Java程序员从笨鸟到菜鸟之(二十九)javascript对象的创建和继承实现

javascript对象的创建

 

JavaScript中定义对象的几种方式(JavaScript中没有类的概念,只有对象): 

1) 基于已有对象扩充其属性和方法: 

var object = new Object();

object.name = "zhangsan";
object.sayName = function(name)
{
	this.name = name;
	alert(this.name);
}

object.sayName("lisi");


 

2)工厂方式 

//工厂方式创建对象

/*
function createObject()
{
	var object = new Object();

	object.username = "zhangsan";
	object.password = "123";

	object.get = function()
	{
		alert(this.username + ", " + this.password);
	}

	return object;
}

var object1 = createObject();
var object2 = createObject();

object1.get();


带参数的构造方法: 

function createObject(username, password)
{
	var object = new Object();

	object.username = username;
	object.password = password;

	object.get = function()
	{
		alert(this.username + ", " + this.password);
	}

	return object;
}

var object1 = createObject("zhangsan", "123");
object1.get();


 

让一个函数对象被多个对象所共享,而不是每一个对象拥有一个函数对象。 

function get()
{
	alert(this.username + ", " + this.password);
}

function createObject(username, password)
{
	var object = new Object();

	object.username = username;
	object.password = password;

	object.get = get;

	return object;
}

var object = createObject("zhangsan", "123");
var object2 = createObject("lisi", "456");

object.get();
object2.get();


 

3)构造函数方式 

function Person()
{
    //在执行第一行代码前,js引擎会为我们生成一个对象
 this.username = "zhangsan";
 this.password = "123";

 this.getInfo = function()
 {
  alert(this.username + ", " + this.password);
 }

 //此处有一个隐藏的return语句,用于将之前生成的对象返回
}

var person = new Person();
person.getInfo();


 

         可以在构造对象时传递参数 

function Person(username, password)
{
	this.username = username;
	this.password = password;

	this.getInfo = function()
	{
		alert(this.username + ", " + this.password);
	}
}

var person = new Person("zhangsan", "123");
person.getInfo();


 

4)原型(“prototype”)方式 

//使用原型(prototype)方式创建对象

/*
function Person()
{

}

Person.prototype.username = "zhangsan";
Person.prototype.password = "123";

Person.prototype.getInfo = function()
{
	alert(this.username + ", " + this.password);
}

var person = new Person();
var person2 = new Person();

person.username = "lisi";

person.getInfo();
person2.getInfo();
*/


function Person()
{

}

Person.prototype.username = new Array();
Person.prototype.password = "123";

Person.prototype.getInfo = function()
{
	alert(this.username + ", " + this.password);
}

var person = new Person();
var person2 = new Person();

person.username.push("zhangsan");
person.username.push("lisi");
person.password = "456";

person.getInfo();
person2.getInfo();


如果使用原型方式对象,那么生成的所有对象会共享原型中的属性,这样一个对象改变了该属性也会反应到其他对象当中。

单纯使用原型方式定义对象无法在构造函数中为属性赋初值,只能在对象生成后再去改变属性值。 

 使用原型+构造函数方式来定义对象,对象之间的属性互不干扰,各  个对象间共享同一个方法 

//使用原型+构造函数方式来定义对象

function Person()
{
	this.username = new Array();
	this.password = "123";
}

Person.prototype.getInfo = function()
{
	alert(this.username + ", " + this.password);
}

var p = new Person();
var p2 = new Person();

p.username.push("zhangsan");
p2.username.push("lisi");

p.getInfo();
p2.getInfo();


 

5)动态原型方式:在构造函数中通过标志量让所有对象共享一个方法,而每个对象拥有自己的属性。 

function Person()
{
	this.username = "zhangsan";
	this.password = "123";

	if(typeof Person.flag == "undefined")
	{
		alert("invoked");
		
		Person.prototype.getInfo = function()
		{
			alert(this.username + ", " + this.password);
		}

		Person.flag = true;
	}
}

var p = new Person();
var p2 = new Person();

p.getInfo();
p2.getInfo();



 

JavaScript中的继承。 

1) 对象冒充 

//继承第一种方式:对象冒充

function Parent(username)
{
	this.username = username;

	this.sayHello = function()
	{
		alert(this.username);
	}
}

function Child(username, password)
{
	//下面三行代码是最关键的代码
	this.method = Parent;
	this.method(username);
	delete this.method;

	this.password = password;

	this.sayWorld = function()
	{
		alert(this.password);
	}
}

var parent = new Parent("zhangsan");
var child = new Child("lisi", "1234");

parent.sayHello();

child.sayHello();
child.sayWorld();


2) call方法方式。 

call方法是Function对象中的方法,因此我们定义的每个函数都拥有该方法。可以通过函数名来调用call方法,call方法的第一个参数会被传递给函数中的this,从第2个参数开始,逐一赋值给函数中的参数。 

//使用call方式实现对象的继承

function Parent(username) {  this.username = username;

 this.sayHello = function()  {   alert(this.username);  } }

function Child(username, password) {  Parent.call(this, username);

 this.password = password;

 this.sayWorld = function()  {   alert(this.password);  } }

var parent = new Parent("zhangsan");

var child = new Child("lisi", "123");

parent.sayHello();

child.sayHello(); child.sayWorld();

 

 

3) apply方法方式 

//使用apply方法实现对象继承

function Parent(username)
{
	this.username = username;

	this.sayHello = function()
	{
		alert(this.username);
	}
}

function Child(username, password)
{
	Parent.apply(this, new Array(username));

	this.password = password;

	this.sayWorld = function()
	{
		alert(this.password);
	}
}


var parent = new Parent("zhangsan");
var child = new Child("lisi", "123");

parent.sayHello();

child.sayHello();
child.sayWorld();


 

4)原型链方式(无法给构造函数传参数) 

//使用原型链(prototype chain)方式实现对象继承

function Parent()
{

}

Parent.prototype.hello = "hello";
Parent.prototype.sayHello = function()
{
	alert(this.hello);
}

function Child()
{

}

Child.prototype = new Parent();

Child.prototype.world = "world";
Child.prototype.sayWorld = function()
{
	alert(this.world);
}

var child = new Child();

child.sayHello();
child.sayWorld();



5)混合方式(推荐) 

//使用混合方式实现对象继承(推荐)

function Parent(hello)
{
	this.hello = hello;
}

Parent.prototype.sayHello = function()
{
	alert(this.hello);
}

function Child(hello, world)
{
	Parent.call(this, hello);

	this.world = world;
}

Child.prototype = new Parent();

Child.prototype.sayWorld = function()
{
	alert(this.world);
}

var child = new Child("hello", "world");

child.sayHello();
child.sayWorld();



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