Mybatis的核心——SqlSession解读

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在spring中,dao层大多都是用Mybatis,那么

1,Mybatis执行sql最重要的是什么?

在以前对Mybatis的源码解读中,我们知道,Mybatis利用了动态代理来做,最后实现的类是MapperProxy,在最后执行具体的方法时,实际上执行的是:

@Override
  public Object invoke(Object proxy, Method method, Object[] args) throws Throwable {
    if (Object.class.equals(method.getDeclaringClass())) {
      try {
        return method.invoke(this, args);
      } catch (Throwable t) {
        throw ExceptionUtil.unwrapThrowable(t);
      }
    }
    final MapperMethod mapperMethod = cachedMapperMethod(method);
    return mapperMethod.execute(sqlSession, args);
  }

最重要的一步:

mapperMethod.execute(sqlSession, args);

这里的sqlSession 其实是在Spring的配置时设置的 sqlSessionTemplate,随便对其中的一个进行跟进:可以在sqlSessionTemplate类中发现很好这样的方法,用来执行具体的sql,如:

@Override
  public <T> T selectOne(String statement, Object parameter) {
    return this.sqlSessionProxy.<T> selectOne(statement, parameter);
  }

这一步就是最后执行的方法,那么问题来了 sqlSessionProxy 到底是啥呢? 这又得回到最开始。

2,使用mybatis连接mysql时一般都是需要注入SqlSessionFactory,SqlSessionTemplate,PlatformTransactionManager。

其中SqlSessionTemplate是生成sqlSession的模版,来看他的注入过程(注解形式注入):

@Bean
public SqlSessionTemplate sqlSessionTemplate(SqlSessionFactory sqlSessionFactory) {
    return new SqlSessionTemplate(sqlSessionFactory);
}

在这个初始化过程中:

 /**
* Constructs a Spring managed {@code SqlSession} with    the given
* {@code SqlSessionFactory} and {@code ExecutorType}.
* A custom {@code SQLExceptionTranslator} can be provided as an
* argument so any {@code PersistenceException} thrown by MyBatis
* can be custom translated to a {@code  RuntimeException}
* The {@code SQLExceptionTranslator} can also be null and thus no
* exception translation will be done and MyBatis exceptions will be
* thrown
*
* @param sqlSessionFactory
* @param executorType
* @param exceptionTranslator
*/
public SqlSessionTemplate(SqlSessionFactory sqlSessionFactory, ExecutorType executorType,
  PersistenceExceptionTranslator exceptionTranslator) {

notNull(sqlSessionFactory, "Property 'sqlSessionFactory' is required");
notNull(executorType, "Property 'executorType' is required");

this.sqlSessionFactory = sqlSessionFactory;
this.executorType = executorType;
this.exceptionTranslator = exceptionTranslator;
this.sqlSessionProxy = (SqlSession) newProxyInstance(
    SqlSessionFactory.class.getClassLoader(),
    new Class[] { SqlSession.class },
    new SqlSessionInterceptor());

}

最后一步比较重要,用java动态代理生成了一个sqlSessionFactory。代理的类是:

 /**
 * Proxy needed to route MyBatis method calls to the proper SqlSession got
* from Spring's Transaction Manager
* It also unwraps exceptions thrown by {@code Method#invoke(Object, Object...)} to
* pass a {@code PersistenceException} to the {@code PersistenceExceptionTranslator}.
*/
private class SqlSessionInterceptor implements InvocationHandler {
@Override
public Object invoke(Object proxy, Method method, Object[] args) throws Throwable {
  SqlSession sqlSession = getSqlSession(
      SqlSessionTemplate.this.sqlSessionFactory,
      SqlSessionTemplate.this.executorType,
      SqlSessionTemplate.this.exceptionTranslator);
  try {
    Object result = method.invoke(sqlSession, args);
    if (!isSqlSessionTransactional(sqlSession, SqlSessionTemplate.this.sqlSessionFactory)) {
      // force commit even on non-dirty sessions because some databases require
      // a commit/rollback before calling close()
      sqlSession.commit(true);
    }
    return result;
  } catch (Throwable t) {
    Throwable unwrapped = unwrapThrowable(t);
    if (SqlSessionTemplate.this.exceptionTranslator != null && unwrapped instanceof PersistenceException) {
      // release the connection to avoid a deadlock if the translator is no loaded. See issue #22
      closeSqlSession(sqlSession, SqlSessionTemplate.this.sqlSessionFactory);
      sqlSession = null;
      Throwable translated = SqlSessionTemplate.this.exceptionTranslator.translateExceptionIfPossible((PersistenceException) unwrapped);
      if (translated != null) {
        unwrapped = translated;
      }
    }
    throw unwrapped;
  } finally {
    if (sqlSession != null) {
      closeSqlSession(sqlSession, SqlSessionTemplate.this.sqlSessionFactory);
    }
  }
}

}

在sqlSession执行sql的时候就会用这个代理类。isSqlSessionTransactional 这个会判断是不是有Transactional,没有则直接提交。如果有则不提交,在最外层进行提交。

其中

getSqlSession(SqlSessionTemplate.this.sqlSessionFactory,SqlSessionTemplate.this.executorType,SqlSessionTemplate.this.exceptionTranslator);

这个方法用来获取sqlSession。具体实现如下:

  /**
   * Gets an SqlSession from Spring Transaction Manager or creates a new one if needed.
   * Tries to get a SqlSession out of current transaction. If there is not any, it creates a new one.
   * Then, it synchronizes the SqlSession with the transaction if Spring TX is active and
   * <code>SpringManagedTransactionFactory</code> is configured as a transaction manager.
   *
   * @param sessionFactory a MyBatis {@code SqlSessionFactory} to create new sessions
   * @param executorType The executor type of the SqlSession to create
   * @param exceptionTranslator Optional. Translates SqlSession.commit() exceptions to Spring exceptions.
   * @throws TransientDataAccessResourceException if a transaction is active and the
   *             {@code SqlSessionFactory} is not using a {@code SpringManagedTransactionFactory}
   * @see SpringManagedTransactionFactory
   */
  public static SqlSession getSqlSession(SqlSessionFactory sessionFactory, ExecutorType executorType, PersistenceExceptionTranslator exceptionTranslator) {

    notNull(sessionFactory, NO_SQL_SESSION_FACTORY_SPECIFIED);
    notNull(executorType, NO_EXECUTOR_TYPE_SPECIFIED);

    SqlSessionHolder holder = (SqlSessionHolder) TransactionSynchronizationManager.getResource(sessionFactory);

    SqlSession session = sessionHolder(executorType, holder);
    if (session != null) {
      return session;
    }

    if (LOGGER.isDebugEnabled()) {
      LOGGER.debug("Creating a new SqlSession");
    }

    session = sessionFactory.openSession(executorType);

    registerSessionHolder(sessionFactory, executorType, exceptionTranslator, session);

    return session;
  }

这个sqlSession的创建其实看他方法解释就够了,“从Spring事务管理器中获取一个sqlsession,如果没有,则创建一个新的”,这句话的意思其实就是如果有事务,则sqlSession用一个,如果没有,就给你个新的咯。
再通俗易懂一点:如果在事务里,则Spring给你的sqlSession是一个,否则,每一个sql给你一个新的sqlSession。这里生成的sqlSession其实就是DefaultSqlSession了。后续可能仍然有代理,如Mybatis分页插件等,不在此次讨论的范围内。

3,第二步的 sqlSession 一样不一样到底有什么影响?

在2中,我们看到如果是事务,sqlSession 一样,如果不是,则每次都不一样,且每次都会提交。这是最重要的。

sqlSession,顾名思义,就是sql的一个会话,在这个会话中发生的事不影响别的会话,如果会话提交,则生效,不提交不生效。

来看下sqlSession 这个接口的介绍。

/**
 * The primary Java interface for working with MyBatis.
 * Through this interface you can execute commands, get mappers and manage transactions.
 *  为Mybatis工作最重要的java接口,通过这个接口来执行命令,获取mapper以及管理事务
 * @author Clinton Begin
 */

注释很明白了,来一一看看怎么起的这些作用。

3.1,执行命令。

在第一个小标题中 执行sql最重要的方法就是 this.sqlSessionProxy. selectOne(statement, parameter); 这个方法,而在第二个小标题中我们看到是通过代理来执行的,最后实际上没有事务则提交sql。这就是执行sql的基本动作了。获取sqlsession,提交执行Sql。

3.2,获取mapper。

在我们日常的代码中可能不会这么写,但是实际上,如果必要我们是可以这么做的,如:

XxxxxMapper xxxxxMapper = session.getMapper(xxxxxMapper.class);

一般情况下,如果要这么做,首先需要注入 sqlSessionFactory,然后利用

sqlSessionFactory.openSession()。

即可获取session。

3.3,事务管理

上面我一直提到一点,sqlSession 那个代理类里有个操作,判断这个是不是事务管理的sqlSession,如果是,则不提交,不是才提交,这个就是事务管理了,那么有个问题,在哪里提交这个事务呢????

4,事务从哪里拦截,就从哪里提交

Spring中,如果一个方法被 @Transactional 注解标注,在生效的情况下(不生效的情况见我写动态代理的那篇博客),则最终会被TransactionInterceptor 这个类所代理,执行的方法实际上是这样的:

@Override
public Object invoke(final MethodInvocation invocation) throws Throwable {
    // Work out the target class: may be {@code null}.
    // The TransactionAttributeSource should be passed the target class
    // as well as the method, which may be from an interface.
    Class<?> targetClass = (invocation.getThis() != null ? AopUtils.getTargetClass(invocation.getThis()) : null);

    // Adapt to TransactionAspectSupport's invokeWithinTransaction...
    return invokeWithinTransaction(invocation.getMethod(), targetClass, new InvocationCallback() {
        @Override
        public Object proceedWithInvocation() throws Throwable {
            return invocation.proceed();
        }
    });
}

继续看invokeWithinTransaction这个方法:

/**
 * General delegate for around-advice-based subclasses, delegating to several other template
 * methods on this class. Able to handle {@link CallbackPreferringPlatformTransactionManager}
 * as well as regular {@link PlatformTransactionManager} implementations.
 * @param method the Method being invoked
 * @param targetClass the target class that we're invoking the method on
 * @param invocation the callback to use for proceeding with the target invocation
 * @return the return value of the method, if any
 * @throws Throwable propagated from the target invocation
 */
protected Object invokeWithinTransaction(Method method, Class<?> targetClass, final InvocationCallback invocation)
        throws Throwable {

    // If the transaction attribute is null, the method is non-transactional.
    final TransactionAttribute txAttr = getTransactionAttributeSource().getTransactionAttribute(method, targetClass);
    final PlatformTransactionManager tm = determineTransactionManager(txAttr);
    final String joinpointIdentification = methodIdentification(method, targetClass);

    //基本上我们的事务管理器都不是一个CallbackPreferringPlatformTransactionManager,所以基本上都是会从这个地方进入,下面的else情况暂不讨论。
    if (txAttr == null || !(tm instanceof CallbackPreferringPlatformTransactionManager)) {
        // Standard transaction demarcation with getTransaction and commit/rollback calls.
        //获取具体的TransactionInfo ,如果要用编程性事务,则把这块的代码可以借鉴一下。
        TransactionInfo txInfo = createTransactionIfNecessary(tm, txAttr, joinpointIdentification);
        Object retVal = null;
        try {
            // This is an around advice: Invoke the next interceptor in the chain.
            // This will normally result in a target object being invoked.
            retVal = invocation.proceedWithInvocation(); //执行被@Transactional标注里面的具体方法。
        }
        catch (Throwable ex) {
            // target invocation exception
            //异常情况下,则直接完成了,因为在sqlsession执行完每一条指令都没有提交事务,所以表现出来的就是回滚事务。
            completeTransactionAfterThrowing(txInfo, ex);
            throw ex;
        }
        finally {
            cleanupTransactionInfo(txInfo);
        }
        //正常执行完成的提交事务方法 跟进可以看到实际上执行的是:(编程性事务的提交)
        // ==============txInfo.getTransactionManager().commit(txInfo.getTransactionStatus());===========
        commitTransactionAfterReturning(txInfo);
        return retVal;
    }
    // =======================else情况不讨论================================
    else {
        // It's a CallbackPreferringPlatformTransactionManager: pass a TransactionCallback in.
        try {
            Object result = ((CallbackPreferringPlatformTransactionManager) tm).execute(txAttr,
                    new TransactionCallback<Object>() {
                        @Override
                        public Object doInTransaction(TransactionStatus status) {
                            TransactionInfo txInfo = prepareTransactionInfo(tm, txAttr, joinpointIdentification, status);
                            try {
                                return invocation.proceedWithInvocation();
                            }
                            catch (Throwable ex) {
                                if (txAttr.rollbackOn(ex)) {
                                    // A RuntimeException: will lead to a rollback.
                                    if (ex instanceof RuntimeException) {
                                        throw (RuntimeException) ex;
                                    }
                                    else {
                                        throw new ThrowableHolderException(ex);
                                    }
                                }
                                else {
                                    // A normal return value: will lead to a commit.
                                    return new ThrowableHolder(ex);
                                }
                            }
                            finally {
                                cleanupTransactionInfo(txInfo);
                            }
                        }
                    });

            // Check result: It might indicate a Throwable to rethrow.
            if (result instanceof ThrowableHolder) {
                throw ((ThrowableHolder) result).getThrowable();
            }
            else {
                return result;
            }
        }
        catch (ThrowableHolderException ex) {
            throw ex.getCause();
        }
    }
}

5,小结,SqlSession 还在别的地方有用到吗?

其实,Mybatis的一级缓存就是 SqlSession 级别的,只要SqlSession 不变,则默认缓存生效,也就是说,如下的代码,实际上只会查一次库的:

XxxxxMapper xxxxxMapper = session.getMapper(xxxxxMapper.class);
//对应的sql为: select id from test_info;
xxxxxMapper.selectFromDb();
xxxxxMapper.selectFromDb();
xxxxxMapper.selectFromDb();

实际上只会被执行一次,感兴趣的朋友们可以试试。

但是,在日常使用中,我们都是使用spring来管理Mapper,在执行selectFromDb 这个操作的时候,其实每次都会有一个新的SqlSession,所以,Mybatis的一级缓存是用不到的。

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