sql load的一点小总结

sqlldr userid=lgone/tiger control=a.ctl
LOAD DATA
INFILE 't.dat' // 要导入的文件
// INFILE 'tt.date' // 导入多个文件
// INFILE * // 要导入的内容就在control文件里 下面的BEGINDATA后面就是导入的内容

INTO TABLE table_name // 指定装入的表
BADFILE 'c:bad.txt' // 指定坏文件地址

************* 以下是4种装入表的方式
APPEND // 原先的表有数据 就加在后面
// INSERT // 装载空表 如果原先的表有数据 sqlloader会停止 默认值
// REPLACE // 原先的表有数据 原先的数据会全部删除
// TRUNCATE // 指定的内容和replace的相同 会用truncate语句删除现存数据

************* 指定的TERMINATED可以在表的开头 也可在表的内部字段部分
FIELDS TERMINATED BY ',' OPTIONALLY ENCLOSED BY '"'
// 装载这种数据: 10,lg,"""lg""","lg,lg"
// 在表中结果: 10 lg "lg" lg,lg
// TERMINATED BY X '09' // 以十六进制格式 '09' 表示的
// TERMINATED BY WRITESPACE // 装载这种数据: 10 lg lg

TRAILING NULLCOLS ************* 表的字段没有对应的值时允许为空

************* 下面是表的字段
(
col_1 , col_2 ,col_filler FILLER // FILLER 关键字 此列的数值不会被装载
// 如: lg,lg,not 结果 lg lg
)
// 当没声明FIELDS TERMINATED BY ',' 时
// (
// col_1 [interger external] TERMINATED BY ',' ,
// col_2 [date "dd-mon-yyy"] TERMINATED BY ',' ,
// col_3 [char] TERMINATED BY ',' OPTIONALLY ENCLOSED BY 'lg'
// )
// 当没声明FIELDS TERMINATED BY ','用位置告诉字段装载数据
// (
// col_1 position(1:2),
// col_2 position(3:10),
// col_3 position(*:16), // 这个字段的开始位置在前一字段的结束位置
// col_4 position(1:16),
// col_5 position(3:10) char(8) // 指定字段的类型
// )

BEGINDATA // 对应开始的 INFILE * 要导入的内容就在control文件里
10,Sql,what
20,lg,show

=====================================================================================
//////////// 注意begindata后的数值前面不能有空格

1 ***** 普通装载
LOAD DATA
INFILE *
INTO TABLE DEPT
REPLACE
FIELDS TERMINATED BY ',' OPTIONALLY ENCLOSED BY '"'
(DEPTNO,
DNAME,
LOC
)
BEGINDATA
10,Sales,"""USA"""
20,Accounting,"Virginia,USA"
30,Consulting,Virginia
40,Finance,Virginia
50,"Finance","",Virginia // loc 列将为空
60,"Finance",,Virginia // loc 列将为空

2 ***** FIELDS TERMINATED BY WHITESPACE 和 FIELDS TERMINATED BY x'09' 的情况
LOAD DATA
INFILE *
INTO TABLE DEPT
REPLACE
FIELDS TERMINATED BY WHITESPACE
-- FIELDS TERMINATED BY x'09'
(DEPTNO,
DNAME,
LOC
)
BEGINDATA
10 Sales Virginia

3 ***** 指定不装载那一列
LOAD DATA
INFILE *
INTO TABLE DEPT
REPLACE
FIELDS TERMINATED BY ',' OPTIONALLY ENCLOSED BY '"'
( DEPTNO,
FILLER_1 FILLER, // 下面的 "Something Not To Be Loaded" 将不会被装载
DNAME,
LOC
)
BEGINDATA
20,Something Not To Be Loaded,Accounting,"Virginia,USA"

4 ***** position的列子
LOAD DATA
INFILE *
INTO TABLE DEPT
REPLACE
( DEPTNO position(1:2),
DNAME position(*:16), // 这个字段的开始位置在前一字段的结束位置
LOC position(*:29),
ENTIRE_LINE position(1:29)
)
BEGINDATA
10Accounting Virginia,USA

5 ***** 使用函数 日期的一种表达 TRAILING NULLCOLS的使用
LOAD DATA
INFILE *
INTO TABLE DEPT
REPLACE
FIELDS TERMINATED BY ','
TRAILING NULLCOLS // 其实下面的ENTIRE_LINE在BEGINDATA后面的数据中是没有直接对应
// 的列的值的 如果第一行改为 10,Sales,Virginia,1/5/2000,, 就不用TRAILING NULLCOLS了
(DEPTNO,
DNAME "upper(:dname)", // 使用函数
LOC "upper(:loc)",
LAST_UPDATED date 'dd/mm/yyyy', // 日期的一种表达方式 还有'dd-mon-yyyy' 等
ENTIRE_LINE ":deptno||:dname||:loc||:last_updated"
)
BEGINDATA
10,Sales,Virginia,1/5/2000
20,Accounting,Virginia,21/6/1999
30,Consulting,Virginia,5/1/2000
40,Finance,Virginia,15/3/2001

6 ***** 使用自定义的函数 // 解决的时间问题
create or replace
function my_to_date( p_string in varchar2 ) return date
as
type fmtArray is table of varchar2(25);

l_fmts fmtArray := fmtArray( 'dd-mon-yyyy', 'dd-month-yyyy',
'dd/mm/yyyy',
'dd/mm/yyyy hh24:mi:ss' );
l_return date;
begin
for i in 1 .. l_fmts.count
loop
begin
l_return := to_date( p_string, l_fmts(i) );
exception
when others then null;
end;
EXIT when l_return is not null;
end loop;

if ( l_return is null )
then
l_return :=
new_time( to_date('01011970','ddmmyyyy') + 1/24/60/60 *
p_string, 'GMT', 'EST' );
end if;

return l_return;
end;
/

LOAD DATA
INFILE *
INTO TABLE DEPT
REPLACE
FIELDS TERMINATED BY ','
TRAILING NULLCOLS
(DEPTNO,
DNAME "upper(:dname)",
LOC "upper(:loc)",
LAST_UPDATED "my_to_date( :last_updated )" // 使用自定义的函数
)
BEGINDATA
10,Sales,Virginia,01-april-2001
20,Accounting,Virginia,13/04/2001
30,Consulting,Virginia,14/04/2001 12:02:02
40,Finance,Virginia,987268297
50,Finance,Virginia,02-apr-2001
60,Finance,Virginia,Not a date

7 ***** 合并多行记录为一行记录
LOAD DATA
INFILE *
concatenate 3 // 通过关键字concatenate 把几行的记录看成一行记录
INTO TABLE DEPT
replace
FIELDS TERMINATED BY ','
(DEPTNO,
DNAME "upper(:dname)",
LOC "upper(:loc)",
LAST_UPDATED date 'dd/mm/yyyy'
)
BEGINDATA
10,Sales, // 其实这3行看成一行 10,Sales,Virginia,1/5/2000
Virginia,
1/5/2000
// 这列子用 continueif list="," 也可以
告诉sqlldr在每行的末尾找逗号 找到逗号就把下一行附加到上一行

LOAD DATA
INFILE *
continueif this(1:1) = '-' // 找每行的开始是否有连接字符 - 有就把下一行连接为一行
// 如 -10,Sales,Virginia,
// 1/5/2000 就是一行 10,Sales,Virginia,1/5/2000
// 其中1:1 表示从第一行开始 并在第一行结束 还有continueif next 但continueif list最理想
INTO TABLE DEPT
replace
FIELDS TERMINATED BY ','
(DEPTNO,
DNAME "upper(:dname)",
LOC "upper(:loc)",
LAST_UPDATED date 'dd/mm/yyyy'
)
BEGINDATA // 但是好象不能象右面的那样使用
-10,Sales,Virginia, -10,Sales,Virginia,
1/5/2000 1/5/2000
-40, 40,Finance,Virginia,13/04/2001
Finance,Virginia,13/04/2001

8 ***** 载入每行的行号

load data
infile *
into table t
replace
( seqno RECNUM //载入每行的行号
text Position(1:1024))
BEGINDATA
fsdfasj //自动分配一行号给载入 表t 的seqno字段 此行为 1
fasdjfasdfl // 此行为 2 ...

9 ***** 载入有换行符的数据
注意: unix 和 windows 不同 n & /n
< 1 > 使用一个非换行符的字符
LOAD DATA
INFILE *
INTO TABLE DEPT
REPLACE
FIELDS TERMINATED BY ','
TRAILING NULLCOLS
(DEPTNO,
DNAME "upper(:dname)",
LOC "upper(:loc)",
LAST_UPDATED "my_to_date( :last_updated )",
COMMENTS "replace(:comments,'n',chr(10))" // replace 的使用帮助转换换行符
)
BEGINDATA
10,Sales,Virginia,01-april-2001,This is the SalesnOffice in Virginia
20,Accounting,Virginia,13/04/2001,This is the AccountingnOffice in Virginia
30,Consulting,Virginia,14/04/2001 12:02:02,This is the ConsultingnOffice in Virginia
40,Finance,Virginia,987268297,This is the FinancenOffice in Virginia

< 2 > 使用fix属性
LOAD DATA
INFILE demo17.dat "fix 101"
INTO TABLE DEPT
REPLACE
FIELDS TERMINATED BY ','
TRAILING NULLCOLS
(DEPTNO,
DNAME "upper(:dname)",
LOC "upper(:loc)",
LAST_UPDATED "my_to_date( :last_updated )",
COMMENTS
)
demo17.dat
10,Sales,Virginia,01-april-2001,This is the Sales
Office in Virginia
20,Accounting,Virginia,13/04/2001,This is the Accounting
Office in Virginia
30,Consulting,Virginia,14/04/2001 12:02:02,This is the Consulting
Office in Virginia
40,Finance,Virginia,987268297,This is the Finance
Office in Virginia

// 这样装载会把换行符装入数据库 下面的方法就不会 但要求数据的格式不同

LOAD DATA
INFILE demo18.dat "fix 101"
INTO TABLE DEPT
REPLACE
FIELDS TERMINATED BY ',' OPTIONALLY ENCLOSED BY '"'
TRAILING NULLCOLS
(DEPTNO,
DNAME "upper(:dname)",
LOC "upper(:loc)",
LAST_UPDATED "my_to_date( :last_updated )",
COMMENTS
)
demo18.dat
10,Sales,Virginia,01-april-2001,"This is the Sales
Office in Virginia"
20,Accounting,Virginia,13/04/2001,"This is the Accounting
Office in Virginia"
30,Consulting,Virginia,14/04/2001 12:02:02,"This is the Consulting
Office in Virginia"
40,Finance,Virginia,987268297,"This is the Finance
Office in Virginia"

< 3 > 使用var属性
LOAD DATA
INFILE demo19.dat "var 3"
// 3 告诉每个记录的前3个字节表示记录的长度 如第一个记录的 071 表示此记录有 71 个字节
INTO TABLE DEPT
REPLACE
FIELDS TERMINATED BY ','
TRAILING NULLCOLS
(DEPTNO,
DNAME "upper(:dname)",
LOC "upper(:loc)",
LAST_UPDATED "my_to_date( :last_updated )",
COMMENTS
)
demo19.dat
07110,Sales,Virginia,01-april-2001,This is the Sales
Office in Virginia
07820,Accounting,Virginia,13/04/2001,This is the Accounting
Office in Virginia
08730,Consulting,Virginia,14/04/2001 12:02:02,This is the Consulting
Office in Virginia
07140,Finance,Virginia,987268297,This is the Finance
Office in Virginia

< 4 > 使用str属性
// 最灵活的一中 可定义一个新的行结尾符 win 回车换行 : chr(13)||chr(10)

此列中记录是以 a|rn 结束的
select utl_raw.cast_to_raw('|'||chr(13)||chr(10)) from dual;
结果 7C0D0A

LOAD DATA
INFILE demo20.dat "str X'7C0D0A'"
INTO TABLE DEPT
REPLACE
FIELDS TERMINATED BY ','
TRAILING NULLCOLS
(DEPTNO,
DNAME "upper(:dname)",
LOC "upper(:loc)",
LAST_UPDATED "my_to_date( :last_updated )",
COMMENTS
)
demo20.dat
10,Sales,Virginia,01-april-2001,This is the Sales
Office in Virginia|
20,Accounting,Virginia,13/04/2001,This is the Accounting
Office in Virginia|
30,Consulting,Virginia,14/04/2001 12:02:02,This is the Consulting
Office in Virginia|
40,Finance,Virginia,987268297,This is the Finance
Office in Virginia|

==============================================================================
象这样的数据 用 nullif 子句

10-jan-200002350Flipper seemed unusually hungry today.
10510-jan-200009945Spread over three meals.

id position(1:3) nullif id=blanks // 这里可以是blanks 或者别的表达式
// 下面是另一个列子 第一行的 1 在数据库中将成为 null
LOAD DATA
INFILE *
INTO TABLE T
REPLACE
(n position(1:2) integer external nullif n='1',
v position(3:8)
)
BEGINDATA
1 10
20lg

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