【Jetpack】WorkManager

【JetPack】WorkManager

转载自享学课堂-derry,非常感谢derry的讲解

WorkManager有什么用:

一:确保重要的后台任务,一定会被执行,后台任务(例如:非及时性的 (请求服务器 及时性) 上传,下载,同步数据 等)

二:内部对电量进行了优化,不需要我们去处理电量优化了

三:API 14 到 最新版本,都可以使用WorkManager来管你你的后台任务

四:注意:WorkManager不能做保活操作

五:调度,管理,执行的后台任务的场景,通常是是可延迟的后台任务

WorkManager概述

你的任务不可能总是在前台,但是还要确保你的那些重要任务执行,你们就可以放置 在后台执行,那么WorkManager就能够展现万丈光芒了

WorkManger是Android Jetpack提供执行后台任务管理的组件,它适用于需要保证 系统即使应用程序退出也会运行的任务,WorkManager API可以轻松指定可延迟的 异步任务以及何时运行它们,这些API允许您创建任务并将其交给WorkManager立 即运行或在适当的时间运行。

WorkManager根据设备API级别和应用程序状态等因素选择适当的方式来运行任务。如果WorkManager在应用程序运行时执行您的任务之一,WorkManager可以 在您应用程序进程的新线程中运行您的任务。如果您的应用程序未运行, WorkManager会选择一种合适的方式来安排后台任务 - 具体取决于设备API级别和包含的依赖项,WorkManager可能会使用 JobScheduler,Firebase JobDispatcher或 AlarmManager

 

WorkManager的各个角色

Worker:可以这样理解,指定需要执行的任务,可以成为Workder类的子类,在实现的方法中,就可以执行任务逻辑了

WorkRequest:可以这样理解,执行一项单一的任务

第一点:必须知道 WorkRequest对象必须指定Work执行的任务

第二点:需要知道 WorkRequest都有一个自动生成的唯一ID,可以使用ID执行取消 排队任务 或 获取任务状态等操作

第三点:需要知道 WorkRequest是一个抽象的类;系统默认实现子类 OneTimeWorkRequest或PeriodicWorkRequest

第四点:需要知道 WorkRequest.Builder创建WorkRequest对象;相应的子类:OneTimeWorkRequest.Builder或PeriodicWorkRequest.Builder

第五点:需要知道 Constraints:指定对任务运行时间的限制(任务约束);使用 Constraints.Builder创建Constraints对象 ,并传递给WorkRequest.Builder

 

WorkManager的简述:

WorkManager:排队和管理工作请求;将WorkRequest 对象传递WorkManager的 任务队列(注意:如果未指定任何约束, WorkManager立即运行任务)

WorkStatus的简述:

WorkStatus:包含有关特定任务的信息;可以使用LiveData保存 WorkStatus对象,监听任务状态;如LiveData

分享使用文章

WorkManager的基本使用

官方文档

WorkManage源码分析中

 

为什么workmanager可以在app杀死之后还可以继续工作,那是因为,这是由android系统级别的服务开启的,数据存储在room数据库里,由系统轮询,反射执行代码块,权限很大

 

1.初始化工作:

WorkManager.getInstance(this) // 各种初始化的工作

 

2.加入队列,触发后台任务工作:

.enqueue(oneTimeWorkRequest2); // 加入队列,触发后台任务工作

一、进入getInstance 初始化

WorkManagerImpl
@RestrictTo(RestrictTo.Scope.LIBRARY_GROUP)
    public static @NonNull WorkManagerImpl getInstance(@NonNull Context context) {
        synchronized (sLock) {
            WorkManagerImpl instance = getInstance();
            if (instance == null) {
                Context appContext = context.getApplicationContext();
                if (appContext instanceof Configuration.Provider) {
                    initialize(
                            appContext,
                            ((Configuration.Provider) appContext).getWorkManagerConfiguration());
                    instance = getInstance(appContext);
                } else {
                    throw new IllegalStateException("WorkManager is not initialized properly.  You "
                            + "have explicitly disabled WorkManagerInitializer in your manifest, "
                            + "have not manually called WorkManager#initialize at this point, and "
                            + "your Application does not implement Configuration.Provider.");
                }
            }

            return instance;
        }
    }

第一个if不会进来,为什么呢,因为这是第二次执行,APK清单文件里面(第一次)执行 ,此时我们打开apk查看清单文件发现

   <provider
            android:name="androidx.work.impl.WorkManagerInitializer"
            android:exported="false"
            android:multiprocess="true"
            android:authorities="com.derry.workmanagersimple.workmanager-init"
            android:directBootAware="false" />

在这里实例化,同样走到了上面初始化的方法,初始化的时候,最终返回workmanagerImpl的实现类

@RestrictTo(RestrictTo.Scope.LIBRARY_GROUP)
public class WorkManagerInitializer extends ContentProvider {
    @Override
    public boolean onCreate() {
        // Initialize WorkManager with the default configuration.
        WorkManager.initialize(getContext(), new Configuration.Builder().build());
        return true;
    }
}

现在返回到初始化的代码的第二个if里面,new WorkManagerImpl

最终会走到一个方法,这里初始化了room的数据库,作为持久性保存的地方,以及其他配置信息


    @RestrictTo(RestrictTo.Scope.LIBRARY_GROUP)
    public WorkManagerImpl(
            @NonNull Context context,
            @NonNull Configuration configuration,
            @NonNull TaskExecutor workTaskExecutor,
            @NonNull WorkDatabase database) {
        Context applicationContext = context.getApplicationContext();
        Logger.setLogger(new Logger.LogcatLogger(configuration.getMinimumLoggingLevel()));
        List<Scheduler> schedulers = createSchedulers(applicationContext, workTaskExecutor);
        Processor processor = new Processor(
                context,
                configuration,
                workTaskExecutor,
                database,
                schedulers);
        internalInit(context, configuration, workTaskExecutor, database, schedulers, processor);
    }

private void internalInit(@NonNull Context context,
            @NonNull Configuration configuration,
            @NonNull TaskExecutor workTaskExecutor,
            @NonNull WorkDatabase workDatabase,
            @NonNull List<Scheduler> schedulers,
            @NonNull Processor processor) {

        context = context.getApplicationContext();
        mContext = context;
        mConfiguration = configuration;
        mWorkTaskExecutor = workTaskExecutor;
        mWorkDatabase = workDatabase;
        mSchedulers = schedulers;
        mProcessor = processor;
        mPreferenceUtils = new PreferenceUtils(workDatabase);
        mForceStopRunnableCompleted = false;

        // Checks for app force stops.
        mWorkTaskExecutor.executeOnBackgroundThread(new ForceStopRunnable(context, this));
    }

其中有一个贪婪执行器,埋下伏笔

 @RestrictTo(RestrictTo.Scope.LIBRARY_GROUP)
    @NonNull
    public List<Scheduler> createSchedulers(
            @NonNull Context context,
            @NonNull TaskExecutor taskExecutor) {

        return Arrays.asList(
                Schedulers.createBestAvailableBackgroundScheduler(context, this),
                // Specify the task executor directly here as this happens before internalInit.
                // GreedyScheduler creates ConstraintTrackers and controllers eagerly.
                new GreedyScheduler(context, taskExecutor, this));
    }

返回来,在代码里getInstance的时候,是第二次初始化,就只是获取了对应的workmanagerImpl类,单例的

初始化环节结束

二、执行流程

首先上图,整体的类uml关系图

 

首先进入enque

workmanagerImpl

   @Override
    @NonNull
    public Operation enqueue(
            @NonNull List<? extends WorkRequest> workRequests) {

        // This error is not being propagated as part of the Operation, as we want the
        // app to crash during development. Having no workRequests is always a developer error.
        if (workRequests.isEmpty()) {
            throw new IllegalArgumentException(
                    "enqueue needs at least one WorkRequest.");
        }
        return new WorkContinuationImpl(this, workRequests).enqueue();
    }

WorkContinuationImpl

  @Override
    public @NonNull Operation enqueue() {
        // Only enqueue if not already enqueued.
        if (!mEnqueued) {
            // The runnable walks the hierarchy of the continuations
            // and marks them enqueued using the markEnqueued() method, parent first.
//这里开启了线程,使用线程池
            EnqueueRunnable runnable = new EnqueueRunnable(this);
            mWorkManagerImpl.getWorkTaskExecutor().executeOnBackgroundThread(runnable);
            mOperation = runnable.getOperation();
        } else {
            Logger.get().warning(TAG,
                    String.format("Already enqueued work ids (%s)", TextUtils.join(", ", mIds)));
        }
        return mOperation;
    }

EnqueueRunnable 来看一下做了什么

    @Override
    public void run() {
        try {
            if (mWorkContinuation.hasCycles()) {
                throw new IllegalStateException(
                        String.format("WorkContinuation has cycles (%s)", mWorkContinuation));
            }
//建立数据库的初始化
            boolean needsScheduling = addToDatabase();
            if (needsScheduling) {
                // Enable RescheduleReceiver, only when there are Worker's that need scheduling.
                final Context context =
                        mWorkContinuation.getWorkManagerImpl().getApplicationContext();
                PackageManagerHelper.setComponentEnabled(context, RescheduleReceiver.class, true);
                scheduleWorkInBackground();
            }
            mOperation.setState(Operation.SUCCESS);
        } catch (Throwable exception) {
            mOperation.setState(new Operation.State.FAILURE(exception));
        }
    }

    @VisibleForTesting
    public void scheduleWorkInBackground() {
        WorkManagerImpl workManager = mWorkContinuation.getWorkManagerImpl();
        Schedulers.schedule(
//获取配置的信息,开启执行调度
                workManager.getConfiguration(),
                workManager.getWorkDatabase(),
                workManager.getSchedulers());
    }

来看一下schedule,保存了所有的manager,使用了贪婪执行器GreedyScheduler,添加

 public static void schedule(
            @NonNull Configuration configuration,
            @NonNull WorkDatabase workDatabase,
            List<Scheduler> schedulers) {
        if (schedulers == null || schedulers.size() == 0) {
            return;
        }
//遍历。将任务同步到数据库
        WorkSpecDao workSpecDao = workDatabase.workSpecDao();
        List<WorkSpec> eligibleWorkSpecs;
    //开启事务。可以回滚
        workDatabase.beginTransaction();
        try {
            eligibleWorkSpecs = workSpecDao.getEligibleWorkForScheduling(
                    configuration.getMaxSchedulerLimit());
            if (eligibleWorkSpecs != null && eligibleWorkSpecs.size() > 0) {
                long now = System.currentTimeMillis();

                // Mark all the WorkSpecs as scheduled.
                // Calls to Scheduler#schedule() could potentially result in more schedules
                // on a separate thread. Therefore, this needs to be done first.

                for (WorkSpec workSpec : eligibleWorkSpecs) {
                    workSpecDao.markWorkSpecScheduled(workSpec.id, now);
                }
            }
            workDatabase.setTransactionSuccessful();
        } finally {
            workDatabase.endTransaction();
        }
//
        if (eligibleWorkSpecs != null && eligibleWorkSpecs.size() > 0) {
            WorkSpec[] eligibleWorkSpecsArray = eligibleWorkSpecs.toArray(new WorkSpec[0]);
            // Delegate to the underlying scheduler.

            for (Scheduler scheduler : schedulers) {
//这里对应之前的贪婪执行器GreedyScheduler
                scheduler.schedule(eligibleWorkSpecsArray);
            }
        }
    }

GreedyScheduler

  @Override
    public void schedule(@NonNull WorkSpec... workSpecs) {
      ...

        registerExecutionListenerIfNeeded();
        List<WorkSpec> constrainedWorkSpecs = new ArrayList<>();
        List<String> constrainedWorkSpecIds = new ArrayList<>();
        for (WorkSpec workSpec : workSpecs) {
            if (workSpec.state == WorkInfo.State.ENQUEUED
                    && !workSpec.isPeriodic()
                    && workSpec.initialDelay == 0L
                    && !workSpec.isBackedOff()) {
                if (workSpec.hasConstraints()) {
 //有约束的执行流程
                    if (SDK_INT >= 23 && workSpec.constraints.requiresDeviceIdle()) {
                        // Ignore requests that have an idle mode constraint.
                        Logger.get().debug(TAG,
                                String.format("Ignoring WorkSpec %s, Requires device idle.",
                                        workSpec));
                    } else if (SDK_INT >= 24 && workSpec.constraints.hasContentUriTriggers()) {
                        // Ignore requests that have content uri triggers.
                        Logger.get().debug(TAG,
                                String.format("Ignoring WorkSpec %s, Requires ContentUri triggers.",
                                        workSpec));
                    } else {
                        constrainedWorkSpecs.add(workSpec);
                        constrainedWorkSpecIds.add(workSpec.id);
                    }
                } else {
//无约束条件的执行流程
                    Logger.get().debug(TAG, String.format("Starting work for %s", workSpec.id));
                    mWorkManagerImpl.startWork(workSpec.id);
                }
            }
        }

        synchronized (mLock) {
            if (!constrainedWorkSpecs.isEmpty()) {
                Logger.get().debug(TAG, String.format("Starting tracking for [%s]",
                        TextUtils.join(",", constrainedWorkSpecIds)));
                mConstrainedWorkSpecs.addAll(constrainedWorkSpecs);
                mWorkConstraintsTracker.replace(mConstrainedWorkSpecs);
            }
        }
    }

startwork在impl里

  @RestrictTo(RestrictTo.Scope.LIBRARY_GROUP)
    public void startWork(
            @NonNull String workSpecId,
            @Nullable WorkerParameters.RuntimeExtras runtimeExtras) {
//拿到线程池,将任务丢给线程池执行
        mWorkTaskExecutor
                .executeOnBackgroundThread(
                        new StartWorkRunnable(this, workSpecId, runtimeExtras));
    }

具体看一下这个线程

@RestrictTo(RestrictTo.Scope.LIBRARY_GROUP)
public class StartWorkRunnable implements Runnable {

    private WorkManagerImpl mWorkManagerImpl;
    private String mWorkSpecId;
    private WorkerParameters.RuntimeExtras mRuntimeExtras;

    public StartWorkRunnable(
            WorkManagerImpl workManagerImpl,
            String workSpecId,
            WorkerParameters.RuntimeExtras runtimeExtras) {
        mWorkManagerImpl = workManagerImpl;
        mWorkSpecId = workSpecId;
        mRuntimeExtras = runtimeExtras;
    }

    @Override
    public void run() {
        mWorkManagerImpl.getProcessor().startWork(mWorkSpecId, mRuntimeExtras);
    }
}

Processor

 public boolean startWork(
            @NonNull String id,
            @Nullable WorkerParameters.RuntimeExtras runtimeExtras) {

        WorkerWrapper workWrapper;
        ...
//将任务包裹起来,交给线程池
            workWrapper =
                    new WorkerWrapper.Builder(
                            mAppContext,
                            mConfiguration,
                            mWorkTaskExecutor,
                            this,
                            mWorkDatabase,
                            id)
                            .withSchedulers(mSchedulers)
                            .withRuntimeExtras(runtimeExtras)
                            .build();
            ListenableFuture<Boolean> future = workWrapper.getFuture();
            future.addListener(
                    new FutureListener(this, id, future),
                    mWorkTaskExecutor.getMainThreadExecutor());
            mEnqueuedWorkMap.put(id, workWrapper);
        }
        mWorkTaskExecutor.getBackgroundExecutor().execute(workWrapper);
        Logger.get().debug(TAG, String.format("%s: processing %s", getClass().getSimpleName(), id));
        return true;
    }

WorkerWrapper

  @WorkerThread
    @Override
    public void run() {
        mTags = mWorkTagDao.getTagsForWorkSpecId(mWorkSpecId);
        mWorkDescription = createWorkDescription(mTags);
        runWorker();
    }

 

private void runWorker() {
      ...
  // Call mWorker.startWork() on the main thread.
            mWorkTaskExecutor.getMainThreadExecutor()
                    .execute(new Runnable() {
                        @Override
                        public void run() {
                            try {
                                Logger.get().debug(TAG, String.format("Starting work for %s",
                                        mWorkSpec.workerClassName));
                                mInnerFuture = mWorker.startWork();
                                future.setFuture(mInnerFuture);
                            } catch (Throwable e) {
                                future.setException(e);
                            }

                        }
                    });

      ...
    }

Worker

doWork就是我们实现的work类的实现方法,因为步骤都是异步操作,所以可以执行睡眠等操作

    @Override
    public final @NonNull ListenableFuture<Result> startWork() {
        mFuture = SettableFuture.create();
        getBackgroundExecutor().execute(new Runnable() {
            @Override
            public void run() {
                try {
                    Result result = doWork();
//doWork
                    mFuture.set(result);
                } catch (Throwable throwable) {
                    mFuture.setException(throwable);
                }

            }
        });
        return mFuture;
    }


    @WorkerThread
    public abstract @NonNull Result doWork();

 

至此,主线流程打通

三、一些疑问

1、为什么飞行模式到网络连接打开就能收到work的启动

应用杀掉以后,系统服务还在。会有‘轮询机’会读取room数据库,apk的清单文件,已经把所有的信息保存进去了

当网络打开的时候,接收信息的是谁呢,

ConstraintProxy

abstract class ConstraintProxy extends BroadcastReceiver {
    private static final String TAG = Logger.tagWithPrefix("ConstraintProxy");

    @Override
    public void onReceive(Context context, Intent intent) {
        Logger.get().debug(TAG, String.format("onReceive : %s", intent));
        Intent constraintChangedIntent = CommandHandler.createConstraintsChangedIntent(context);
        context.startService(constraintChangedIntent);
    }
}

 

CommandHandler

   static Intent createConstraintsChangedIntent(@NonNull Context context) {
        Intent intent = new Intent(context, SystemAlarmService.class);
        intent.setAction(ACTION_CONSTRAINTS_CHANGED);
        return intent;
    }

 

SystemAlarmService系统闹钟分发器

intent == createConstraintsChangedIntent返回          

startId == ACTION_CONSTRAINTS_CHANGED
mDispatcher.add(intent, startId);

   @Override
    public int onStartCommand(Intent intent, int flags, int startId) {
        super.onStartCommand(intent, flags, startId);
        if (mIsShutdown) {
            Logger.get().info(TAG,
                    "Re-initializing SystemAlarmDispatcher after a request to shut-down.");

            // Destroy the old dispatcher to complete it's lifecycle.
            mDispatcher.onDestroy();
            // Create a new dispatcher to setup a new lifecycle.
            initializeDispatcher();
            // Set mIsShutdown to false, to correctly accept new commands.
            mIsShutdown = false;
        }

        if (intent != null) {
            mDispatcher.add(intent, startId);
        }

        // If the service were to crash, we want all unacknowledged Intents to get redelivered.
        return Service.START_REDELIVER_INTENT;
    }

SystemAlarmDispatcher

processCommand(); 执行此命令 

 @MainThread
    public boolean add(@NonNull final Intent intent, final int startId) {
        Logger.get().debug(TAG, String.format("Adding command %s (%s)", intent, startId));
        assertMainThread();
        String action = intent.getAction();
        if (TextUtils.isEmpty(action)) {
            Logger.get().warning(TAG, "Unknown command. Ignoring");
            return false;
        }

        // If we have a constraints changed intent in the queue don't add a second one. We are
        // treating this intent as special because every time a worker with constraints is complete
        // it kicks off an update for constraint proxies.
        if (CommandHandler.ACTION_CONSTRAINTS_CHANGED.equals(action)
                && hasIntentWithAction(CommandHandler.ACTION_CONSTRAINTS_CHANGED)) {
            return false;
        }

        intent.putExtra(KEY_START_ID, startId);
        synchronized (mIntents) {
            boolean hasCommands = !mIntents.isEmpty();
            mIntents.add(intent);
            if (!hasCommands) {
                // Only call processCommand if this is the first command.
                // The call to dequeueAndCheckForCompletion will process the remaining commands
                // in the order that they were added.
                processCommand();
            }
        }
        return true;
    }

 

 @MainThread
    @SuppressWarnings("FutureReturnValueIgnored")
    private void processCommand() {
        assertMainThread();
  ...
//电池优化
                        final PowerManager.WakeLock wakeLock = WakeLocks.newWakeLock(
                                mContext,
                                String.format("%s (%s)", action, startId));
                        try {
                            Logger.get().debug(TAG, String.format(
                                    "Acquiring operation wake lock (%s) %s",
                                    action,
                                    wakeLock));

                            wakeLock.acquire();
//注意这里
                            mCommandHandler.onHandleIntent(mCurrentIntent, startId,
                       .....
        } finally {
            processCommandLock.release();
        }
    }

注意这里走到之前定义的字段ACTION_CONSTRAINTS_CHANGED

目的是更换标记将ACTION_CONSTRAINTS_CHANGED 换标记 ACTION_DELAY_MET

void onHandleIntent(
            @NonNull Intent intent,
            int startId,
            @NonNull SystemAlarmDispatcher dispatcher) {

        String action = intent.getAction();

        if (ACTION_CONSTRAINTS_CHANGED.equals(action)) {
            handleConstraintsChanged(intent, startId, dispatcher);
        } else if (ACTION_RESCHEDULE.equals(action)) {
            handleReschedule(intent, startId, dispatcher);
        } else {
            Bundle extras = intent.getExtras();
            if (!hasKeys(extras, KEY_WORKSPEC_ID)) {
                Logger.get().error(TAG,
                        String.format("Invalid request for %s, requires %s.",
                                action,
                                KEY_WORKSPEC_ID));
            } else {
                if (ACTION_SCHEDULE_WORK.equals(action)) {
                    handleScheduleWorkIntent(intent, startId, dispatcher);
                } else if (ACTION_DELAY_MET.equals(action)) {
                    handleDelayMet(intent, startId, dispatcher);
                } else if (ACTION_STOP_WORK.equals(action)) {
                    handleStopWork(intent, dispatcher);
                } else if (ACTION_EXECUTION_COMPLETED.equals(action)) {
                    handleExecutionCompleted(intent, startId);
                } else {
                    Logger.get().warning(TAG, String.format("Ignoring intent %s", intent));
                }
            }
        }
    }

接下来就会执行,目的是为了做执行操作,会重新添加add,所以上面的if会执行好几次

else if (ACTION_DELAY_MET.equals(action)) {
                    handleDelayMet(intent, startId, dispatcher);
                }

这个执行操作一点一点往里点,最终会点到startwork,调用到我们自己的work实现类里,完成唤醒操作

public void onAllConstraintsMet(@NonNull List<String> workSpecIds) {
     ......

        synchronized (mLock) {
            if (mCurrentState == STATE_INITIAL) {
                mCurrentState = STATE_START_REQUESTED;

                Logger.get().debug(TAG, String.format("onAllConstraintsMet for %s", mWorkSpecId));
                // Constraints met, schedule execution
                // Not using WorkManagerImpl#startWork() here because we need to know if the
                // processor actually enqueued the work here.
//衔接到了之前的starrkwork
                boolean isEnqueued = mDispatcher.getProcessor().startWork(mWorkSpecId);

                if (isEnqueued) {
                    // setup timers to enforce quotas on workers that have
                    // been enqueued
                    mDispatcher.getWorkTimer()
                            .startTimer(mWorkSpecId, WORK_PROCESSING_TIME_IN_MS, this);
......
        }
    }

 


WorkManager是干嘛用的?
答:处理非及时任务,举例子:每天同步一次数据到服务器,这种类似的需求,不是及时执行,但是又保证会执行的非及时任务。

WorkManager是怎么保证,当我把APP杀掉后呢?
答:记录用户的所有信息并全部保存到数据库,而并非保存在内存中,这样做的好处,就是持久性保存记录,所有APP被杀掉后 依然可以获取所有任务信息。

你研究过WorKManager源码,任务是怎么保证一定执行的呀?
答:Android操作系统会在系统级别服务中,来判断用户的约束条件,当约束条件满足时就会执行任务,但是触发检测是采用广播的形式处理的,例如:网络连接成功 就触发...。

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

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