PAT甲级 1031. Hello World for U (20)

Given any string of N (>=5) characters, you are asked to form the characters into the shape of U. For example, "helloworld" can be printed as:

h  d
e  l
l  r
lowo

That is, the characters must be printed in the original order, starting top-down from the left vertical line with n1 characters, then left to right along the bottom line with n2 characters, and finally bottom-up along the vertical line with n3 characters. And more, we would like U to be as squared as possible -- that is, it must be satisfied that n1 = n3 = max { k| k <= n2 for all 3 <= n2 <= N } with n1 + n2 + n3 - 2 = N.

Input Specification:

Each input file contains one test case. Each case contains one string with no less than 5 and no more than 80 characters in a line. The string contains no white space.

Output Specification:

For each test case, print the input string in the shape of U as specified in the description.

Sample Input:
helloworld!

Sample Output:
h   !
e   d
l   l
lowor

1.先根据3 <= n2 <= N 的条件，遍历n2；

2.再根据n1 + n2 + n3 - 2 = N和n1 = n3 找到符合条件的值；

3.最后再根据条件k <= n2和要求max { k| k <= n2 for all 3 <= n2 <= N } 筛选得到相应的n1，n2和n3.

#include<iostream>
#include<string>
using namespace std;

int main()
{

string S;
cin >> S;
int i;
int n1, n2, n3;
int k,N;
n1 = 0;
N = S.size();
for (n2 = 3; n2 <= N; ++n2)
{
if (!((N + 2 - n2) % 2)) //判断是否有符合等式限制条件的存在
{
k = (N + 2 - n2) / 2;
if (k <= n2 && k > n1)//判断当前k是否满足条件且为最新找到的最大值
n1 = k;
}
}
n3 = n1;
n2 = N + 2 - n1 - n3;
//output
int j;
for (i = 0; i < n1-1; ++i)
{
cout << S[i];
for (j = 0; j < n2 - 2; ++j)
cout << " ";
cout << S[N - 1 - i] << endl;
}
for (i = 0; i < n2; ++i)
{
cout << S[n1 -1+ i];
}
cout << endl;

system("pause");
return 0;
}