I had this issue and was also unable to resize my partition. I called Apple Care and spoke with a senior rep. He said that because I had once installed Boot Camp, but had removed it improperly (with Disk Utility instead of Boot Camp Assistant) that one of those
tiny Windows partition was still there, even though it doesn't show up in Disk Utility. He said he'd seen this before and every time it couldn't be fixed, the user had removed Boot Camp via Disk Utility.
He said (paraphrasing) to fix the partitions I'd have to back up and re-partition the whole disk. I will update this answer when I've done so.