = null;
            return a;
        }
    }

    // Positional Access Operations

    @SuppressWarnings("unchecked")
    private E get(Object[] a, int index) {
        return (E) a[index];
    }

    /**
     * {@inheritDoc}
     *
     * @throws IndexOutOfBoundsException {@inheritDoc}
     */
    public E get(int index) {
        return get(getArray(), index);
    }

    /**
     * Replaces the element at the specified position in this list with the
     * specified element.
     *
     * @throws IndexOutOfBoundsException {@inheritDoc}
     */
    public E set(int index, E element) {
        final ReentrantLock lock = this.lock;
        lock.lock();
        try {
            Object[] elements = getArray();
            E oldValue = get(elements, index);

            if (oldValue != element) {
                int len = elements.length;
                Object[] newElements = Arrays.copyOf(elements, len);
                newElements[index] = element;
                setArray(newElements);
            } else {
                // Not quite a no-op; ensures volatile write semantics
                setArray(elements);
            }
            return oldValue;
        } finally {
            lock.unlock();
        }
    }

    /**
     * Appends the specified element to the end of this list.
     *
     * @param e element to be appended to this list
     * @return <tt>true</tt> (as specified by {@link Collection#add})
     */
    public boolean add(E e) {
        final ReentrantLock lock = this.lock;
        lock.lock();
        try {
            Object[] elements = getArray();
            int len = elements.length;
            Object[] newElements = Arrays.copyOf(elements, len + 1);
            newElements[len] = e;
            setArray(newElements);
            return true;
        } finally {
            lock.unlock();
        }
    }

    /**
     * Inserts the specified element at the specified position in this
     * list. Shifts the element currently at that position (if any) and
     * any subsequent elements to the right (adds one to their indices).
     *
     * @throws IndexOutOfBoundsException {@inheritDoc}
     */
    public void add(int index, E element) {
        final ReentrantLock lock = this.lock;
        lock.lock();
        try {
            Object[] elements = getArray();
            int len = elements.length;
            if (index > len || index < 0)
                throw new IndexOutOfBoundsException("Index: "+index+
                                                    ", Size: "+len);
            Object[] newElements;
            int numMoved = len - index;
            if (numMoved == 0)
                newElements = Arrays.copyOf(elements, len + 1);
            else {
                newElements = new Object[len + 1];
                System.arraycopy(elements, 0, newElements, 0, index);
                System.arraycopy(elements, index, newElements, index + 1,
                                 numMoved);
            }
            newElements[index] = element;
            setArray(newElements);
        } finally {
            lock.unlock();
        }
    }

    /**
     * Removes the element at the specified position in this list.
     * Shifts any subsequent elements to the left (subtracts one from their
     * indices).  Returns the element that was removed from the list.
     *
     * @throws IndexOutOfBoundsException {@inheritDoc}
     */
    public E remove(int index) {
        final ReentrantLock lock = this.lock;
        lock.lock();
        try {
            Object[] elements = getArray();
            int len = elements.length;
            E oldValue = get(elements, index);
            int numMoved = len - index - 1;
            if (numMoved == 0)
                setArray(Arrays.copyOf(elements, len - 1));
            else {
                Object[] newElements = new Object[len - 1];
                System.arraycopy(elements, 0, newElements, 0, index);
                System.arraycopy(elements, index + 1, newElements, index,
                                 numMoved);
                setArray(newElements);
            }
            return oldValue;
        } finally {
            lock.unlock();
        }
    }

    /**
     * Removes the first occurrence of the specified element from this list,
     * if it is present.  If this list does not contain the element, it is
     * unchanged.  More formally, removes the element with the lowest index
     * <tt>i</tt> such that
     * <tt>(o==null ? get(i)==null : o.equals(get(i)))</tt>
     * (if such an element exists).  Returns <tt>true</tt> if this list
     * contained the specified element (or equivalently, if this list
     * changed as a result of the call).
     *
     * @param o element to be removed from this list, if present
     * @return <tt>true</tt> if this list contained the specified element
     */
    public boolean remove(Object o) {
        final ReentrantLock lock = this.lock;
        lock.lock();
        try {
            Object[] elements = getArray();
            int len = elements.length;
            if (len != 0) {
                // Copy while searching for element to remove
                // This wins in the normal case of element being present
                int newlen = len - 1;
                Object[] newElements = new Object[newlen];

                for (int i = 0; i < newlen; ++i) {
                    if (eq(o, elements[i])) {
                        // found one;  copy remaining and exit
                        for (int k = i + 1; k < len; ++k)
                            newElements[k-1] = elements[k];
                        setArray(newElements);
                        return true;
                    } else
                        newElements[i] = elements[i];
                }

                // special handling for last cell
                if (eq(o, elements[newlen])) {
                    setArray(newElements);
                    return true;
                }
            }
            return false;
        } finally {
            lock.unlock();
        }
    }

    /**
     * Removes from this list all of the elements whose index is between
     * <tt>fromIndex</tt>, inclusive, and <tt>toIndex</tt>, exclusive.
     * Shifts any succeeding elements to the left (reduces their index).
     * This call shortens the list by <tt>(toIndex - fromIndex)</tt> elements.
     * (If <tt>toIndex==fromIndex</tt>, this operation has no effect.)
     *
     * @param fromIndex index of first element to be removed
     * @param toIndex index after last element to be removed
     * @throws IndexOutOfBoundsException if fromIndex or toIndex out of range
     *         ({@code{fromIndex < 0 || toIndex > size() || toIndex < fromIndex})
     */
    private void removeRange(int fromIndex, int toIndex) {
        final ReentrantLock lock = this.lock;
        lock.lock();
        try {
            Object[] elements = getArray();
            int len = elements.length;

            if (fromIndex < 0 || toIndex > len || toIndex < fromIndex)
                throw new IndexOutOfBoundsException();
            int newlen = len - (toIndex - fromIndex);
            int numMoved = len - toIndex;
            if (numMoved == 0)
                setArray(Arrays.copyOf(elements, newlen));
            else {
                Object[] newElements = new Object[newlen];
                System.arraycopy(elements, 0, newElements, 0, fromIndex);
                System.arraycopy(elements, toIndex, newElements,
                                 fromIndex, numMoved);
                setArray(newElements);
            }
        } finally {
            lock.unlock();
        }
    }

    /**
     * Append the element if not present.
     *
     * @param e element to be added to this list, if absent
     * @return <tt>true</tt> if the element was added
     */
    public boolean addIfAbsent(E e) {
        final ReentrantLock lock = this.lock;
        lock.lock();
        try {
            // Copy while checking if already present.
            // This wins in the most common case where it is not present
            Object[] elements = getArray();
            int len = elements.length;
            Object[] newElements = new Object[len + 1];
            for (int i = 0; i < len; ++i) {
                if (eq(e, elements[i]))
                    return false; // exit, throwing away copy
                else
                    newElements[i] = elements[i];
            }
            newElements[len] = e;
            setArray(newElements);
            return true;
        } finally {
            lock.unlock();
        }
    }

    /**
     * Returns <tt>true</tt> if this list contains all of the elements of the
     * specified collection.
     *
     * @param c collection to be checked for containment in this list
     * @return <tt>true</tt> if this list contains all of the elements of the
     *         specified collection
     * @throws NullPointerException if the specified collection is null
     * @see #contains(Object)
     */
    public boolean containsAll(Collection<?> c) {
        Object[] elements = getArray();
        int len = elements.length;
        for (Object e : c) {
            if (indexOf(e, elements, 0, len) < 0)
                return false;
        }
        return true;
    }

    /**
     * Removes from this list all of its elements that are contained in
     * the specified collection. This is a particularly expensive operation
     * in this class because of the need for an internal temporary array.
     *
     * @param c collection containing elements to be removed from this list
     * @return <tt>true</tt> if this list changed as a result of the call
     * @throws ClassCastException if the class of an element of this list
     *         is incompatible with the specified collection
     *         (<a href="../Collection.html#optional-restrictions">optional</a>)
     * @throws NullPointerException if this list contains a null element and the
     *         specified collection does not permit null elements
     *         (<a href="../Collection.html#optional-restrictions">optional</a>),
     *         or if the specified collection is null
     * @see #remove(Object)
     */
    public boolean removeAll(Collection<?> c) {
        final ReentrantLock lock = this.lock;
        lock.lock();
        try {
            Object[] elements = getArray();
            int len = elements.length;
            if (len != 0) {
                // temp array holds those elements we know we want to keep
                int newlen = 0;
                Object[] temp = new Object[len];
                for (int i = 0; i < len; ++i) {
                    Object element = elements[i];
                    if (!c.contains(element))
                        temp[newlen++] = element;
                }
                if (newlen != len) {
                    setArray(Arrays.copyOf(temp, newlen));
                    return true;
                }
            }
            return false;
        } finally {
            lock.unlock();
        }
    }

    /**
     * Retains only the elements in this list that are contained in the
     * specified collection.  In other words, removes from this list all of
     * its elements that are not contained in the specified collection.
     *
     * @param c collection containing elements to be retained in this list
     * @return <tt>true</tt> if this list changed as a result of the call
     * @throws ClassCastException if the class of an element of this list
     *         is incompatible with the specified collection
     *         (<a href="../Collection.html#optional-restrictions">optional</a>)
     * @throws NullPointerException if this list contains a null element and the
     *         specified collection does not permit null elements
     *         (<a href="../Collection.html#optional-restrictions">optional</a>),
     *         or if the specified collection is null
     * @see #remove(Object)
     */
    public boolean retainAll(Collection<?> c) {
        final ReentrantLock lock = this.lock;
        lock.lock();
        try {
            Object[] elements = getArray();
            int len = elements.length;
            if (len != 0) {
                // temp array holds those elements we know we want to keep
                int newlen = 0;
                Object[] temp = new Object[len];
                for (int i = 0; i < len; ++i) {
                    Object element = elements[i];
                    if (c.contains(element))
                        temp[newlen++] = element;
                }
                if (newlen != len) {
                    setArray(Arrays.copyOf(temp, newlen));
                    return true;
                }
            }
            return false;
        } finally {
            lock.unlock();
        }
    }

    /**
     * Appends all of the elements in the specified collection that
     * are not already contained in this list, to the end of
     * this list, in the order that they are returned by the
     * specified collection's iterator.
     *
     * @param c collection containing elements to be added to this list
     * @return the number of elements added
     * @throws NullPointerException if the specified collection is null
     * @see #addIfAbsent(Object)
     */
    public int addAllAbsent(Collection<? extends E> c) {
        Object[] cs = c.toArray();
        if (cs.length == 0)
            return 0;
        Object[] uniq = new Object[cs.length];
        final ReentrantLock lock = this.lock;
        lock.lock();
        try {
            Object[] elements = getArray();
            int len = elements.length;
            int added = 0;
            for (int i = 0; i < cs.length; ++i) { // scan for duplicates
                Object e = cs[i];
                if (indexOf(e, elements, 0, len) < 0 &&
                    indexOf(e, uniq, 0, added) < 0)
                    uniq[added++] = e;
            }
            if (added > 0) {
                Object[] newElements = Arrays.copyOf(elements, len + added);
                System.arraycopy(uniq, 0, newElements, len, added);
                setArray(newElements);
            }
            return added;
        } finally {
            lock.unlock();
        }
    }

    /**
     * Removes all of the elements from this list.
     * The list will be empty after this call returns.
     */
    public void clear() {
        final ReentrantLock lock = this.lock;
        lock.lock();
        try {
            setArray(new Object[0]);
        } finally {
            lock.unlock();
        }
    }

    /**
     * Appends all of the elements in the specified collection to the end
     * of this list, in the order that they are returned by the specified
     * collection's iterator.
     *
     * @param c collection containing elements to be added to this list
     * @return <tt>true</tt> if this list changed as a result of the call
     * @throws NullPointerException if the specified collection is null
     * @see #add(Object)
     */
    public boolean addAll(Collection<? extends E> c) {
        Object[] cs = c.toArray();
        if (cs.length == 0)
            return false;
        final ReentrantLock lock = this.lock;
        lock.lock();
        try {
            Object[] elements = getArray();
            int len = elements.length;
            Object[] newElements = Arrays.copyOf(elements, len + cs.length);
            System.arraycopy(cs, 0, newElements, len, cs.length);
            setArray(newElements);
            return true;
        } finally {
            lock.unlock();
        }
    }

    /**
     * Inserts all of the elements in the specified collection into this
     * list, starting at the specified position.  Shifts the element
     * currently at that position (if any) and any subsequent elements to
     * the right (increases their indices).  The new elements will appear
     * in this list in the order that they are returned by the
     * specified collection's iterator.
     *
     * @param index index at which to insert the first element
     *        from the specified collection
     * @param c collection containing elements to be added to this list
     * @return <tt>true</tt> if this list changed as a result of the call
     * @throws IndexOutOfBoundsException {@inheritDoc}
     * @throws NullPointerException if the specified collection is null
     * @see #add(int,Object)
     */
    public boolean addAll(int index, Collection<? extends E> c) {
        Object[] cs = c.toArray();
        final ReentrantLock lock = this.lock;
        lock.lock();
        try {
            Object[] elements = getArray();
            int len = elements.length;
            if (index > len || index < 0)
                throw new IndexOutOfBoundsException("Index: "+index+
                                                    ", Size: "+len);
            if (cs.length == 0)
                return false;
            int numMoved = len - index;
            Object[] newElements;
            if (numMoved == 0)
                newElements = Arrays.copyOf(elements, len + cs.length);
            else {
                newElements = new Object[len + cs.length];
                System.arraycopy(elements, 0, newElements, 0, index);
                System.arraycopy(elements, index,
                                 newElements, index + cs.length,
                                 numMoved);
            }
            System.arraycopy(cs, 0, newElements, index, cs.length);
            setArray(newElements);
            return true;
        } finally {
            lock.unlock();
        }
    }

    /**
     * Saves the state of the list to a stream (that is, serializes it).
     *
     * @serialData The length of the array backing the list is emitted
     *               (int), followed by all of its elements (each an Object)
     *               in the proper order.
     * @param s the stream
     */
    private void writeObject(java.io.ObjectOutputStream s)
        throws java.io.IOException{

        s.defaultWriteObject();

        Object[] elements = getArray();
        // Write out array length
        s.writeInt(elements.length);

        // Write out all elements in the proper order.
        for (Object element : elements)
            s.writeObject(element);
    }

    /**
     * Reconstitutes the list from a stream (that is, deserializes it).
     *
     * @param s the stream
     */
    private void readObject(java.io.ObjectInputStream s)
        throws java.io.IOException, ClassNotFoundException {

        s.defaultReadObject();

        // bind to new lock
        resetLock();

        // Read in array length and allocate array
        int len = s.readInt();
        Object[] elements = new Object[len];

        // Read in all elements in the proper order.
        for (int i = 0; i < len; i++)
            elements[i] = s.readObject();
        setArray(elements);
    }

    /**
     * Returns a string representation of this list.  The string
     * representation consists of the string representations of the list's
     * elements in the order they are returned by its iterator, enclosed in
     * square brackets (<tt>"[]"</tt>).  Adjacent elements are separated by
     * the characters <tt>", "</tt> (comma and space).  Elements are
     * converted to strings as by {@link String#valueOf(Object)}.
     *
     * @return a string representation of this list
     */
    public String toString() {
        return Arrays.toString(getArray());
    }

    /**
     * Compares the specified object with this list for equality.
     * Returns {@code true} if the specified object is the same object
     * as this object, or if it is also a {@link List} and the sequence
     * of elements returned by an {@linkplain List#iterator() iterator}
     * over the specified list is the same as the sequence returned by
     * an iterator over this list.  The two sequences are considered to
     * be the same if they have the same length and corresponding
     * elements at the same position in the sequence are <em>equal</em>.
     * Two elements {@code e1} and {@code e2} are considered
     * <em>equal</em> if {@code (e1==null ? e2==null : e1.equals(e2))}.
     *
     * @param o the object to be compared for equality with this list
     * @return {@code true} if the specified object is equal to this list
     */
    public boolean equals(Object o) {
        if (o == this)
            return true;
        if (!(o instanceof List))
            return false;

        List<?> list = (List<?>)(o);
        Iterator<?> it = list.iterator();
        Object[] elements = getArray();
        int len = elements.length;
        for (int i = 0; i < len; ++i)
            if (!it.hasNext() || !eq(elements[i], it.next()))
                return false;
        if (it.hasNext())
            return false;
        return true;
    }

    /**
     * Returns the hash code value for this list.
     *
     * <p>This implementation uses the definition in {@link List#hashCode}.
     *
     * @return the hash code value for this list
     */
    public int hashCode() {
        int hashCode = 1;
        Object[] elements = getArray();
        int len = elements.length;
        for (int i = 0; i < len; ++i) {
            Object obj = elements[i];
            hashCode = 31*hashCode + (obj==null ? 0 : obj.hashCode());
        }
        return hashCode;
    }

    /**
     * Returns an iterator over the elements in this list in proper sequence.
     *
     * <p>The returned iterator provides a snapshot of the state of the list
     * when the iterator was constructed. No synchronization is needed while
     * traversing the iterator. The iterator does <em>NOT</em> support the
     * <tt>remove</tt> method.
     *
     * @return an iterator over the elements in this list in proper sequence
     */
    public Iterator<E> iterator() {
        return new COWIterator<E>(getArray(), 0);
    }

    /**
     * {@inheritDoc}
     *
     * <p>The returned iterator provides a snapshot of the state of the list
     * when the iterator was constructed. No synchronization is needed while
     * traversing the iterator. The iterator does <em>NOT</em> support the
     * <tt>remove</tt>, <tt>set</tt> or <tt>add</tt> methods.
     */
    public ListIterator<E> listIterator() {
        return new COWIterator<E>(getArray(), 0);
    }

    /**
     * {@inheritDoc}
     *
     * <p>The returned iterator provides a snapshot of the state of the list
     * when the iterator was constructed. No synchronization is needed while
     * traversing the iterator. The iterator does <em>NOT</em> support the
     * <tt>remove</tt>, <tt>set</tt> or <tt>add</tt> methods.
     *
     * @throws IndexOutOfBoundsException {@inheritDoc}
     */
    public ListIterator<E> listIterator(final int index) {
        Object[] elements = getArray();
        int len = elements.length;
        if (index<0 || index>len)
            throw new IndexOutOfBoundsException("Index: "+index);

        return new COWIterator<E>(elements, index);
    }

    private static class COWIterator<E> implements ListIterator<E> {
        /** Snapshot of the array */
        private final Object[] snapshot;
        /** Index of element to be returned by subsequent call to next.  */
        private int cursor;

        private COWIterator(Object[] elements, int initialCursor) {
            cursor = initialCursor;
            snapshot = elements;
        }

        public boolean hasNext() {
            return cursor < snapshot.length;
        }

        public boolean hasPrevious() {
            return cursor > 0;
        }

        @SuppressWarnings("unchecked")
        public E next() {
            if (! hasNext())
                throw new NoSuchElementException();
            return (E) snapshot[cursor++];
        }

        @SuppressWarnings("unchecked")
        public E previous() {
            if (! hasPrevious())
                throw new NoSuchElementException();
            return (E) snapshot[--cursor];
        }

        public int nextIndex() {
            return cursor;
        }

        public int previousIndex() {
            return cursor-1;
        }

        /**
         * Not supported. Always throws UnsupportedOperationException.
         * @throws UnsupportedOperationException always; <tt>remove</tt>
         *         is not supported by this iterator.
         */
        public void remove() {
            throw new UnsupportedOperationException();
        }

        /**
         * Not supported. Always throws UnsupportedOperationException.
         * @throws UnsupportedOperationException always; <tt>set</tt>
         *         is not supported by this iterator.
         */
        public void set(E e) {
            throw new UnsupportedOperationException();
        }

        /**
         * Not supported. Always throws UnsupportedOperationException.
         * @throws UnsupportedOperationException always; <tt>add</tt>
         *         is not supported by this iterator.
         */
        public void add(E e) {
            throw new UnsupportedOperationException();
        }
    }

    /**
     * Returns a view of the portion of this list between
     * <tt>fromIndex</tt>, inclusive, and <tt>toIndex</tt>, exclusive.
     * The returned list is backed by this list, so changes in the
     * returned list are reflected in this list.
     *
     * <p>The semantics of the list returned by this method become
     * undefined if the backing list (i.e., this list) is modified in
     * any way other than via the returned list.
     *
     * @param fromIndex low endpoint (inclusive) of the subList
     * @param toIndex high endpoint (exclusive) of the subList
     * @return a view of the specified range within this list
     * @throws IndexOutOfBoundsException {@inheritDoc}
     */
    public List<E> subList(int fromIndex, int toIndex) {
        final ReentrantLock lock = this.lock;
        lock.lock();
        try {
            Object[] elements = getArray();
            int len = elements.length;
            if (fromIndex < 0 || toIndex > len || fromIndex > toIndex)
                throw new IndexOutOfBoundsException();
            return new COWSubList<E>(this, fromIndex, toIndex);
        } finally {
            lock.unlock();
        }
    }

    /**
     * Sublist for CopyOnWriteArrayList.
     * This class extends AbstractList merely for convenience, to
     * avoid having to define addAll, etc. This doesn't hurt, but
     * is wasteful.  This class does not need or use modCount
     * mechanics in AbstractList, but does need to check for
     * concurrent modification using similar mechanics.  On each
     * operation, the array that we expect the backing list to use
     * is checked and updated.  Since we do this for all of the
     * base operations invoked by those defined in AbstractList,
     * all is well.  While inefficient, this is not worth
     * improving.  The kinds of list operations inherited from
     * AbstractList are already so slow on COW sublists that
     * adding a bit more space/time doesn't seem even noticeable.
     */
    private static class COWSubList<E>
        extends AbstractList<E>
        implements RandomAccess
    {
        private final CopyOnWriteArrayList<E> l;
        private final int offset;
        private int size;
        private Object[] expectedArray;

        // only call this holding l's lock
        COWSubList(CopyOnWriteArrayList<E> list,
                   int fromIndex, int toIndex) {
            l = list;
            expectedArray = l.getArray();
            offset = fromIndex;
            size = toIndex - fromIndex;
        }

        // only call this holding l's lock
        private void checkForComodification() {
            if (l.getArray() != expectedArray)
                throw new ConcurrentModificationException();
        }

        // only call this holding l's lock
        private void rangeCheck(int index) {
            if (index<0 || index>=size)
                throw new IndexOutOfBoundsException("Index: "+index+
                                                    ",Size: "+size);
        }

        public E set(int index, E element) {
            final ReentrantLock lock = l.lock;
            lock.lock();
            try {
                rangeCheck(index);
                checkForComodification();
                E x = l.set(index+offset, element);
                expectedArray = l.getArray();
                return x;
            } finally {
                lock.unlock();
            }
        }

        public E get(int index) {
            final ReentrantLock lock = l.lock;
            lock.lock();
            try {
                rangeCheck(index);
                checkForComodification();
                return l.get(index+offset);
            } finally {
                lock.unlock();
            }
        }

        public int size() {
            final ReentrantLock lock = l.lock;
            lock.lock();
            try {
                checkForComodification();
                return size;
            } finally {
                lock.unlock();
            }
        }

        public void add(int index, E element) {
            final ReentrantLock lock = l.lock;
            lock.lock();
            try {
                checkForComodification();
                if (index<0 || index>size)
                    throw new IndexOutOfBoundsException();
                l.add(index+offset, element);
                expectedArray = l.getArray();
                size++;
            } finally {
                lock.unlock();
            }
        }

        public void clear() {
            final ReentrantLock lock = l.lock;
            lock.lock();
            try {
                checkForComodification();
                l.removeRange(offset, offset+size);
                expectedArray = l.getArray();
                size = 0;
            } finally {
                lock.unlock();
            }
        }

        public E remove(int index) {
            final ReentrantLock lock = l.lock;
            lock.lock();
            try {
                rangeCheck(index);
                checkForComodification();
                E result = l.remove(index+offset);
                expectedArray = l.getArray();
                size--;
                return result;
            } finally {
                lock.unlock();
            }
        }

        public boolean remove(Object o) {
            int index = indexOf(o);
            if (index == -1)
                return false;
            remove(index);
            return true;
        }

        public Iterator<E> iterator() {
            final ReentrantLock lock = l.lock;
            lock.lock();
            try {
                checkForComodification();
                return new COWSubListIterator<E>(l, 0, offset, size);
            } finally {
                lock.unlock();
            }
        }

        public ListIterator<E> listIterator(final int index) {
            final ReentrantLock lock = l.lock;
            lock.lock();
            try {
                checkForComodification();
                if (index<0 || index>size)
                    throw new IndexOutOfBoundsException("Index: "+index+
                                                        ", Size: "+size);
                return new COWSubListIterator<E>(l, index, offset, size);
            } finally {
                lock.unlock();
            }
        }

        public List<E> subList(int fromIndex, int toIndex) {
            final ReentrantLock lock = l.lock;
            lock.lock();
            try {
                checkForComodification();
                if (fromIndex<0 || toIndex>size)
                    throw new IndexOutOfBoundsException();
                return new COWSubList<E>(l, fromIndex + offset,
                                         toIndex + offset);
            } finally {
                lock.unlock();
            }
        }

    }


    private static class COWSubListIterator<E> implements ListIterator<E> {
        private final ListIterator<E> i;
        private final int index;
        private final int offset;
        private final int size;

        COWSubListIterator(List<E> l, int index, int offset,
                           int size) {
            this.index = index;
            this.offset = offset;
            this.size = size;
            i = l.listIterator(index+offset);
        }

        public boolean hasNext() {
            return nextIndex() < size;
        }

        public E next() {
            if (hasNext())
                return i.next();
            else
                throw new NoSuchElementException();
        }

        public boolean hasPrevious() {
            return previousIndex() >= 0;
        }

        public E previous() {
            if (hasPrevious())
                return i.previous();
            else
                throw new NoSuchElementException();
        }

        public int nextIndex() {
            return i.nextIndex() - offset;
        }

        public int previousIndex() {
            return i.previousIndex() - offset;
        }

        public void remove() {
            throw new UnsupportedOperationException();
        }

        public void set(E e) {
            throw new UnsupportedOperationException();
        }

        public void add(E e) {
            throw new UnsupportedOperationException();
        }
    }

    // Support for resetting lock while deserializing
    private void resetLock() {
        UNSAFE.putObjectVolatile(this, lockOffset, new ReentrantLock());
    }
    private static final sun.misc.Unsafe UNSAFE;
    private static final long lockOffset;
    static {
        try {
            UNSAFE = sun.misc.Unsafe.getUnsafe();
            Class k = CopyOnWriteArrayList.class;
            lockOffset = UNSAFE.objectFieldOffset
                (k.getDeclaredField("lock"));
        } catch (Exception e) {
            throw new Error(e);
        }
    }
}



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