Window窗口机制(三)——WindowManager,ViewRootImpl,View理解

在之前的文章中我们说到DecorView在handleResumeActivity方法中被绑定到了WindowManager,也就是调用了windowManager.addView(decorView)。而WindowManager的实现类是WindowManagerImpl,而它则是通过WindowManagerGlobal代理实现addView的,我们来看一下addView()方法。

public void addView(View view, ViewGroup.LayoutParams params,
            Display display, Window parentWindow) {

	if (view == null) {
            throw new IllegalArgumentException("view must not be null");
        }
        if (display == null) {
            throw new IllegalArgumentException("display must not be null");
        }
        if (!(params instanceof WindowManager.LayoutParams)) {
            throw new IllegalArgumentException("Params must be WindowManager.LayoutParams");
        }
        
	final WindowManager.LayoutParams wparams = (WindowManager.LayoutParams) params;
	ViewRootImpl root;
    View panelParentView = null;

	root = new ViewRootImpl(view.getContext(), display);
	view.setLayoutParams(wparams);
	mViews.add(view);
	mRoots.add(root);
	mParams.add(wparams);
	//ViewRootImpl开始绘制view
	root.setView(view, wparams, panelParentView);
}

可以看到在WindowManagerGlobal的addView中,最后是调用了ViewRootImpl的setView方法,我们来看一下ViewRootImpl。

ViewRootImpl

ViewRootImpl是一个视图层次结构的顶部,它实现了View与WindowManager之间所需要的协议,作为WindowManagerGlobal中大部分的内部实现,也就说WindowManagerGlobal方法最后还是调用到了ViewRootImpl。

addView,removeView,update调用顺序
WindowManagerImpl -> WindowManagerGlobal -> ViewRootImpl

public void setView(View view, WindowManager.LayoutParams attrs, View panelParentView) {

	requestLayout();

	res = mWindowSession.addToDisplay(mWindow, mSeq, mWindowAttributes,
                            getHostVisibility(), mDisplay.getDisplayId(), mWinFrame,
                            mAttachInfo.mContentInsets, mAttachInfo.mStableInsets,
                            mAttachInfo.mOutsets, mAttachInfo.mDisplayCutout, mInputChannel);
}

在setView方法中,首先会调用到requestLayout(),表示添加Window之前先完成第一次layout布局过程,以确保在收到任何系统事件后面重新布局。requestLayout最终会调用performTraversals方法来完成View的绘制。

接着会通过WindowSession最终来完成Window的添加过程。在下面的代码中mWindowSession类型是IWindowSession,它是一个Binder对象,真正的实现类是Session,也就是说这其实是一次IPC过程,远程调用了Session中的addToDisPlay方法。

public int addToDisplay(IWindow window, int seq, WindowManager.LayoutParams attrs,
            int viewVisibility, int displayId, Rect outContentInsets, Rect outStableInsets,
            Rect outOutsets, InputChannel outInputChannel) {
        return mService.addWindow(this, window, seq, attrs, viewVisibility, displayId,
                outContentInsets, outStableInsets, outOutsets, outInputChannel);
    }

这里的mService就是WindowManagerService,也就是说Window的添加请求,最终是通过WindowManagerService来添加的。

View通过ViewRootImpl来绘制

前面说到,ViewRootImpl调用到requestLayout()来完成View的绘制操作:

public void requestLayout() {
        if (!mHandlingLayoutInLayoutRequest) {
            checkThread();
            mLayoutRequested = true;
            scheduleTraversals();
        }
    }

void checkThread() {
        if (mThread != Thread.currentThread()) {
            throw new CalledFromWrongThreadException(
                    "Only the original thread that created a view hierarchy can touch its views.");
        }
    }

View绘制,先判断当前线程,如果不是当前线程则抛出异常,当你在子线程更新UI没使用handler的话就会抛出这个异常。一般在子线程操作UI都会调用到view.invalidate,而View的重绘会触发ViewRootImpl的requestLayout,就会去判断当前线程。

判断完线程后,接着调用scheduleTraversals()。

void scheduleTraversals() {
	if (!mTraversalScheduled) {
		mTraversalScheduled = true;
		mChoreographer.postCallback(
                    Choreographer.CALLBACK_TRAVERSAL, mTraversalRunnable, null);
	}
}

final TraversalRunnable mTraversalRunnable = new TraversalRunnable();
final class TraversalRunnable implements Runnable {
        @Override
        public void run() {
            doTraversal();
        }
    }

void doTraversal() {
	performTraversals();
}

private void performTraversals() {  
        ... 
        performMeasure(childWidthMeasureSpec, childHeightMeasureSpec);
        ...
        performLayout(lp, desiredWindowWidth, desiredWindowHeight);
        ...
        performDraw();
        ...
    }
//这几个方法最终都会调用
int childWidthMeasureSpec = getRootMeasureSpec(mWidth, lp.width);  
int childHeightMeasureSpec = getRootMeasureSpec(mHeight, lp.height);  
mView.measure(childWidthMeasureSpec, childHeightMeasureSpec);  
mView.layout(0, 0, mView.getMeasuredWidth(), mView.getMeasuredHeight());  
mView.draw(canvas);

performTraversals方法会经过measure、layout和draw三个过程才能将一个View绘制出来,所以View的绘制是ViewRootImpl完成的,另外当手动调用invalidate,postInvalidate,requestLayout最终也会调用performTraversals,来重新绘制View。

View何时被绘制

以SetContentView为例,当Activity的onCreate调用到了setContentView后,view就会被绘制了吗?肯定不是,setContentView只是把需要添加的View的结构添加保存在DecorView中,此时的DecorView还并没有被绘制(没有触发view.measure,layout,draw)。

DecorView真正的绘制显示是在activity.handleResumeActivity方法中DecorView被添加到WindowManager时候,也就是调用到windowManager.addView(decorView)。而在windowManager.addView方法中调用到windowManagerGlobal.addView,开始创建初始化ViewRootImpl,再调用到viewRootImpl.setView,最后是调用到viewRootImpl的performTraversals来进行view的绘制(measure,layout,draw),这个时候View才真正被绘制出来。

这也就是为什么我们在onCreate方法中调用view.getMeasureHeight() = 0的原因,我们知道activity.handleResumeActivity最后调用到的是activity的onResume方法,但是按上面所说在onResume方法中调用就可以得到了吗,答案肯定是否定的,因为ViewRootImpl绘制View并非是同步的,而是异步(Handler)。

而是通过以下方式监听:

view.getViewTreeObserver().addOnGlobalLayoutListener(new OnGlobalLayoutListener() {
    @Override
    public void onGlobalLayout() {

    }
});

因为在viewRootImpl的performTraversals的绘制最后,调用了

private void performTraversals() {
	performMeasure(childWidthMeasureSpec, childHeightMeasureSpec);
	performLayout(lp, mWidth, mHeight);

	if (triggerGlobalLayoutListener) {
		mAttachInfo.mRecomputeGlobalAttributes = false;
        mAttachInfo.mTreeObserver.dispatchOnGlobalLayout();
	}
	performDraw();
}

dispatchOnGlobalLayout会触发OnGlobalLayoutListener的onGlobalLayout()函数回调
但此时View并还没有绘制显示出来,只是先调用了measure和layout,但也可以得到它的宽高了。

总结

public class Window/PhoneWindow(){
	public WindowManager getWindowManager() {
        return mWindowManager;
    }
	
	public final Callback getCallback() {
        return mCallback;
    }

	public final View getDecorView() {
        if (mDecor == null || mForceDecorInstall) {
            installDecor();
        }
        return mDecor;
    }

	private ViewRootImpl getViewRootImpl() {
        if (mDecor != null) {
            ViewRootImpl viewRootImpl = mDecor.getViewRootImpl();
            if (viewRootImpl != null) {
                return viewRootImpl;
            }
        }
        throw new IllegalStateException("view not added");
    }
}
public class Activity(){
	public Window getWindow() {
		//PhoneWindow
        return mWindow;
    }

	public WindowManager getWindowManager() {
		//WindowManagerImpl
        return mWindowManager;
    }
}

public class View(){
	public ViewRootImpl getViewRootImpl() {
        if (mAttachInfo != null) {
            return mAttachInfo.mViewRootImpl;
        }
        return null;
    }

	protected IWindow getWindow() {
        return mAttachInfo != null ? mAttachInfo.mWindow : null;
    }
}
  • 之所以说ViewRootImpl是View和WindowManager的桥梁,是因为在真正操控绘制View的是ViewRootImpl,View通过WindowManager来转接调用ViewRootImpl;
  • 在ViewRootImpl未初始化创建的时候是可以进行子线程更新UI的,而它创建是在activity.handleResumeActivity方法调用,即DecorView被添加到WindowManager的时候;
  • ViewRootImpl绘制View的时候会先检查当前线程是否是主线程,是才能继续绘制下去;
    WindowManager机制
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