C++ iostream 库的格式状态

每一个 iostream 库对象都维护一个格式状态(format state),它控制格式化操作的细节,比如整型值的进制数或浮点数值的精度。C++为程序员提供了一组预定义的操作符(manipulator),可用来修改对象的格式状态。操作符不会导致读写数据,只是改变流对象的内部状态。

1. boolalpha/noboolalpha操作符

    bool flag = true;
    cout << flag << endl;
    cout << boolalpha;
    cout << flag << endl;
    cout << noboolalpha;
    cout << flag << endl;

输出结果:

2. hex、oct、dec操作符

    int iVal = 0x11;
    cout << "Octal: " << oct << iVal << endl;
    cout << "Decimal: " << dec << iVal << endl;
    cout << "Hexadecimal: " << hex << iVal << endl;

输出结果:

3. showbase/noshowbase操作符

    int iVal = 0x11;
    cout << showbase;
    cout << "Octal: " << oct << iVal << endl;
    cout << "Decimal: " << dec << iVal << endl;
    cout << "Hexadecimal: " << hex << iVal << endl;
    cout << noshowbase;

输出结果:

4. uppercase/nouppercase

    int iVal = 0x11;
    cout << showbase << uppercase;
    cout << "Octal: " << oct << iVal << endl;
    cout << "Decimal: " << dec << iVal << endl;
    cout << "Hexadecimal: " << hex << iVal << endl;
    cout << noshowbase << nouppercase;

输出结果:

5. precision()/precision(n)成员函数

    double dVal = 3.1415926;
    int Accuracy = cout.precision();
    cout << Accuracy << endl;
    cout << dVal << endl;
    cout.precision(3);
    cout << dVal << endl;

输出结果:

6. setprecision(n)操作符(#include <iomanip>)

    double dVal = 3.1415926;
    cout << dVal << endl;
    cout << setprecision(3);
    cout << dVal << endl;

输出结果:

7. showpoint操作符

    cout << 10.00 << endl;
    cout << showpoint;
    cout << 10.00 << endl;

输出结果:

8. scientific/fixed操作符

    cout << scientific;
    cout << 10.0 << endl;
    cout << fixed;
    cout << 10.0 << endl;

输出结果:

如果希望把'e'输出为'E',则可以使用uppercase操作符,使用nouppercase操作符再次转换成小写。

9. noskipws/skipws

infile所关联的文本文件的内容为:

a b c
d

代码1:

    while (infile >> ch)
    {
        cout.put(ch);
    }

输出结果:

代码2:

    infile >> noskipws;
    while (infile >> ch)
    {
        cout.put(ch);
    }
    infile >> skipws;

输出结果:

10. setw()操作符

    int iVal = 16;
    double dVal = 3.14159;
    cout << setw(6) << iVal << endl;
    cout << setw(12) << dVal << endl;

输出结果:

11. setfill()操作符

    int iVal = 16;
    double dVal = 3.14159;
    cout << setw(10) << setfill('%');
    cout << iVal << endl;
    cout << setw(10) << setfill('%');
    cout << dVal << endl;

输出结果:

12. left/right操作符

代码1:

    int iVal = 16;
    double dVal = 3.14159;
    cout << left;
    cout << setw(10) << setfill('%');
    cout << iVal << endl;
    cout << setw(10) << setfill('%');
    cout << dVal << endl;
    cout << right;

输出结果:

代码2:

    int iVal = 16;
    double dVal = 3.14159;
    cout << right;
    cout << setw(10) << setfill('%');
    cout << iVal << endl;
    cout << setw(10) << setfill('%');
    cout << dVal << endl;
    cout << left;

输出结果:

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