RHEL5下nginx+php+mysql+tomcat+memchached配置全过程

RHEL5下nginx+php+mysql+tomcat+memchached配置全过程
一、准备工作:
SSH,telnet终端中文显示乱码解决办法
vi /etc/sysconfig/i18n
将内容改为
LANG="zh_CN.GB18030"
LANGUAGE="zh_CN.GB18030:zh_CN.GB2312:zh_CN"
SUPPORTED="zh_CN.GB18030:zh_CN:zh:en_US.UTF-8:en_US:en"
SYSFONT="lat0-sun16"

二、安装PHP 5.2.10(FastCGI模式)
1、编译安装PHP 5.2.10所需的支持库:
tar zxvf libiconv-1.13.tar.gz
cd libiconv-1.13/
./configure --prefix=/usr/local
make
make install
cd ../

tar zxvf libmcrypt-2.5.8.tar.gz
cd libmcrypt-2.5.8/
./configure
make
make install
/sbin/ldconfig
cd libltdl/
./configure --enable-ltdl-install
make
make install
cd ../../

tar zxvf mhash-0.9.9.9.tar.gz
cd mhash-0.9.9.9/
./configure
make
make install
cd ../

ln -s /usr/local/lib/libmcrypt.la /usr/lib/libmcrypt.la
ln -s /usr/local/lib/libmcrypt.so /usr/lib/libmcrypt.so
ln -s /usr/local/lib/libmcrypt.so.4 /usr/lib/libmcrypt.so.4
ln -s /usr/local/lib/libmcrypt.so.4.4.8 /usr/lib/libmcrypt.so.4.4.8
ln -s /usr/local/lib/libmhash.a /usr/lib/libmhash.a
ln -s /usr/local/lib/libmhash.la /usr/lib/libmhash.la
ln -s /usr/local/lib/libmhash.so /usr/lib/libmhash.so
ln -s /usr/local/lib/libmhash.so.2 /usr/lib/libmhash.so.2
ln -s /usr/local/lib/libmhash.so.2.0.1 /usr/lib/libmhash.so.2.0.1

tar zxvf mcrypt-2.6.8.tar.gz
cd mcrypt-2.6.8/
/sbin/ldconfig
./configure
make
make install
cd ../

2、编译安装MySQL 5.1.38
/usr/sbin/groupadd mysql
/usr/sbin/useradd -g mysql mysql
tar zxvf mysql-5.1.38.tar.gz
cd mysql-5.1.38/
./configure --prefix=/usr/local/mysql/ --enable-assembler --with-extra-charsets=complex --enable-thread-safe-client --with-big-tables --with-readline --with-ssl --with-embedded-server --enable-local-infile --with-plugins=innobase
make && make install
chmod +w /usr/local/mysql
chown -R mysql:mysql /usr/local/mysql
cd ../


附:以下为附加步骤,如果你想在这台服务器上运行MySQL数据库,则执行以下两步。如果你只是希望让PHP支持MySQL扩展库,能够连接其他服务器上的MySQL数据库,那么,以下两步无需执行。

①、创建MySQL数据库存放目录
mkdir -p /data/mysql/data/
chown -R mysql:mysql /data/mysql/


②、以mysql用户帐号的身份建立数据表:
/usr/local/mysql/bin/mysql_install_db --basedir=/usr/local/mysql --datadir=/data/mysql/data --user=mysql


③、创建my.cnf配置文件:
vi /data/mysql/my.cnf
输入以下内容:
引用
[client]
default-character-set = utf8
port    = 3306
socket  = /tmp/mysql.sock

[mysql]
prompt="(/u:www.xxx.com:)[/d]> "
no-auto-rehash

[mysqld]
#default-character-set = utf8
lower_case_table_names=1
user    = mysql
port    = 3306
socket  = /tmp/mysql.sock
basedir = /usr/local/mysql
datadir = /data/mysql/data
open_files_limit    = 10240
back_log = 600
max_connections = 3000
max_connect_errors = 6000
table_cache = 614
external-locking = FALSE
max_allowed_packet = 32M
sort_buffer_size = 2M
join_buffer_size = 2M
thread_cache_size = 300
thread_concurrency = 8
query_cache_size = 32M
query_cache_limit = 2M
query_cache_min_res_unit = 2k
default-storage-engine = MyISAM
default_table_type = MyISAM
thread_stack = 192K
transaction_isolation = READ-COMMITTED
tmp_table_size = 246M
max_heap_table_size = 246M
long_query_time = 1
log_long_format
log-bin = /data/mysql/binlog
binlog_cache_size = 4M
binlog_format = MIXED
max_binlog_cache_size = 8M
max_binlog_size = 512M
expire_logs_days = 7
key_buffer_size = 256M
read_buffer_size = 1M
read_rnd_buffer_size = 16M
bulk_insert_buffer_size = 64M
myisam_sort_buffer_size = 128M
myisam_max_sort_file_size = 10G
myisam_max_extra_sort_file_size = 10G
myisam_repair_threads = 1
myisam_recover

skip-name-resolve
master-connect-retry = 10
slave-skip-errors = 1032,1062,126,1114,1146,1048,1396

server-id = 1

innodb_additional_mem_pool_size = 16M
innodb_buffer_pool_size = 2048M
innodb_data_file_path = ibdata1:1024M:autoextend
innodb_file_io_threads = 4
innodb_thread_concurrency = 8
innodb_flush_log_at_trx_commit = 2
innodb_log_buffer_size = 16M
innodb_log_file_size = 128M
innodb_log_files_in_group = 3
innodb_max_dirty_pages_pct = 90
innodb_lock_wait_timeout = 120
innodb_file_per_table = 0
[mysqldump]
quick
max_allowed_packet = 32M

直接杀掉mysql进程:killall -TERM mysqld

④、创建管理MySQL数据库的shell脚本:
vi /data/mysql/mysql

#!/bin/sh

mysql_port=3306
mysql_username="root"
mysql_password="xxx_dba"

function_start_mysql()
{
    printf "Starting MySQL.../n"
    /bin/sh /usr/local/mysql/bin/mysqld_safe --defaults-file=/data/mysql/my.cnf 2>&1 > /dev/null &
}

function_stop_mysql()
{
    printf "Stoping MySQL.../n"
    /usr/local/mysql/bin/mysqladmin -u ${mysql_username} -p${mysql_password} -S /tmp/mysql.sock shutdown
}

function_restart_mysql()
{
    printf "Restarting MySQL.../n"
    function_stop_mysql
    sleep 5
    function_start_mysql
}

function_kill_mysql()
{
    kill -9 $(ps -ef | grep 'bin/mysqld_safe' | grep ${mysql_port} | awk '{printf $2}')
    kill -9 $(ps -ef | grep 'libexec/mysqld' | grep ${mysql_port} | awk '{printf $2}')
}

if [ "$1" = "start" ]; then
    function_start_mysql
elif [ "$1" = "stop" ]; then
    function_stop_mysql
elif [ "$1" = "restart" ]; then
function_restart_mysql
elif [ "$1" = "kill" ]; then
function_kill_mysql
else
    printf "Usage: /data/mysql/mysql {start|stop|restart|kill}/n"
fi


⑤、赋予shell脚本可执行权限:
chmod +x /data/mysql/mysql


⑥、启动MySQL:
/data/mysql/mysql start

⑦、通过命令行登录管理MySQL服务器(提示输入密码时直接回车):
/usr/local/mysql/bin/mysql -u root -p -S /tmp/mysql.sock

若出现问题:
ps -aux | grep mysql
mysql     1382 0.0 0.2 5544 1376 pts/0    S    17:34   0:00 bash
mysql     1475 0.0 0.2 5552 1388 pts/0    S    17:38   0:00 bash
# chown -R mysql:mysql /usr/local/mysql/

⑧、输入以下SQL语句,创建一个具有root权限的用户(admin)和密码(12345678):
GRANT ALL PRIVILEGES ON *.* TO 'root'@'localhost' IDENTIFIED BY 'xxx_dba';
GRANT ALL PRIVILEGES ON *.* TO 'root'@'127.0.0.1' IDENTIFIED BY 'xxx_dba';

⑨、(可选)停止MySQL:
/data/mysql/mysql stop


3、编译安装PHP(FastCGI模式)
tar zxvf php-5.2.10.tar.gz
gzip -cd php-5.2.10-fpm-0.5.11.diff.gz | patch -d php-5.2.10 -p1
cd php-5.2.10/
./configure --prefix=/usr/local/php --with-config-file-path=/usr/local/php/etc --with-mysql=/usr/local/mysql --with-mysqli=/usr/local/mysql/bin/mysql_config --with-iconv-dir=/usr/local --with-freetype-dir --with-jpeg-dir --with-png-dir --with-zlib --with-libxml-dir=/usr --enable-xml --disable-rpath --enable-discard-path --enable-safe-mode --enable-bcmath --enable-shmop --enable-sysvsem --enable-inline-optimization --with-curl --with-curlwrappers --enable-mbregex --enable-fastcgi --enable-fpm --enable-force-cgi-redirect --enable-mbstring --with-mcrypt --with-gd --enable-gd-native-ttf --with-openssl --with-mhash --enable-pcntl --enable-sockets --with-ldap --with-ldap-sasl --with-xmlrpc --enable-zip --enable-soap --without-pear
make ZEND_EXTRA_LIBS='-liconv'
make install
cp php.ini-dist /usr/local/php/etc/php.ini
cd ../
curl http://pear.php.net/go-pear | /usr/local/php/bin/php


4、编译安装PHP5扩展模块
tar zxvf memcache-2.2.5.tgz
cd memcache-2.2.5/
/usr/local/php/bin/phpize
./configure --with-php-config=/usr/local/php/bin/php-config
make
make install
cd ../

tar jxvf eaccelerator-0.9.5.3.tar.bz2
cd eaccelerator-0.9.5.3/
/usr/local/php/bin/phpize
./configure --enable-eaccelerator=shared --with-php-config=/usr/local/php/bin/php-config
make
make install
cd ../

tar zxvf PDO_MYSQL-1.0.2.tgz
cd PDO_MYSQL-1.0.2/
/usr/local/php/bin/phpize
./configure --with-php-config=/usr/local/php/bin/php-config --with-pdo-mysql=/usr/local/mysql
make
make install
cd ../

tar zxvf ImageMagick.tar.gz
cd ImageMagick-6.5.1-2/
./configure
make
make install
cd ../

tar zxvf imagick-2.2.2.tgz
cd imagick-2.2.2/
/usr/local/php/bin/phpize
./configure --with-php-config=/usr/local/php/bin/php-config
make
make install
cd ../


5、修改php.ini文件
手工修改:查找/usr/local/php/etc/php.ini中的extension_dir = "./"
修改为extension_dir = "/usr/local/php/lib/php/extensions/no-debug-non-zts-20060613/"
并在此行后增加以下几行,然后保存:
  extension = "memcache.so"
  extension = "pdo_mysql.so"
  extension = "imagick.so"

再查找output_buffering = Off
修改为output_buffering = On

自动修改:若嫌手工修改麻烦,可执行以下shell命令,自动完成对php.ini文件的修改:
sed -i 's#extension_dir = "./"#extension_dir = "/usr/local/php/lib/php/extensions/no-debug-non-zts-20060613/"/nextension = "memcache.so"/nextension = "pdo_mysql.so"/nextension = "imagick.so"/n#' /usr/local/php/etc/php.ini
sed -i 's#output_buffering = Off#output_buffering = On#' /usr/local/php/etc/php.ini
sed -i "s#; always_populate_raw_post_data = On#always_populate_raw_post_data = On#g" /usr/local/php/etc/php.ini

6、配置eAccelerator加速PHP:
mkdir -p /usr/local/eaccelerator_cache
vi /usr/local/php/etc/php.ini

按shift+g键跳到配置文件的最末尾,加上以下配置信息:

[eaccelerator]
zend_extension="/usr/local/php/lib/php/extensions/no-debug-non-zts-20060613/eaccelerator.so"
eaccelerator.shm_size="64"
eaccelerator.cache_dir="/usr/local/eaccelerator_cache"
eaccelerator.enable="1"
eaccelerator.optimizer="1"
eaccelerator.check_mtime="1"
eaccelerator.debug="0"
eaccelerator.filter=""
eaccelerator.shm_max="0"
eaccelerator.shm_ttl="3600"
eaccelerator.shm_prune_period="3600"
eaccelerator.shm_only="0"
eaccelerator.compress="1"
eaccelerator.compress_level="9"



7、创建www用户和组,以及虚拟主机使用的目录:
/usr/sbin/groupadd www
/usr/sbin/useradd -g www www
mkdir -p /data/htdocs/group
chmod +w /data/htdocs/group
chown -R www:www /data/htdocs/group

8、创建php-fpm配置文件(php-fpm是为PHP打的一个FastCGI管理补丁,可以平滑变更php.ini配置而无需重启php-cgi):
在/usr/local/php/etc/目录中创建php-fpm.conf文件:
rm -f /usr/local/php/etc/php-fpm.conf
vi /usr/local/php/etc/php-fpm.conf

输入以下内容(如果您安装 Nginx + PHP 用于程序调试,请将以下的<value name="display_errors">0</value>改为<value name="display_errors">1</value>,以便显示PHP错误信息,否则,Nginx 会报状态为500的空白错误页):

<?xml version="1.0" ?>
<configuration>

  All relative paths in this config are relative to php's install prefix

  <section name="global_options">

    Pid file
    <value name="pid_file">/usr/local/php/logs/php-fpm.pid</value>

    Error log file
    <value name="error_log">/usr/local/php/logs/php-fpm.log</value>

    Log level
    <value name="log_level">notice</value>

    When this amount of php processes exited with SIGSEGV or SIGBUS ...
    <value name="emergency_restart_threshold">10</value>

    ... in a less than this interval of time, a graceful restart will be initiated.
    Useful to work around accidental curruptions in accelerator's shared memory.
    <value name="emergency_restart_interval">1m</value>

    Time limit on waiting child's reaction on signals from master
    <value name="process_control_timeout">5s</value>

    Set to 'no' to debug fpm
    <value name="daemonize">yes</value>

  </section>

  <workers>

    <section name="pool">

      Name of pool. Used in logs and stats.
      <value name="name">default</value>

      Address to accept fastcgi requests on.
      Valid syntax is 'ip.ad.re.ss:port' or just 'port' or '/path/to/unix/socket'
      <value name="listen_address">127.0.0.1:9000</value>

      <value name="listen_options">

        Set listen(2) backlog
        <value name="backlog">-1</value>

        Set permissions for unix socket, if one used.
        In Linux read/write permissions must be set in order to allow connections from web server.
        Many BSD-derrived systems allow connections regardless of permissions.
        <value name="owner"></value>
        <value name="group"></value>
        <value name="mode">0666</value>
      </value>

      Additional php.ini defines, specific to this pool of workers.
      <value name="php_defines">
        <value name="sendmail_path">/usr/sbin/sendmail -t -i</value>
        <value name="display_errors">1</value>
      </value>

      Unix user of processes
        <value name="user">www</value>

      Unix group of processes
        <value name="group">www</value>

      Process manager settings
      <value name="pm">

        Sets style of controling worker process count.
        Valid values are 'static' and 'apache-like'
        <value name="style">static</value>

        Sets the limit on the number of simultaneous requests that will be served.
        Equivalent to Apache MaxClients directive.
        Equivalent to PHP_FCGI_CHILDREN environment in original php.fcgi
        Used with any pm_style.
        <value name="max_children">128</value>

        Settings group for 'apache-like' pm style
        <value name="apache_like">

          Sets the number of server processes created on startup.
          Used only when 'apache-like' pm_style is selected
          <value name="StartServers">20</value>

          Sets the desired minimum number of idle server processes.
          Used only when 'apache-like' pm_style is selected
          <value name="MinSpareServers">5</value>

          Sets the desired maximum number of idle server processes.
          Used only when 'apache-like' pm_style is selected
          <value name="MaxSpareServers">35</value>

        </value>

      </value>

      The timeout (in seconds) for serving a single request after which the worker process will be terminated
      Should be used when 'max_execution_time' ini option does not stop script execution for some reason
      '0s' means 'off'
      <value name="request_terminate_timeout">0s</value>

      The timeout (in seconds) for serving of single request after which a php backtrace will be dumped to slow.log file
      '0s' means 'off'
      <value name="request_slowlog_timeout">0s</value>

      The log file for slow requests
      <value name="slowlog">logs/slow.log</value>

      Set open file desc rlimit
      <value name="rlimit_files">65535</value>

      Set max core size rlimit
      <value name="rlimit_core">0</value>

      Chroot to this directory at the start, absolute path
      <value name="chroot"></value>

      Chdir to this directory at the start, absolute path
      <value name="chdir"></value>

      Redirect workers' stdout and stderr into main error log.
      If not set, they will be redirected to /dev/null, according to FastCGI specs
      <value name="catch_workers_output">yes</value>

      How much requests each process should execute before respawn.
      Useful to work around memory leaks in 3rd party libraries.
      For endless request processing please specify 0
      Equivalent to PHP_FCGI_MAX_REQUESTS
      <value name="max_requests">102400</value>

      Comma separated list of ipv4 addresses of FastCGI clients that allowed to connect.
      Equivalent to FCGI_WEB_SERVER_ADDRS environment in original php.fcgi (5.2.2+)
      Makes sense only with AF_INET listening socket.
      <value name="allowed_clients">127.0.0.1</value>

      Pass environment variables like LD_LIBRARY_PATH
      All $VARIABLEs are taken from current environment
      <value name="environment">
        <value name="HOSTNAME">$HOSTNAME</value>
        <value name="PATH">/usr/local/bin:/usr/bin:/bin</value>
        <value name="TMP">/tmp</value>
        <value name="TMPDIR">/tmp</value>
        <value name="TEMP">/tmp</value>
        <value name="OSTYPE">$OSTYPE</value>
        <value name="MACHTYPE">$MACHTYPE</value>
        <value name="MALLOC_CHECK_">2</value>
      </value>

    </section>

  </workers>

</configuration>

9、启动php-cgi进程,监听127.0.0.1的9000端口,进程数为200(如果服务器内存小于3GB,可以只开启64个进程),用户为www:
ulimit -SHn 65535
/usr/local/php/sbin/php-fpm start
注:/usr/local/php/sbin/php-fpm还有其他参数,包括:start|stop|quit|restart|reload|logrotate,修改php.ini后不重启php-cgi,重新加载配置文件使用reload。

注意:此处启动时遇到了麻烦, 启动警告:libgomp.so.1: shared object cannot be dlopen()ed in Unknown on line 0,经过百度,有人说是gcc版本太低,我可能了下我的GCC版本是4.1.1 20070105。
升级GCC

三、安装Nginx 0.8.15
1、安装Nginx所需的pcre库:
tar zxvf pcre-7.9.tar.gz
cd pcre-7.9/
./configure
make && make install
cd ../

2、安装Nginx
tar zxvf nginx-0.8.15.tar.gz
cd nginx-0.8.15/
加入SSL模块、FLV模块、清楚制定URL缓存
./configure --user=www --group=www --prefix=/usr/local/nginx --with-http_stub_status_module --with-http_ssl_module --with-http_flv_module --add-module=../ngx_cache_purge-1.0
make && make install
cd ../

3、创建Nginx日志目录
mkdir -p /data/logs
chmod +w /data/logs
chown -R www:www /data/logs

4、创建Nginx配置文件
①、在/usr/local/nginx/conf/目录中创建nginx.conf文件:
cp /usr/local/nginx/conf/nginx.conf /usr/local/nginx/conf/nginx.default.conf
rm -f /usr/local/nginx/conf/nginx.conf
vi /usr/local/nginx/conf/nginx.conf

输入以下内容:
user  www www;

worker_processes 8;

error_log  /data/logs/nginx_error.log  crit;

pid        /usr/local/nginx/nginx.pid;

#Specifies the value for maximum file descriptors that can be opened by this process.
worker_rlimit_nofile 65535;

events
{
  use epoll;
  worker_connections 65535;
}

http
{
  include       mime.types;
  default_type  application/octet-stream;

  #charset  gb2312;
      
  server_names_hash_bucket_size 128;
  client_header_buffer_size 32k;
  large_client_header_buffers 4 32k;
  client_max_body_size 8m;
      
  sendfile on;
  tcp_nopush     on;

  keepalive_timeout 60;

  tcp_nodelay on;

  fastcgi_connect_timeout 300;
  fastcgi_send_timeout 300;
  fastcgi_read_timeout 300;
  fastcgi_buffer_size 64k;
  fastcgi_buffers 4 64k;
  fastcgi_busy_buffers_size 128k;
  fastcgi_temp_file_write_size 128k;

  gzip on;
  gzip_min_length  1k;
  gzip_buffers     4 16k;
  gzip_http_version 1.0;
  gzip_comp_level 2;
  gzip_types       text/plain application/x-javascript text/css application/xml;
  gzip_vary on;

  #limit_zone  crawler  $binary_remote_addr  10m;

  server
  {
    listen       80;
    server_name  192.168.10.227;
    index index.html index.htm index.php;
    root  /data/htdocs/group;

    #limit_conn   crawler  20;    
                            
    location ~ .*/.(php|php5)?$
    {      
      #fastcgi_pass  unix:/tmp/php-cgi.sock;
      fastcgi_pass  127.0.0.1:9000;
      fastcgi_index index.php;
      include fcgi.conf;
    }
    
    location ~ .*/.(gif|jpg|jpeg|png|bmp|swf)$
    {
      expires      30d;
    }

    location ~ .*/.(js|css)?$
    {
      expires      1h;
    }    

    log_format  access  '$remote_addr - $remote_user [$time_local] "$request" '
              '$status $body_bytes_sent "$http_referer" '
              '"$http_user_agent" $http_x_forwarded_for';
    access_log  /data/logs/access.log  access;
  }

  server
  {
    listen  80;
    server_name  status.xxx.cn;

    location / {
    stub_status on;
    access_log   off;
    }
  }
}


②、在/usr/local/nginx/conf/目录中创建fcgi.conf文件:
vi /usr/local/nginx/conf/fcgi.conf

输入以下内容:
fastcgi_param  GATEWAY_INTERFACE  CGI/1.1;
fastcgi_param  SERVER_SOFTWARE    nginx;

fastcgi_param  QUERY_STRING       $query_string;
fastcgi_param  REQUEST_METHOD     $request_method;
fastcgi_param  CONTENT_TYPE       $content_type;
fastcgi_param  CONTENT_LENGTH     $content_length;

fastcgi_param  SCRIPT_FILENAME    $document_root$fastcgi_script_name;
fastcgi_param  SCRIPT_NAME        $fastcgi_script_name;
fastcgi_param  REQUEST_URI        $request_uri;
fastcgi_param  DOCUMENT_URI       $document_uri;
fastcgi_param  DOCUMENT_ROOT      $document_root;
fastcgi_param  SERVER_PROTOCOL    $server_protocol;

fastcgi_param  REMOTE_ADDR        $remote_addr;
fastcgi_param  REMOTE_PORT        $remote_port;
fastcgi_param  SERVER_ADDR        $server_addr;
fastcgi_param  SERVER_PORT        $server_port;
fastcgi_param  SERVER_NAME        $server_name;

# PHP only, required if PHP was built with --enable-force-cgi-redirect
fastcgi_param  REDIRECT_STATUS    200;


5、启动Nginx
ulimit -SHn 65535
/usr/local/nginx/sbin/nginx


四、配置开机自动启动Nginx + PHP
vi /etc/rc.local

在末尾增加以下内容:
ulimit -SHn 65535
/usr/local/php/sbin/php-fpm start
/usr/local/nginx/sbin/nginx


五、优化Linux内核参数
vi /etc/sysctl.conf

在末尾增加以下内容:

# Add
net.ipv4.tcp_max_syn_backlog = 65536
net.core.netdev_max_backlog =  32768
net.core.somaxconn = 32768

net.core.wmem_default = 8388608
net.core.rmem_default = 8388608
net.core.rmem_max = 16777216
net.core.wmem_max = 16777216

net.ipv4.tcp_timestamps = 0
net.ipv4.tcp_synack_retries = 2
net.ipv4.tcp_syn_retries = 2

net.ipv4.tcp_tw_recycle = 1
#net.ipv4.tcp_tw_len = 1
net.ipv4.tcp_tw_reuse = 1

net.ipv4.tcp_mem = 94500000 915000000 927000000
net.ipv4.tcp_max_orphans = 3276800

#net.ipv4.tcp_fin_timeout = 30
#net.ipv4.tcp_keepalive_time = 120
net.ipv4.ip_local_port_range = 1024  65535

使配置立即生效:
/sbin/sysctl -p


六、在不停止Nginx服务的情况下平滑变更Nginx配置
1、修改/usr/local/nginx/conf/nginx.conf配置文件后,请执行以下命令检查配置文件是否正确:
/usr/local/nginx/sbin/nginx -t

如果屏幕显示以下两行信息,说明配置文件正确:
  the configuration file /usr/local/nginx/conf/nginx.conf syntax is ok
  the configuration file /usr/local/nginx/conf/nginx.conf was tested successfully

2、这时,输入以下命令查看Nginx主进程号:
ps -ef | grep "nginx: master process" | grep -v "grep" | awk -F ' ' '{print $2}'

屏幕显示的即为Nginx主进程号,例如:
  6302
这时,执行以下命令即可使修改过的Nginx配置文件生效:
kill -HUP 6302

或者无需这么麻烦,找到Nginx的Pid文件:
kill -HUP `cat /usr/local/nginx/nginx.pid`

0.8以后的产品
/usr/local/nginx/sbin/nginx -s reload

七、编写每天定时切割Nginx日志的脚本
1、创建脚本/usr/local/nginx/sbin/cut_nginx_log.sh
vi /usr/local/nginx/sbin/cut_nginx_log.sh

输入以下内容:
#!/bin/bash
# This script run at 00:00

# The Nginx logs path
logs_path="/usr/local/nginx/logs/"

mkdir -p ${logs_path}$(date -d "yesterday" +"%Y")/$(date -d "yesterday" +"%m")/
mv ${logs_path}access.log ${logs_path}$(date -d "yesterday" +"%Y")/$(date -d "yesterday" +"%m")/access_$(date -d "yesterday" +"%Y%m%d").log
kill -USR1 `cat /usr/local/nginx/nginx.pid`


2、设置crontab,每天凌晨00:00切割nginx访问日志
crontab -e

输入以下内容:

00 00 * * * /bin/bash  /usr/local/nginx/sbin/cut_nginx_log.sh


八、安装JDK+TOMCAT
1、安装JDK
#chmod +X jdk-6u18-ea-bin-b05-linux-i586-18_nov_2009.bin
# ./jdk-6u18-ea-bin-b05-linux-i586-18_nov_2009.bin
# mv jdk1.6.0.18 /usr/local/jdk
2、配置环境变量
# vi /etc/profile
按shift+g,将下面这段文字加到结尾
export JAVA_HOME=/usr/local/jdk
export CLASSPATH=.:$JAVA_HOME/lib:$JAVA_HOME/jre/lib:$CLASSPATH
export PATH=$PATH:$JAVA_HOME/jre/bin

export CATALINA_HOME=/usr/local/tomcat
wq退出
3、让配置立即启用
source /etc/profile

九、安装TOMCAT
# tar zxvf apache-tomcat-6.0.26.tar.gz
# mv apache-tomcat-6.0.26 /usr/local/tomcat

十:配置nginx.conf:
vi /usr/local/nginx/conf/nginx.conf

user  www www;

worker_processes 8;

error_log  /data/logs/nginx_error.log  crit;

pid        /usr/local/nginx/nginx.pid;

#Specifies the value for maximum file descriptors that can be opened by this process.
worker_rlimit_nofile 65535;

events
{
  use epoll;
  worker_connections 65535;
}

http
{
  include       mime.types;
  default_type  application/octet-stream;

  charset  utf-8;

  server_names_hash_bucket_size 128;
  client_header_buffer_size 32k;
  large_client_header_buffers 4 32k;
  client_max_body_size 300m;

  sendfile on;
  tcp_nopush     on;

  keepalive_timeout 60;

  tcp_nodelay on;

  client_body_buffer_size 512k;
  proxy_connect_timeout 5;
  proxy_read_timeout 60;
  proxy_send_timeout 5;
  proxy_buffer_size  16k;
  proxy_buffers   4 64k;
  proxy_busy_buffers_size 128k;
  proxy_temp_file_write_size 128k;

  fastcgi_connect_timeout 300;
  fastcgi_send_timeout 300;
  fastcgi_read_timeout 300;
  fastcgi_buffer_size 64k;
  fastcgi_buffers 4 64k;
  fastcgi_busy_buffers_size 128k;
  fastcgi_temp_file_write_size 128k;

  gzip on;
  gzip_min_length  1k;
  gzip_buffers     4 16k;
  gzip_http_version 1.0;
  gzip_comp_level 2;
  gzip_types       text/plain application/x-javascript text/css application/xml;
  gzip_vary on;
 
  ssi on;
  ssi_silent_errors on;
  ssi_types text/shtml;

  #limit_zone  crawler  $binary_remote_addr  10m;

  server
  {
    listen 80;
    server_name flv.xxx.com;
    index index.shtml index.html index.htm;

    limit_rate_after 3m;
    limit_rate 512k;

    location ~ /.flv
    {
      flv;
    }
    access_log off;
  }

  upstream tomcat_server {
    server 127.0.0.1:8080;
  }

  server
  {
    listen       80;
    server_name  www.xxx.com;
    index index.html index.htm index.xhtml;
    root  /usr/local/tomcat/webapps/root;

    if (-d $request_filename){
    rewrite ^/(.*)([^/])$ http://$host/$1$2/ permanent;
    }

    location ~ /.(html|jsp|xhtm|htm)?$
    {
      proxy_set_header Host $host;
      proxy_set_header X-Forwarded-For $remote_addr;
      proxy_pass http://tomcat_server;
    }

    location ~ .*/.(gif|jpg|jpeg|png|bmp|swf)$
    {
      expires      30d;
    }

    location ~ .*/.(js|css)?$
    {
      expires      1h;
    }

    access_log  off;
  }


  server
  {
    listen       80;
    server_name  group.xxx.com;
    index index.html index.htm index.php;
    root  /data/htdocs/group;

    #limit_conn   crawler  20;

    location ~ .*/.(php|php5)?$
    {
      #fastcgi_pass  unix:/tmp/php-cgi.sock;
      fastcgi_pass  127.0.0.1:9000;
      fastcgi_index index.php;
      include fcgi.conf;
    }

    location ~ .*/.(gif|jpg|jpeg|png|bmp|swf)$
    {
      expires      30d;
    }

    location ~ .*/.(js|css)?$
    {
      expires      1h;
    }

    log_format  access  '$remote_addr - $remote_user [$time_local] "$request" '
              '$status $body_bytes_sent "$http_referer" '
              '"$http_user_agent" $http_x_forwarded_for';
    access_log  /data/logs/access.log  access;
  }

  server
  {
    listen  80;
    server_name  status.xxx.com;

    location / {
    stub_status on;
    access_log   off;
    }
  }
}


十一、安装memcached
首先安装 memcache 的时候缺少 libevent。还是先安装好 libevent, 下载libevent:http://www.monkey.org/~provos/libevent-1.4.9-stable.tar.gz。

[root@master chenlb]# wget http://www.danga.com/memcached/dist/memcached-1.2.6.tar.gz
[root@master chenlb]# tar zxvf memcached-1.2.6.tar.gz
[root@master chenlb]# cd memcached-1.2.6
[root@master memcached-1.2.6]# ./configure --prefix=/usr/local/memcache --with-libevent=/usr/local
[root@master memcached-1.2.6]# make
[root@master memcached-1.2.6]# make install

接着运行:

   1. [root@master memcached-1.2.6]# /usr/local/memcached/bin/memcached -d -m 10 -p 11211 -u root  
   2. /usr/local/memcached/bin/memcached: error while loading shared libraries: libevent-1.4.so.2: cannot open shared object file: No such file or directory  

[root@master memcached-1.2.6]# /usr/local/memcached/bin/memcached -d -m 10 -p 11211 -u root
/usr/local/memcached/bin/memcached: error while loading shared libraries: libevent-1.4.so.2: cannot open shared object file: No such file or directory

报错说:libevent-1.4.so.2 不在公共文件里。郁闷,然后打到 芽雨快跑 的 blog。解决方法是链接一下。

   1. [root@master memcached-1.2.6]# ln -s /usr/local/lib/libevent-1.4.so.2 /usr/lib/libevent-1.4.so.2  
   2. [root@master memcached-1.2.6]# /usr/local/memcached/bin/memcached -d -m 10 -p 11211 -u root  

十二、创建数据库用户并赋权:
GRANT SELECT , INSERT , UPDATE , DELETE , CREATE , DROP , INDEX , ALTER , CREATE TEMPORARY TABLES , CREATE VIEW , SHOW VIEW , CREATE FUNCTION,CREATE PROCDURE, CREATE ROUTINE, ALTER ROUTINE, EXECUTE ON dotayo_db.* TO 'dotayo_db'@'192.168.1.%' IDENTIFIED BY 'dotayo_db';

十三、从开发机复制数据库实例到测试机,若有函数或存储过程,需设置:
mysql> SET GLOBAL log_bin_trust_function_creators = 1;
Query OK, 0 rows affected (0.00 sec)

已管理员账号登陆SQLyog,连接开发数据库与测试数据库,copy完成,数据库搭建完成。

十四:启动tomcat,OutOfMemoryError: PermGen space
解决办法:
以下给出2G内存环境下java jvm 的参数设置参考:
vi /usr/local/tomcat/bin/catalina.sh
在“echo "Using CATALINA_BASE:   $CATALINA_BASE"”上面加入以下行:
JAVA_OPTS="-server -Xms800m -Xmx800m  -XX:PermSize=128M -XX:MaxNewSize=512m -XX:MaxPermSize=256m -Djava.awt.headless=true "

重启tomcat

十五、配置iptables:
#vi /etc/sysconfig/iptables
////////////////////文件内容////////////////////
# Firewall configuration written by system-config-securitylevel
# Manual customization of this file is not recommended.
*filter
:INPUT ACCEPT [0:0]
:FORWARD ACCEPT [0:0]
:OUTPUT ACCEPT [0:0]
:RH-Firewall-1-INPUT - [0:0]
-A INPUT -j RH-Firewall-1-INPUT
-A FORWARD -j RH-Firewall-1-INPUT
-A RH-Firewall-1-INPUT -i lo -j ACCEPT
-A RH-Firewall-1-INPUT -p icmp --icmp-type any -j ACCEPT
-A RH-Firewall-1-INPUT -p 50 -j ACCEPT
-A RH-Firewall-1-INPUT -p 51 -j ACCEPT
-A RH-Firewall-1-INPUT -p udp --dport 5353 -d 224.0.0.251 -j ACCEPT
-A RH-Firewall-1-INPUT -p udp -m udp --dport 631 -j ACCEPT
-A RH-Firewall-1-INPUT -p udp -s 0/0 -d 0/0 --dport 177 -j ACCEPT

#modify by mingfu 060404
#Please do not modify the content below

#ACK FIN SYN
-A RH-Firewall-1-INPUT -i eth0 -p tcp --tcp-flags SYN,FIN SYN,FIN -j DROP

#port scan
# NMAP FIN/URG/PSH
-A RH-Firewall-1-INPUT -i eth0 -p tcp --tcp-flags ALL FIN,URG,PSH -j DROP

# Xmas Tree
-A RH-Firewall-1-INPUT -i eth0 -p tcp --tcp-flags ALL ALL -j DROP

# Another Xmas Tree
-A RH-Firewall-1-INPUT -i eth0 -p tcp --tcp-flags ALL SYN,RST,ACK,FIN,URG -j DROP

# Null Scan(possibly)
-A RH-Firewall-1-INPUT -i eth0 -p tcp --tcp-flags ALL NONE -j DROP

# SYN/RST
-A RH-Firewall-1-INPUT -i eth0 -p tcp --tcp-flags SYN,RST SYN,RST -j DROP

# SYN/FIN -- Scan(possibly)
-A RH-Firewall-1-INPUT -i eth0 -p tcp --tcp-flags SYN,FIN SYN,FIN -j DROP

#!--syn
-A RH-Firewall-1-INPUT -p tcp ! --syn -m state --state NEW -j DROP

#Dos
-A RH-Firewall-1-INPUT -p tcp --dport 80 -m limit --limit 10/second --limit-burst 300 -j ACCEPT

#sync flood

-N synfoold
-A synfoold -p tcp --syn -m limit --limit 1/s -j RETURN
-A synfoold -p tcp -j REJECT --reject-with tcp-reset
-A RH-Firewall-1-INPUT -p tcp -m state --state NEW -j synfoold

-N ping
-A ping -p icmp --icmp-type echo-request -m limit --limit 1/second -j RETURN
-A ping -p icmp -j REJECT
-I RH-Firewall-1-INPUT -p icmp --icmp-type echo-request -m state --state NEW -j ping

#-A RH-Firewall-1-INPUT -p icmp --icmp-type 8 -s 0/0 -j DROP
#-A RH-Firewall-1-INPUT -p icmp --icmp-type 0 -s 0/0 -j ACCEPT
#-A RH-Firewall-1-INPUT -p icmp --icmp-type 0 -s localip -j DROP
#-A RH-Firewall-1-INPUT -p icmp --icmp-type 8 -s localip -j DROP

#all ports

-A RH-Firewall-1-INPUT -i eth0 -m state --state ESTABLISHED,RELATED -j ACCEPT
#FTP
-A RH-Firewall-1-INPUT -i eth0 -m state --state NEW -m tcp -p tcp --dport 20 -j ACCEPT
-A RH-Firewall-1-INPUT -i eth0 -m state --state NEW -m tcp -p tcp --dport 21 -j ACCEPT
-A RH-Firewall-1-INPUT -i eth0 -m state --state NEW -m tcp -p tcp --dport 32800:34000 -j ACCEPT
#MAIL
-A RH-Firewall-1-INPUT -i eth0 -m state --state NEW -m tcp -p tcp --dport 25 -j ACCEPT
-A RH-Firewall-1-INPUT -i eth0 -m state --state NEW -m tcp -p tcp --dport 113 -j ACCEPT
#SSH
-A RH-Firewall-1-INPUT -i eth0 -m state --state NEW -m tcp -p tcp --dport 22 -j ACCEPT
-A RH-Firewall-1-INPUT -i eth0 -m state --state NEW -m tcp -p tcp --dport 922 -j ACCEPT
#WEB
-A RH-Firewall-1-INPUT -i eth0 -m state --state NEW -m tcp -p tcp --dport 80 -j ACCEPT
-A RH-Firewall-1-INPUT -i eth0 -m state --state NEW -m tcp -p tcp --dport 82 -j ACCEPT
-A RH-Firewall-1-INPUT -i eth0 -m state --state NEW -m tcp -p tcp --dport 8088 -j ACCEPT
-A RH-Firewall-1-INPUT -i eth0 -m state --state NEW -m tcp -p tcp --dport 8080 -j ACCEPT
-A RH-Firewall-1-INPUT -i eth0 -m state --state NEW -m tcp -p tcp --dport 443 -j ACCEPT
-A RH-Firewall-1-INPUT -i eth0 -m state --state NEW -m tcp -p tcp --dport 4443 -j ACCEPT
-A RH-Firewall-1-INPUT -i eth0 -m state --state NEW -m tcp -p tcp --dport 7777 -j ACCEPT
#DNS
-A RH-Firewall-1-INPUT -i eth0 -m state --state NEW -m tcp -p tcp --dport 53 -j ACCEPT
-A RH-Firewall-1-INPUT -i eth0 -m state --state NEW -m udp -p udp --dport 53 -j ACCEPT
#DATABASE
-A RH-Firewall-1-INPUT -i eth0 -m state --state NEW -m tcp -p tcp --dport 3306 -j ACCEPT
-A RH-Firewall-1-INPUT -i eth0 -m state --state NEW -m tcp -p tcp --dport 1521 -j ACCEPT
-A RH-Firewall-1-INPUT -i eth0 -m state --state NEW -m tcp -p tcp --dport 8009 -j ACCEPT
#VNC
-A RH-Firewall-1-INPUT -i eth0 -m state --state NEW -m tcp -p tcp --dport 5801: -j ACCEPT
#ICMP
-A RH-Firewall-1-INPUT -i eth0 -j REJECT --reject-with icmp-host-prohibited

-A RH-Firewall-1-INPUT -i eth0 -m state --state RELATED,ESTABLISHED -j ACCEPT
-A RH-Firewall-1-INPUT -i eth0 -m state --state NEW,INVALID -j DROP

COMMIT

至此,服务器配置全部完成,以上配置参考了一些牛人的文档!

注意事项:
压缩解压缩文件
用户用mydir目录中最近被修改或添加的文件来对myarch.tar文件进行更新。

#tar uf myarch.tar mydir
#tar zxvf myarch.tar

如果你安装了某些库,比如在安装gtk -2.4.13时它会需要glib-2.0 >= 2.4.0,辛苦的安装好glib后
没有指定 --prefix=/usr 这样glib库就装到了/usr/local下,而又没有在/etc/ld.so.conf中添加/usr/local/lib
这个搜索路径,所以编译gtk -2.4.13就会出错了

http://aayy520.blog.163.com/blog/static/2318226020103177152814/?fromdm&fromSearch&isFromSearchEngine=yes

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