Spring容器中的Bean几种初始化方法和销毁方法的先后顺序

Spring 容器中的 Bean 是有生命周期的,Spring 允许 Bean 在初始化完成后以及销毁前执行特定的操作。下面是常用的三种指定特定操作的方法:

  • 通过实现InitializingBean/DisposableBean 接口来定制初始化之后/销毁之前的操作方法;
  • 通过<bean> 元素的 init-method/destroy-method属性指定初始化之后 /销毁之前调用的操作方法;
  • 在指定方法上加上@PostConstruct或@PreDestroy注解来制定该方法是在初始化之后还是销毁之前调用。

这几种配置方式,执行顺序是怎样的呢?我们通过例子来研究下:

Java类:

import javax.annotation.PostConstruct;
import javax.annotation.PreDestroy;

import org.springframework.beans.factory.DisposableBean;
import org.springframework.beans.factory.InitializingBean;
import org.springframework.context.support.ClassPathXmlApplicationContext;

public class InitAndDestroySeqBean implements InitializingBean,DisposableBean {

    public InitAndDestroySeqBean(){
        System.out.println("执行InitAndDestroySeqBean: 构造方法");
    }
    
    @PostConstruct
    public void postConstruct() {  
       System.out.println("执行InitAndDestroySeqBean: postConstruct");  
    }  
    
    @Override
    public void afterPropertiesSet() throws Exception {
        System.out.println("执行InitAndDestroySeqBean: afterPropertiesSet"); 
    }
    
    public void initMethod() {
        System.out.println("执行InitAndDestroySeqBean: init-method");
    }

    @PreDestroy
    public void preDestroy()  {
        System.out.println("执行InitAndDestroySeqBean: preDestroy");
    }
    
    @Override
    public void destroy() throws Exception {
        System.out.println("执行InitAndDestroySeqBean: destroy");
    }
    
    public void destroyMethod() {
        System.out.println("执行InitAndDestroySeqBean: destroy-method");
    }
    
    public static void main(String[] args) {
        ClassPathXmlApplicationContext context = new ClassPathXmlApplicationContext("com/chj/spring/bean.xml");
        context.close();
    }
}
Spring配置文件:

<?xml version="1.0" encoding="UTF-8"?>
<beans xmlns="http://www.springframework.org/schema/beans"  
    xmlns:xsi="http://www.w3.org/2001/XMLSchema-instance"  
     xmlns:context="http://www.springframework.org/schema/context"  
     xsi:schemaLocation="http://www.springframework.org/schema/beans  
 http://www.springframework.org/schema/beans/spring-beans-2.5.xsd  
 http://www.springframework.org/schema/context  
 http://www.springframework.org/schema/context/spring-context-2.5.xsd">  
 
   <context:annotation-config/>  
   
   <bean id="initAndDestroySeqBean" class="com.chj.spring.InitAndDestroySeqBean" init-method="initMethod" destroy-method="destroyMethod"/>
</beans>
运行InitAndDestroySeqBean的main方法,结果如下:

2013-03-03 17:11:19,098 DEBUG support.DefaultListableBeanFactory - Creating instance of bean 'initAndDestroySeqBean'
执行InitAndDestroySeqBean: 构造方法
2013-03-03 17:11:19,114 DEBUG annotation.CommonAnnotationBeanPostProcessor - Found init method on class [com.alibaba.chj.spring.InitAndDestroySeqBean]: public void com.alibaba.chj.spring.InitAndDestroySeqBean.postConstruct()
2013-03-03 17:11:19,114 DEBUG annotation.CommonAnnotationBeanPostProcessor - Found destroy method on class [com.alibaba.chj.spring.InitAndDestroySeqBean]: public void com.alibaba.chj.spring.InitAndDestroySeqBean.preDestroy()
2013-03-03 17:11:19,129 DEBUG support.DefaultListableBeanFactory - Eagerly caching bean 'initAndDestroySeqBean' to allow for resolving potential circular references
2013-03-03 17:11:19,129 DEBUG annotation.CommonAnnotationBeanPostProcessor - Invoking init method on bean 'initAndDestroySeqBean': public void com.alibaba.chj.spring.InitAndDestroySeqBean.postConstruct()
执行InitAndDestroySeqBean: postConstruct
2013-03-03 17:11:19,129 DEBUG support.DefaultListableBeanFactory - Invoking afterPropertiesSet() on bean with name 'initAndDestroySeqBean'
执行InitAndDestroySeqBean: afterPropertiesSet
2013-03-03 17:11:19,129 DEBUG support.DefaultListableBeanFactory - Invoking init method  'initMethod' on bean with name 'initAndDestroySeqBean'
执行InitAndDestroySeqBean: init-method
2013-03-03 17:11:19,129 DEBUG support.DefaultListableBeanFactory - Finished creating instance of bean 'initAndDestroySeqBean'
2013-03-03 17:11:19,129 INFO  support.ClassPathXmlApplicationContext - Closing org.springframework.context.support.ClassPathXmlApplicationContext@56a499: display name [org.springframework.context.support.ClassPathXmlApplicationContext@56a499]; startup date [Sun Mar 03 17:11:17 CST 2013]; root of context hierarchy
2013-03-03 17:11:19,129 INFO  support.DefaultListableBeanFactory - Destroying singletons in org.springframework.beans.factory.support.DefaultListableBeanFactory@1292d26: defining beans [org.springframework.context.annotation.internalCommonAnnotationProcessor,org.springframework.context.annotation.internalAutowiredAnnotationProcessor,org.springframework.context.annotation.internalRequiredAnnotationProcessor,initAndDestroySeqBean]; root of factory hierarchy
2013-03-03 17:11:19,129 DEBUG annotation.CommonAnnotationBeanPostProcessor - Invoking destroy method on bean 'initAndDestroySeqBean': public void com.alibaba.chj.spring.InitAndDestroySeqBean.preDestroy()
执行InitAndDestroySeqBean: preDestroy
2013-03-03 17:11:19,145 DEBUG support.DisposableBeanAdapter - Invoking destroy() on bean with name 'initAndDestroySeqBean'
执行InitAndDestroySeqBean: destroy
2013-03-03 17:11:19,145 DEBUG support.DisposableBeanAdapter - Invoking destroy method 'destroyMethod' on bean with name 'initAndDestroySeqBean'
执行InitAndDestroySeqBean: destroy-method
从执行结果可以看出:

Bean在实例化的过程中:Constructor > @PostConstruct >InitializingBean > init-method

Bean在销毁的过程中:@PreDestroy > DisposableBean > destroy-method



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