# Rectangle Bin Packing

Pop Quiz: You have 765,618 lightmaps for a scene and very few of them have power of 2 dimensions, what do you do? If your answer was to rescale them and call CreateTexture 765,618 times please slap yourself. If your answer had anything to do with glTexImage2D, you might want to leave now. What you really want to do is smush them all into a couple larger textures, and this text will show you one way of doing it.

What we'll do is recursively divide the larger texture into empty and filled regions. We start off with an empty texture and after inserting one lightmap we get this:

Here we've split the texture in half by line A then split the upper half by B and inserted the first lightmap to the left of B. When we go to insert the next one, we'll first check if it can fit above A and if it can we check to see if it can fit left of B, nope full, then right of B. If it fits there we split B exactly how we split the original texture, otherwise we insert and split below A. After inserting a second lightmap the texture becomes:

Pretty basic. The implementation of the tree is straightforward. Here it is in a C++ pseudocode hybrid:

 struct Node { Node* child[2] Rectangle rc int imageID } Node* Node::Insert(const Image& img) if we're not a leaf then (try inserting into first child) newNode = child[0]->Insert( img ) if newNode != NULL return newNode (no room, insert into second) return child[1]->Insert( img ) else (if there's already a lightmap here, return) if imageID != NULL return NULL (if we're too small, return) if img doesn't fit in pnode->rect return NULL (if we're just right, accept) if img fits perfectly in pnode->rect return pnode (otherwise, gotta split this node and create some kids) pnode->child[0] = new Node pnode->child[1] = new Node (decide which way to split) dw = rc.width - img.width dh = rc.height - img.height if dw > dh then child[0]->rect = Rectangle(rc.left, rc.top, rc.left+width-1, rc.bottom) child[1]->rect = Rectangle(rc.left+width, rc.top, rc.right, rc.bottom) else child[0]->rect = Rectangle(rc.left, rc.top, rc.right, rc.top+height-1) child[1]->rect = Rectangle(rc.left, rc.top+height, rc.right, rc.bottom) (insert into first child we created) return Insert( img, pnode->child[0] ) 

The insert function traverses the tree looking for a place to insert the lightmap. It returns the pointer of the node the lightmap can go into or null to say it can't fit. Note that you really don't have to store the rectangle for each node, really all you need is a split direction and coordinate like in a kd-tree, but it's more convenient with them.

The code that calls Insert can then use the rectangle from the returned node to figure out where to place the lightmap in the texture and then update the node's imageID to use as a handle for future use.

 int32 TextureCache::Insert(const Image& img) pnode = m_root->Insert(img) if pnode != NULL copy pixels over from img into pnode->rc part of texture pnode->imageID = new handle else return INVALID_HANDLE 

Once the lightmap is in the larger texture, you'll want to go through any meshes that use it and adjust their texture coordinates based on the lightmap's rectangle in the larger texture.

And now your moment of zen:

Pretty eh? These are some lightmaps from the Near Death Experience tech demo. I've padded each lightmap with white so you can see the separations. Other examples without padding.

Keep in mind that you can apply this same technique not just to lightmaps, but to packing any textures you want into larger ones. For example, the algorithm works like a charm for building font textures.

Anyhow, if you have any questions or comments email jimscott@blackpawn.com. Thanks for reading.

## Description

Author : Jukka Jylänki's ( http://clb.demon.fi/projects/more-rectangle-bin-packing )

A shortcoming of the GUILLOTINE data structure is that the split planes fragment the free area of the bin into disjoint rectangles, and new placements cannot straddle these split lines. The MAXRECTS data structure removes this limitation by tracking all the maximal rectangles of the free area remaining in the bin.

The maximal rectangles will not be disjoint, so extra care is needed to maintain consistency of the data structure when placing new rectangles. In the paper, I argue that the number of maximal rectangles in a rectilinear polygon is at most 2n^2, which gives a worst case O(n^5) time complexity for the whole algorithm. This holds if the rectangles were placed arbitrarily, but since we are placing the rectangles as conservatively as possible, the number of maximal rectangles is far less. In practice, I have observed that the number of maximal rectangles is strictly sublinear, which lends to an average-case n^3 algorithm.

The MAXRECTS data structure can be used to implement two interesting heuristics:

1) The Contact Point heuristics. In this rule, the new rectangle is placed to a position where its edge touches the edges of previously placed rectangles as much as possible.

2) The Bottom Left heuristics. This rule effectively implements the commonly cited Tetris method for rectangle packing: Each rectangle is placed to a position (possibly rotating it) where its top side lies as low as possible.

Both of these variants perform very well. For the example input, the MAXRECTS-BL-BNF variant achieved an occupancy rate of 90.92%, and the MAXRECTS-CP-BNF variant got an occupancy rate of 93.35%. However, the best performance was given by the MAXRECTS-BSSF-BNF algorithm. The occupancy rate in the example was 94.06%.

Note : this method cannot be used for building atlases if they require mip-mapping due to it not currently supporting padding (this may be added in the near future). In that case, see nVidia Texture Atlas Tools. In fact, remember to disable the automatic mip chain generation whenever you're building atlases of this type.

Edit : Modified the code so you can turn off rotations.

## C# - MaxRectsBinPack .cs


/*
Based on the Public Domain MaxRectsBinPack.cpp source by Jukka Jylänki
https://github.com/juj/RectangleBinPack/

Ported to C# by Sven Magnus
This version is also public domain - do whatever you want with it.
*/
using UnityEngine;
using System.Collections;
using System.Collections.Generic;

public class MaxRectsBinPack {

public int binWidth = 0;
public int binHeight = 0;
public bool allowRotations;

public List<Rect> usedRectangles = new List<Rect>();
public List<Rect> freeRectangles = new List<Rect>();

public enum FreeRectChoiceHeuristic {
RectBestShortSideFit, ///< -BSSF: Positions the rectangle against the short side of a free rectangle into which it fits the best.
RectBestLongSideFit, ///< -BLSF: Positions the rectangle against the long side of a free rectangle into which it fits the best.
RectBestAreaFit, ///< -BAF: Positions the rectangle into the smallest free rect into which it fits.
RectBottomLeftRule, ///< -BL: Does the Tetris placement.
RectContactPointRule ///< -CP: Choosest the placement where the rectangle touches other rects as much as possible.
};

public MaxRectsBinPack(int width, int height, bool rotations = true) {
Init(width, height, rotations);
}

public void Init(int width, int height, bool rotations = true) {
binWidth = width;
binHeight = height;
allowRotations = rotations;

Rect n = new Rect();
n.x = 0;
n.y = 0;
n.width = width;
n.height = height;

usedRectangles.Clear();

freeRectangles.Clear();
}

public Rect Insert(int width, int height, FreeRectChoiceHeuristic method) {
Rect newNode = new Rect();
int score1 = 0; // Unused in this function. We don't need to know the score after finding the position.
int score2 = 0;
switch(method) {
case FreeRectChoiceHeuristic.RectBestShortSideFit: newNode = FindPositionForNewNodeBestShortSideFit(width, height, ref score1, ref score2); break;
case FreeRectChoiceHeuristic.RectBottomLeftRule: newNode = FindPositionForNewNodeBottomLeft(width, height, ref score1, ref score2); break;
case FreeRectChoiceHeuristic.RectContactPointRule: newNode = FindPositionForNewNodeContactPoint(width, height, ref score1); break;
case FreeRectChoiceHeuristic.RectBestLongSideFit: newNode = FindPositionForNewNodeBestLongSideFit(width, height, ref score2, ref score1); break;
case FreeRectChoiceHeuristic.RectBestAreaFit: newNode = FindPositionForNewNodeBestAreaFit(width, height, ref score1, ref score2); break;
}

if (newNode.height == 0)
return newNode;

int numRectanglesToProcess = freeRectangles.Count;
for(int i = 0; i < numRectanglesToProcess; ++i) {
if (SplitFreeNode(freeRectangles[i], ref newNode)) {
freeRectangles.RemoveAt(i);
--i;
--numRectanglesToProcess;
}
}

PruneFreeList();

return newNode;
}

public void Insert(List<Rect> rects, List<Rect> dst, FreeRectChoiceHeuristic method) {
dst.Clear();

while(rects.Count > 0) {
int bestScore1 = int.MaxValue;
int bestScore2 = int.MaxValue;
int bestRectIndex = -1;
Rect bestNode = new Rect();

for(int i = 0; i < rects.Count; ++i) {
int score1 = 0;
int score2 = 0;
Rect newNode = ScoreRect((int)rects[i].width, (int)rects[i].height, method, ref score1, ref score2);

if (score1 < bestScore1 || (score1 == bestScore1 && score2 < bestScore2)) {
bestScore1 = score1;
bestScore2 = score2;
bestNode = newNode;
bestRectIndex = i;
}
}

if (bestRectIndex == -1)
return;

PlaceRect(bestNode);
rects.RemoveAt(bestRectIndex);
}
}

void PlaceRect(Rect node) {
int numRectanglesToProcess = freeRectangles.Count;
for(int i = 0; i < numRectanglesToProcess; ++i) {
if (SplitFreeNode(freeRectangles[i], ref node)) {
freeRectangles.RemoveAt(i);
--i;
--numRectanglesToProcess;
}
}

PruneFreeList();

}

Rect ScoreRect(int width, int height, FreeRectChoiceHeuristic method, ref int score1, ref int score2) {
Rect newNode = new Rect();
score1 = int.MaxValue;
score2 = int.MaxValue;
switch(method) {
case FreeRectChoiceHeuristic.RectBestShortSideFit: newNode = FindPositionForNewNodeBestShortSideFit(width, height, ref score1, ref score2); break;
case FreeRectChoiceHeuristic.RectBottomLeftRule: newNode = FindPositionForNewNodeBottomLeft(width, height, ref score1, ref score2); break;
case FreeRectChoiceHeuristic.RectContactPointRule: newNode = FindPositionForNewNodeContactPoint(width, height, ref score1);
score1 = -score1; // Reverse since we are minimizing, but for contact point score bigger is better.
break;
case FreeRectChoiceHeuristic.RectBestLongSideFit: newNode = FindPositionForNewNodeBestLongSideFit(width, height, ref score2, ref score1); break;
case FreeRectChoiceHeuristic.RectBestAreaFit: newNode = FindPositionForNewNodeBestAreaFit(width, height, ref score1, ref score2); break;
}

// Cannot fit the current rectangle.
if (newNode.height == 0) {
score1 = int.MaxValue;
score2 = int.MaxValue;
}

return newNode;
}

/// Computes the ratio of used surface area.
public float Occupancy() {
ulong usedSurfaceArea = 0;
for(int i = 0; i < usedRectangles.Count; ++i)
usedSurfaceArea += (uint)usedRectangles[i].width * (uint)usedRectangles[i].height;

return (float)usedSurfaceArea / (binWidth * binHeight);
}

Rect FindPositionForNewNodeBottomLeft(int width, int height, ref int bestY, ref int bestX) {
Rect bestNode = new Rect();
//memset(bestNode, 0, sizeof(Rect));

bestY = int.MaxValue;

for(int i = 0; i < freeRectangles.Count; ++i) {
// Try to place the rectangle in upright (non-flipped) orientation.
if (freeRectangles[i].width >= width && freeRectangles[i].height >= height) {
int topSideY = (int)freeRectangles[i].y + height;
if (topSideY < bestY || (topSideY == bestY && freeRectangles[i].x < bestX)) {
bestNode.x = freeRectangles[i].x;
bestNode.y = freeRectangles[i].y;
bestNode.width = width;
bestNode.height = height;
bestY = topSideY;
bestX = (int)freeRectangles[i].x;
}
}
if (allowRotations && freeRectangles[i].width >= height && freeRectangles[i].height >= width) {
int topSideY = (int)freeRectangles[i].y + width;
if (topSideY < bestY || (topSideY == bestY && freeRectangles[i].x < bestX)) {
bestNode.x = freeRectangles[i].x;
bestNode.y = freeRectangles[i].y;
bestNode.width = height;
bestNode.height = width;
bestY = topSideY;
bestX = (int)freeRectangles[i].x;
}
}
}
return bestNode;
}

Rect FindPositionForNewNodeBestShortSideFit(int width, int height, ref int bestShortSideFit, ref int bestLongSideFit)  {
Rect bestNode = new Rect();
//memset(&bestNode, 0, sizeof(Rect));

bestShortSideFit = int.MaxValue;

for(int i = 0; i < freeRectangles.Count; ++i) {
// Try to place the rectangle in upright (non-flipped) orientation.
if (freeRectangles[i].width >= width && freeRectangles[i].height >= height) {
int leftoverHoriz = Mathf.Abs((int)freeRectangles[i].width - width);
int leftoverVert = Mathf.Abs((int)freeRectangles[i].height - height);
int shortSideFit = Mathf.Min(leftoverHoriz, leftoverVert);
int longSideFit = Mathf.Max(leftoverHoriz, leftoverVert);

if (shortSideFit < bestShortSideFit || (shortSideFit == bestShortSideFit && longSideFit < bestLongSideFit)) {
bestNode.x = freeRectangles[i].x;
bestNode.y = freeRectangles[i].y;
bestNode.width = width;
bestNode.height = height;
bestShortSideFit = shortSideFit;
bestLongSideFit = longSideFit;
}
}

if (allowRotations && freeRectangles[i].width >= height && freeRectangles[i].height >= width) {
int flippedLeftoverHoriz = Mathf.Abs((int)freeRectangles[i].width - height);
int flippedLeftoverVert = Mathf.Abs((int)freeRectangles[i].height - width);
int flippedShortSideFit = Mathf.Min(flippedLeftoverHoriz, flippedLeftoverVert);
int flippedLongSideFit = Mathf.Max(flippedLeftoverHoriz, flippedLeftoverVert);

if (flippedShortSideFit < bestShortSideFit || (flippedShortSideFit == bestShortSideFit && flippedLongSideFit < bestLongSideFit)) {
bestNode.x = freeRectangles[i].x;
bestNode.y = freeRectangles[i].y;
bestNode.width = height;
bestNode.height = width;
bestShortSideFit = flippedShortSideFit;
bestLongSideFit = flippedLongSideFit;
}
}
}
return bestNode;
}

Rect FindPositionForNewNodeBestLongSideFit(int width, int height, ref int bestShortSideFit, ref int bestLongSideFit) {
Rect bestNode = new Rect();
//memset(&bestNode, 0, sizeof(Rect));

bestLongSideFit = int.MaxValue;

for(int i = 0; i < freeRectangles.Count; ++i) {
// Try to place the rectangle in upright (non-flipped) orientation.
if (freeRectangles[i].width >= width && freeRectangles[i].height >= height) {
int leftoverHoriz = Mathf.Abs((int)freeRectangles[i].width - width);
int leftoverVert = Mathf.Abs((int)freeRectangles[i].height - height);
int shortSideFit = Mathf.Min(leftoverHoriz, leftoverVert);
int longSideFit = Mathf.Max(leftoverHoriz, leftoverVert);

if (longSideFit < bestLongSideFit || (longSideFit == bestLongSideFit && shortSideFit < bestShortSideFit)) {
bestNode.x = freeRectangles[i].x;
bestNode.y = freeRectangles[i].y;
bestNode.width = width;
bestNode.height = height;
bestShortSideFit = shortSideFit;
bestLongSideFit = longSideFit;
}
}

if (allowRotations && freeRectangles[i].width >= height && freeRectangles[i].height >= width) {
int leftoverHoriz = Mathf.Abs((int)freeRectangles[i].width - height);
int leftoverVert = Mathf.Abs((int)freeRectangles[i].height - width);
int shortSideFit = Mathf.Min(leftoverHoriz, leftoverVert);
int longSideFit = Mathf.Max(leftoverHoriz, leftoverVert);

if (longSideFit < bestLongSideFit || (longSideFit == bestLongSideFit && shortSideFit < bestShortSideFit)) {
bestNode.x = freeRectangles[i].x;
bestNode.y = freeRectangles[i].y;
bestNode.width = height;
bestNode.height = width;
bestShortSideFit = shortSideFit;
bestLongSideFit = longSideFit;
}
}
}
return bestNode;
}

Rect FindPositionForNewNodeBestAreaFit(int width, int height, ref int bestAreaFit, ref int bestShortSideFit) {
Rect bestNode = new Rect();
//memset(&bestNode, 0, sizeof(Rect));

bestAreaFit = int.MaxValue;

for(int i = 0; i < freeRectangles.Count; ++i) {
int areaFit = (int)freeRectangles[i].width * (int)freeRectangles[i].height - width * height;

// Try to place the rectangle in upright (non-flipped) orientation.
if (freeRectangles[i].width >= width && freeRectangles[i].height >= height) {
int leftoverHoriz = Mathf.Abs((int)freeRectangles[i].width - width);
int leftoverVert = Mathf.Abs((int)freeRectangles[i].height - height);
int shortSideFit = Mathf.Min(leftoverHoriz, leftoverVert);

if (areaFit < bestAreaFit || (areaFit == bestAreaFit && shortSideFit < bestShortSideFit)) {
bestNode.x = freeRectangles[i].x;
bestNode.y = freeRectangles[i].y;
bestNode.width = width;
bestNode.height = height;
bestShortSideFit = shortSideFit;
bestAreaFit = areaFit;
}
}

if (allowRotations && freeRectangles[i].width >= height && freeRectangles[i].height >= width) {
int leftoverHoriz = Mathf.Abs((int)freeRectangles[i].width - height);
int leftoverVert = Mathf.Abs((int)freeRectangles[i].height - width);
int shortSideFit = Mathf.Min(leftoverHoriz, leftoverVert);

if (areaFit < bestAreaFit || (areaFit == bestAreaFit && shortSideFit < bestShortSideFit)) {
bestNode.x = freeRectangles[i].x;
bestNode.y = freeRectangles[i].y;
bestNode.width = height;
bestNode.height = width;
bestShortSideFit = shortSideFit;
bestAreaFit = areaFit;
}
}
}
return bestNode;
}

/// Returns 0 if the two intervals i1 and i2 are disjoint, or the length of their overlap otherwise.
int CommonIntervalLength(int i1start, int i1end, int i2start, int i2end) {
if (i1end < i2start || i2end < i1start)
return 0;
return Mathf.Min(i1end, i2end) - Mathf.Max(i1start, i2start);
}

int ContactPointScoreNode(int x, int y, int width, int height) {
int score = 0;

if (x == 0 || x + width == binWidth)
score += height;
if (y == 0 || y + height == binHeight)
score += width;

for(int i = 0; i < usedRectangles.Count; ++i) {
if (usedRectangles[i].x == x + width || usedRectangles[i].x + usedRectangles[i].width == x)
score += CommonIntervalLength((int)usedRectangles[i].y, (int)usedRectangles[i].y + (int)usedRectangles[i].height, y, y + height);
if (usedRectangles[i].y == y + height || usedRectangles[i].y + usedRectangles[i].height == y)
score += CommonIntervalLength((int)usedRectangles[i].x, (int)usedRectangles[i].x + (int)usedRectangles[i].width, x, x + width);
}
return score;
}

Rect FindPositionForNewNodeContactPoint(int width, int height, ref int bestContactScore) {
Rect bestNode = new Rect();
//memset(&bestNode, 0, sizeof(Rect));

bestContactScore = -1;

for(int i = 0; i < freeRectangles.Count; ++i) {
// Try to place the rectangle in upright (non-flipped) orientation.
if (freeRectangles[i].width >= width && freeRectangles[i].height >= height) {
int score = ContactPointScoreNode((int)freeRectangles[i].x, (int)freeRectangles[i].y, width, height);
if (score > bestContactScore) {
bestNode.x = (int)freeRectangles[i].x;
bestNode.y = (int)freeRectangles[i].y;
bestNode.width = width;
bestNode.height = height;
bestContactScore = score;
}
}
if (allowRotations && freeRectangles[i].width >= height && freeRectangles[i].height >= width) {
int score = ContactPointScoreNode((int)freeRectangles[i].x, (int)freeRectangles[i].y, height, width);
if (score > bestContactScore) {
bestNode.x = (int)freeRectangles[i].x;
bestNode.y = (int)freeRectangles[i].y;
bestNode.width = height;
bestNode.height = width;
bestContactScore = score;
}
}
}
return bestNode;
}

bool SplitFreeNode(Rect freeNode, ref Rect usedNode) {
// Test with SAT if the rectangles even intersect.
if (usedNode.x >= freeNode.x + freeNode.width || usedNode.x + usedNode.width <= freeNode.x ||
usedNode.y >= freeNode.y + freeNode.height || usedNode.y + usedNode.height <= freeNode.y)
return false;

if (usedNode.x < freeNode.x + freeNode.width && usedNode.x + usedNode.width > freeNode.x) {
// New node at the top side of the used node.
if (usedNode.y > freeNode.y && usedNode.y < freeNode.y + freeNode.height) {
Rect newNode = freeNode;
newNode.height = usedNode.y - newNode.y;
}

// New node at the bottom side of the used node.
if (usedNode.y + usedNode.height < freeNode.y + freeNode.height) {
Rect newNode = freeNode;
newNode.y = usedNode.y + usedNode.height;
newNode.height = freeNode.y + freeNode.height - (usedNode.y + usedNode.height);
}
}

if (usedNode.y < freeNode.y + freeNode.height && usedNode.y + usedNode.height > freeNode.y) {
// New node at the left side of the used node.
if (usedNode.x > freeNode.x && usedNode.x < freeNode.x + freeNode.width) {
Rect newNode = freeNode;
newNode.width = usedNode.x - newNode.x;
}

// New node at the right side of the used node.
if (usedNode.x + usedNode.width < freeNode.x + freeNode.width) {
Rect newNode = freeNode;
newNode.x = usedNode.x + usedNode.width;
newNode.width = freeNode.x + freeNode.width - (usedNode.x + usedNode.width);
}
}

return true;
}

void PruneFreeList() {
for(int i = 0; i < freeRectangles.Count; ++i)
for(int j = i+1; j < freeRectangles.Count; ++j) {
if (IsContainedIn(freeRectangles[i], freeRectangles[j])) {
freeRectangles.RemoveAt(i);
--i;
break;
}
if (IsContainedIn(freeRectangles[j], freeRectangles[i])) {
freeRectangles.RemoveAt(j);
--j;
}
}
}

bool IsContainedIn(Rect a, Rect b) {
return a.x >= b.x && a.y >= b.y
&& a.x+a.width <= b.x+b.width
&& a.y+a.height <= b.y+b.height;
}

}

10-27
03-24 1142
09-29 709
05-30 2315
07-08 4470
07-27 1284
04-04 2162
06-19 94
07-01 2226
08-04 4168
07-25 1375