2.2【HarmonyOS鸿蒙开发UI布局】布局DirectionLayout

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作者:韩茹

公司:程序咖(北京)科技有限公司

鸿蒙巴士专栏作家

DirectionalLayout是Java UI中的一种重要组件布局,用于将一组组件(Component)按照水平或者垂直方向排布,能够方便地对齐布局内的组件。该布局和其他布局的组合,可以实现更加丰富的布局方式。

DirectionalLayout示意图

0000000000011111111.20210402161824.23127408106559907349693265529043

一、支持的XML属性

DirectionalLayout的共有XML属性继承自:Component

属性名称中文描述取值取值说明使用案例
id控件identity,用以识别不同控件对象,每个控件唯一integer类型仅可用于配置控件的id。ohos:id="$+id:component_id"
theme样式引用仅可引用pattern资源。ohos:theme="$pattern:button_pattern"
width宽度,必填项float类型,match_parent,match_contentohos:width=“20"
ohos:width=“10vp"
ohos:width=”$float:size_value”
height高度,必填项float类型,match_parent,match_contentohos:height=“20”
ohos:height=“20vp”
ohos:height="$float:size_value"
min_width最小宽度float类型ohos:min_width=“20"
ohos:min_width=“20vp"
ohos:min_width=”$float:size_value”
min_height最小高度float类型ohos:min_height=“20"
ohos:min_height=“20vp"
ohos:min_height=”$float:size_value”
alpha透明度float类型取值范围在0~1。ohos:alpha=“0.86"
ohos:alpha=”$float:value"
enabled是否启用boolean类型ohos:enabled=“true"
ohos:enabled=”$boolean:true"
visibility可见性visible,invisible,hideohos:visibility=“visible”
padding内间距float类型
margin外边距float类型

DirectionalLayout的自有XML属性见下表:详见官方文档

属性名称中文描述取值取值说明使用案例
orientation子布局排列方向horizontal表示水平方向布局。ohos:orientation=“horizontal”
vertical表示垂直方向布局。ohos:orientation=“vertical”
alignment对齐方式left表示左对齐。可以设置取值项如表中所列,也可以使用“|”进行多项组合。ohos:alignment="top|left"
ohos:alignment=“left”
top表示顶部对齐。
right表示右对齐。
bottom表示底部对齐。
horizontal_center表示水平居中对齐。
vertical_center表示垂直居中对齐。
center表示居中对齐。
start表示靠起始端对齐。
end表示靠结束端对齐。
total_weight所有子视图的权重之和float类型可以直接设置浮点数值,也可以引用float浮点数资源。ohos:total_weight=“2.5"
ohos:total_weight=”$float:total_weight"

DirectionalLayout所包含组件可支持的XML属性见下表:

表2 DirectionalLayout所包含组件可支持的XML属性

属性名称中文描述取值取值说明使用案例
ayout_alignment对齐方式left表示左对齐。可以设置取值项如表中所列,
也可以使用“|”进行多项组合。
ohos:layout_alignment="top"
ohos:layout_alignment=“top|left”
top表示顶部对齐。
right表示右对齐。
bottom表示底部对齐。
horizontal_center表示水平居中对齐。
vertical_center表示垂直居中对齐。
center表示居中对齐。
weight比重float类型可以直接设置浮点数值,也可以引用float浮点数资源。ohos:weight=“1"
ohos:weight=”$float:weight"

二、排列方式

DirectionalLayout的排列方向(orientation)分为水平(horizontal)或者垂直(vertical)方向。使用orientation设置布局内组件的排列方式,默认为垂直排列。

  • 垂直排列

垂直方向排列三个按钮,效果如下:

WX20210601-175801@2x
<?xml version="1.0" encoding="utf-8"?>
<DirectionalLayout
    xmlns:ohos="http://schemas.huawei.com/res/ohos"
    ohos:width="match_parent"
    ohos:height="match_content"
    ohos:orientation="horizontal">


<!--
    ohos:orientation="vertical",垂直排列
    ohos:orientation="horizontal",水平排列
-->
    <Button
        ohos:width="80vp"
        ohos:height="40vp"
        ohos:margin="20vp"
        ohos:text_size="16fp"
        ohos:background_element="$graphic:color_cyan_element"
        ohos:text="Button 1"/>
    <Button
        ohos:width="80vp"
        ohos:height="40vp"
        ohos:margin="20vp"
        ohos:text_size="16fp"
        ohos:background_element="$graphic:color_cyan_element"
        ohos:text="Button 2"/>
    <Button
        ohos:width="80vp"
        ohos:height="40vp"
        ohos:margin="20vp"
        ohos:text_size="16fp"
        ohos:background_element="$graphic:color_cyan_element"
        ohos:text="Button 3"/>
</DirectionalLayout>

新增一个graphic文件,color_cyan_element.xml:

<?xml version="1.0" encoding="utf-8"?>
<shape xmlns:ohos="http://schemas.huawei.com/res/ohos"
       ohos:shape="rectangle">
    <solid
        ohos:color="#FFC0CB"/>
</shape>
  • 水平排列

水平方向排列三个按钮,效果如下:

WX20210601-180247@2x

只需要修改上面的DirectionalLayout布局中的ohos:orientation属性即可:由vertical改为horizontal

<DirectionalLayout
    xmlns:ohos="http://schemas.huawei.com/res/ohos"
    ohos:width="match_parent"
    ohos:height="match_content"
    ohos:orientation="horizontal">
  <!--
    ohos:orientation="vertical",垂直排列
    ohos:orientation="horizontal",水平排列
-->

要注意:

DirectionalLayout不会自动换行,其子组件会按照设定的方向依次排列,若超过布局本身的大小,超出布局大小的部分将不会被显示,例如:

<?xml version="1.0" encoding="utf-8"?>
<DirectionalLayout
    xmlns:ohos="http://schemas.huawei.com/res/ohos"
    ohos:width="match_parent"
    ohos:height="match_content"
    ohos:orientation="horizontal">


<!--
    ohos:orientation="vertical",垂直排列
    ohos:orientation="horizontal",水平排列
-->
    <Button
        ohos:width="100vp"
        ohos:height="40vp"
        ohos:margin="20vp"
        ohos:text_size="16fp"
        ohos:background_element="$graphic:color_cyan_element"
        ohos:text="Button 1"/>
    <Button
        ohos:width="100vp"
        ohos:height="40vp"
        ohos:margin="20vp"
        ohos:text_size="16fp"
        ohos:background_element="$graphic:color_cyan_element"
        ohos:text="Button 2"/>
    <Button
        ohos:width="100vp"
        ohos:height="40vp"
        ohos:margin="20vp"
        ohos:text_size="16fp"
        ohos:background_element="$graphic:color_cyan_element"
        ohos:text="Button 3"/>
</DirectionalLayout>

还是之前的代码,我们将Button的宽度由80调整为100,效果如下:

WX20210601-180556@2x

三、对齐方式

DirectionalLayout中的组件使用layout_alignment控制自身在布局中的对齐方式,当对齐方式与排列方式方向一致时,对齐方式不会生效,如设置了水平方向的排列方式,则左对齐、右对齐将不会生效。

<?xml version="1.0" encoding="utf-8"?>
<DirectionalLayout
    xmlns:ohos="http://schemas.huawei.com/res/ohos"
    ohos:height="500vp"
    ohos:width="300vp"
    ohos:background_element="#FFDEAD"
    ohos:orientation="vertical"
    >
    <Button
        ohos:width="80vp"
        ohos:height="40vp"
        ohos:text_size="16fp"
        ohos:background_element="$graphic:color_cyan_element"
        ohos:text="Button 1"/>
    <Button
        ohos:width="80vp"
        ohos:height="40vp"
        ohos:text_size="16fp"
        ohos:background_element="$graphic:color_cyan_element"
        ohos:text="Button 2"/>
    <Button
        ohos:width="80vp"
        ohos:height="40vp"
        ohos:text_size="16fp"
        ohos:background_element="$graphic:color_cyan_element"
        ohos:text="Button 3"/>
</DirectionalLayout>

默认效果如下:

WX20210601-181803@2x

现在是垂直方向的布局,3个按钮呈纵向排列,那么我们可以通过layout_alignment属性来设置他们的对齐方式就是横向上的,所以有效的属性值是:left,right,horizontal_center,center。

<?xml version="1.0" encoding="utf-8"?>
<DirectionalLayout
    xmlns:ohos="http://schemas.huawei.com/res/ohos"
    ohos:height="500vp"
    ohos:width="300vp"
    ohos:background_element="#FFDEAD"
    ohos:orientation="vertical"
    >
    <Button
        ohos:width="80vp"
        ohos:height="40vp"
        ohos:text_size="16fp"
        ohos:layout_alignment="left"
        ohos:background_element="$graphic:color_cyan_element"
        ohos:text="Button 1"/>
    <Button
        ohos:width="80vp"
        ohos:height="40vp"
        ohos:text_size="16fp"
        ohos:layout_alignment="horizontal_center"
        ohos:background_element="$graphic:color_cyan_element"
        ohos:text="Button 2"/>
    <Button
        ohos:width="80vp"
        ohos:height="40vp"
        ohos:text_size="16fp"
        ohos:layout_alignment="right"
        ohos:background_element="$graphic:color_cyan_element"
        ohos:text="Button 3"/>
</DirectionalLayout>

效果图:

WX20210601-182140@2x

如果是水平方向的布局,3个按钮呈横向排列,那么我们可以通过layout_alignment属性来设置他们的对齐方式就是纵向上的,所以有效的属性值是:top,bottom,vertical_center,center。

效果图:

WX20210601-182701@2x

设置对齐方式后:

<?xml version="1.0" encoding="utf-8"?>
<DirectionalLayout
    xmlns:ohos="http://schemas.huawei.com/res/ohos"
    ohos:height="500vp"
    ohos:width="350vp"
    ohos:background_element="#FFDEAD"
    ohos:orientation="horizontal"
    >
    <Button
        ohos:width="80vp"
        ohos:height="40vp"
        ohos:text_size="16fp"
        ohos:layout_alignment="top"
        ohos:background_element="$graphic:color_cyan_element"
        ohos:text="Button 1"/>
    <Button
        ohos:width="80vp"
        ohos:height="40vp"
        ohos:text_size="16fp"
        ohos:layout_alignment="vertical_center"
        ohos:background_element="$graphic:color_cyan_element"
        ohos:text="Button 2"/>
    <Button
        ohos:width="80vp"
        ohos:height="40vp"
        ohos:text_size="16fp"
        ohos:layout_alignment="center"
        ohos:background_element="$graphic:color_cyan_element"
        ohos:text="Button 3"/>
    <Button
        ohos:width="80vp"
        ohos:height="40vp"
        ohos:text_size="16fp"
        ohos:layout_alignment="bottom"
        ohos:background_element="$graphic:color_cyan_element"
        ohos:text="Button 4"/>
</DirectionalLayout>

效果图:

WX20210601-182613@2x

在DirectionLayout上使用alignment属性,也可以控制里面的内容的对齐方式:

<?xml version="1.0" encoding="utf-8"?>
<DirectionalLayout
    xmlns:ohos="http://schemas.huawei.com/res/ohos"
    ohos:height="match_parent"
    ohos:width="match_parent"
    ohos:orientation="vertical"
    ohos:alignment="bottom|right"
    >

    <Text
        ohos:height="200vp"
        ohos:width="200vp"
        ohos:background_element="#ff00ff"
        />
    <Text
        ohos:height="200vp"
        ohos:width="200vp"
        ohos:background_element="#ffff00"
        />
</DirectionalLayout>

效果图:

WX20210602-104916@2x

**写个例子,画个五饼:**其实这个例子使用DependentLayout布局,特别容易实现,但是此处为了练习,我们用DirectionLayout布局实现。

WX20210602-111113@2x

示例代码:

<?xml version="1.0" encoding="utf-8"?>
<DirectionalLayout
    xmlns:ohos="http://schemas.huawei.com/res/ohos"
    ohos:width="match_parent"
    ohos:height="match_parent"
    ohos:orientation="vertical">
<!--上面两个饼-->
    <DirectionalLayout
        ohos:width="match_parent"
        ohos:height="match_content"
        ohos:orientation="horizontal"
        >
        <Text
            ohos:width="80vp"
            ohos:height="80vp"
            ohos:background_element="$media:binggan"
            ohos:layout_alignment="left"
            />
        <DirectionalLayout
            ohos:height="match_content"
            ohos:weight="1"
            ohos:width="0vp"
            ohos:orientation="vertical">
            <Text
                ohos:width="80vp"
                ohos:height="80vp"
                ohos:background_element="$media:binggan"
                ohos:layout_alignment="right"
                />
        </DirectionalLayout>
    </DirectionalLayout>

<!--中间的饼-->

    <DirectionalLayout
        ohos:height="0vp"
        ohos:width="match_parent"
        ohos:weight="1"
        ohos:alignment="center"
        ohos:orientation="vertical">
        <Text
            ohos:width="80vp"
            ohos:height="80vp"
            ohos:background_element="$media:binggan"
            />
    </DirectionalLayout>


    <!--下面两个饼-->
    <DirectionalLayout
        ohos:width="match_parent"
        ohos:height="match_content"
        ohos:orientation="horizontal"
        >
        <Text
            ohos:width="80vp"
            ohos:height="80vp"
            ohos:background_element="$media:binggan"
            ohos:layout_alignment="left"
            />
        <DirectionalLayout
            ohos:height="match_content"
            ohos:weight="1"
            ohos:width="0vp"
            ohos:alignment="bottom|right"
            ohos:orientation="vertical">
            <Text
                ohos:width="80vp"
                ohos:height="80vp"
                ohos:background_element="$media:binggan"
                />
        </DirectionalLayout>
    </DirectionalLayout>
</DirectionalLayout>

四、权重

权重(weight)就是按比例来分配组件占用父组件的大小,在水平布局下计算公式为:

父布局可分配宽度=父布局宽度-所有子组件width之和;

组件宽度=组件weight/所有组件weight之和*父布局可分配宽度;

实际使用过程中,建议使用width=0来按比例分配父布局的宽度,1:1:1效果如下:

WX20210601-183157@2x

代码:

<?xml version="1.0" encoding="utf-8"?>
<DirectionalLayout
    xmlns:ohos="http://schemas.huawei.com/res/ohos"
    ohos:width="match_parent"
    ohos:height="match_content"
    ohos:orientation="horizontal">
    <Button
        ohos:width="0vp"
        ohos:height="20vp"
        ohos:weight="1"
        ohos:top_margin="20vp"
        ohos:background_element="$graphic:color_cyan_element"
        ohos:text="Button 1"/>
    <Button
        ohos:width="0vp"
        ohos:height="20vp"
        ohos:weight="1"
        ohos:top_margin="20vp"
        ohos:background_element="$graphic:color_gray_element"
        ohos:text="Button 2"/>
    <Button
        ohos:width="0vp"
        ohos:height="20vp"
        ohos:weight="1"
        ohos:top_margin="20vp"
        ohos:background_element="$graphic:color_cyan_element"
        ohos:text="Button 3"/>
</DirectionalLayout>

新增一个graphic文件:color_gray_element.xml:

<?xml version="1.0" encoding="utf-8"?>
<shape xmlns:ohos="http://schemas.huawei.com/res/ohos"
    ohos:shape="rectangle">
    <solid
        ohos:color="#878787"/>
</shape>

权重的例子,效果图如下:

WX20210602-103744@2x

示例代码:

<?xml version="1.0" encoding="utf-8"?>
<DirectionalLayout xmlns:ohos="http://schemas.huawei.com/res/ohos"
                   ohos:width="match_parent"
                   ohos:height="match_parent"
                   ohos:orientation="vertical">

    <!--
    上半部分:水平的DirectionalLayout
     -->
    <DirectionalLayout
        ohos:width="match_parent"
        ohos:height="0vp"
        ohos:weight="1"
        ohos:orientation="horizontal"
        >
        <Text
            ohos:width="0vp"
            ohos:height="match_parent"
            ohos:weight="1"
            ohos:background_element="#59D887"
            ohos:text_alignment="center"
            ohos:text="1"
            ohos:text_size="28fp"
            />
        <Text
            ohos:width="0vp"
            ohos:height="match_parent"
            ohos:weight="1"
            ohos:background_element="#88558D"
            ohos:text_alignment="center"
            ohos:text="2"
            ohos:text_size="28fp"
            />
        <Text
            ohos:width="0vp"
            ohos:height="match_parent"
            ohos:weight="1"
            ohos:background_element="#FCCF20"
            ohos:text_alignment="center"
            ohos:text="3"
            ohos:text_size="28fp"
            />
        <Text
            ohos:width="0vp"
            ohos:height="match_parent"
            ohos:weight="1"
            ohos:background_element="#6C8CE0"
            ohos:text_alignment="center"
            ohos:text="4"
            ohos:text_size="28fp"
            />


    </DirectionalLayout>

    <!--
    下半部分:垂直的DirectionalLayout
     -->
    <DirectionalLayout
        ohos:width="match_parent"
        ohos:height="0vp"
        ohos:weight="1"
        ohos:orientation="vertical"
        >
        <Text
            ohos:width="match_parent"
            ohos:height="0vp"
            ohos:weight="1"
            ohos:background_element="#59D887"
            ohos:text_alignment="center"
            ohos:text="a"
            ohos:text_size="28fp"
            />
        <Text
            ohos:width="match_parent"
            ohos:height="0vp"
            ohos:weight="1"
            ohos:background_element="#88558D"
            ohos:text_alignment="center"
            ohos:text="b"
            ohos:text_size="28fp"
            />
        <Text
            ohos:width="match_parent"
            ohos:height="0vp"
            ohos:weight="1"
            ohos:background_element="#FCCF20"
            ohos:text_alignment="center"
            ohos:text="c"
            ohos:text_size="28fp"
            />
        <Text
            ohos:width="match_parent"
            ohos:height="0vp"
            ohos:weight="1"
            ohos:background_element="#6C8CE0"
            ohos:text_alignment="center"
            ohos:text="d"
            ohos:text_size="28fp"
            />
    </DirectionalLayout>

</DirectionalLayout>

利用文本组件实现一个标题栏和详细内容的界面。

WX20210602-091458@2x

源码示例:

<?xml version="1.0" encoding="utf-8"?>
<DependentLayout
    xmlns:ohos="http://schemas.huawei.com/res/ohos"
    ohos:width="match_parent"
    ohos:height="match_parent"
    ohos:background_element="$graphic:color_light_gray_element">
    <Text
        ohos:id="$+id:text1"
        ohos:width="match_parent"
        ohos:height="match_content"
        ohos:text_size="25fp"
        ohos:top_margin="15vp"
        ohos:left_margin="15vp"
        ohos:right_margin="15vp"

        ohos:top_padding="10vp"
        ohos:bottom_padding="10vp"

        ohos:background_element="$graphic:background_text"
        ohos:text="Title"
        ohos:text_weight="1000"
        ohos:text_alignment="horizontal_center"/>
    <Text
        ohos:id="$+id:text2"
        ohos:width="match_parent"
        ohos:height="640vp"
        ohos:text_size="25fp"
        ohos:background_element="$graphic:background_text"
        ohos:text="Content"
        ohos:top_margin="15vp"
        ohos:left_margin="15vp"
        ohos:right_margin="15vp"
        ohos:bottom_margin="15vp"
        ohos:text_alignment="center"
        ohos:below="$id:text1"
        ohos:text_font="serif"/>
    <Button
        ohos:id="$+id:button1"
        ohos:width="100vp"
        ohos:height="match_content"
        ohos:text_size="15fp"
        ohos:background_element="$graphic:background_text"
        ohos:text="Previous"
        ohos:right_margin="15vp"
        ohos:bottom_margin="15vp"
        ohos:padding="5vp"
        ohos:below="$id:text2"
        ohos:left_of="$id:button2"
        ohos:text_font="serif"/>
    <Button
        ohos:id="$+id:button2"
        ohos:width="100vp"
        ohos:height="match_content"
        ohos:text_size="15fp"
        ohos:background_element="$graphic:background_text"
        ohos:text="Next"
        ohos:right_margin="15vp"
        ohos:bottom_margin="15vp"
        ohos:padding="5vp"
        ohos:align_parent_end="true"
        ohos:below="$id:text2"
        ohos:text_font="serif"/>
</DependentLayout>

color_light_gray_element.xml:

<?xml version="1.0" encoding="utf-8"?>
<shape xmlns:ohos="http://schemas.huawei.com/res/ohos"
    ohos:shape="rectangle">
    <solid
        ohos:color="#EDEDED"/>
</shape>

background_text.xml:

<?xml version="1.0" encoding="UTF-8" ?>
<shape xmlns:ohos="http://schemas.huawei.com/res/ohos"
       ohos:shape="rectangle">
    <corners
        ohos:radius="30"/>
    <solid
        ohos:color="#C0C0C0"/>
</shape>

更多内容:

1、社区:鸿蒙巴士https://www.harmonybus.net/

2、公众号:HarmonyBus

3、技术交流QQ群:714518656

4、视频课:https://www.chengxuka.com

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