.NET System.Timers.Timer的原理和使用(开发定时执行程序)

概述(来自MSDN)

Timer 组件是基于服务器的计时器,它使您能够指定在应用程序中引发 Elapsed 事件的周期性间隔。然后可以操控此事件以提供定期处理。例如,假设您有一台关键性服务器,必须每周 7 天、每天 24 小时都保持运行。可以创建一个使用 Timer 的服务,以定期检查服务器并确保系统开启并在运行。如果系统不响应,则该服务可以尝试重新启动服务器或通知管理员。

基于服务器的 Timer 是为在多线程环境中用于辅助线程而设计的。服务器计时器可以在线程间移动来处理引发的 Elapsed 事件,这样就可以比 Windows 计时器更精确地按时引发事件。

基于 Interval 属性的值,Timer 组件引发 Elapsed 事件。可以处理该事件以执行所需的处理。例如,假设您有一个联机销售应用程序,它不断向数据库发送销售订单。编译发货指令的服务分批处理订单,而不是分别处理每个订单。可以使用 Timer 每 30 分钟启动一次批处理。

注意

当 AutoReset设置为false时,Timer只在第一个Interval过后引发一次Elapsed事件。若要保持以Interval时间间隔引发 Elapsed 事件,请将AutoReset设置为true。 
Elapsed事件在ThreadPool线程上引发。如果Elapsed事件的处理时间比Interval长,在另一个hreadPool线程上将会再次引发此事件。因此,事件处理程序应当是可重入的。

注意

在一个线程调用 Stop 方法或将 Enabled 属性设置为 false 的同时,可在另一个线程上运行事件处理方法。这可能导致在计时器停止之后引发 Elapsed 事件。Stop 方法的示例代码演示了一种避免此争用条件的方法。 
如果和用户界面元素(如窗体或控件)一起使用 Timer,请将包含有 Timer 的窗体或控件赋值给SynchronizingObject 属性,以便将此事件封送到用户界面线程中。 Timer 在运行时是不可见的

 

几点说明

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private  System.Timers.Timer _TestTimerEvent= new  Timer();
1
  

1、默认的周期是0.1秒执行一次;

2、AutoReset的初始值为true.

3、它的timer机制和System.Threading.Timer 原理是一样的。

4、每次周期(Timer)运行一次会新起一个线程。

5、如果Elapsed事件的处理时间比Interval长,它每个周期执行都会新起一个线程,这个线程的执行时间不受interval的限定,可以比interval长,因为一个新周期执行,又会新起一个线程,Timer起的线程周期就是事件处理时间。

我们来看它的实现代码.(.net framework 提供的).

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//------------------------------------------------------------------------------
// <copyright file="Timer.cs" company="Microsoft">
//     Copyright (c) Microsoft Corporation.  All rights reserved.
// </copyright>
//-----------------------------------------------------------------------------
 
namespace  System.Timers {
  
     using  System.Runtime.InteropServices;
     using  System.Security;
     using  System.Security.Permissions;
     using  System.Threading;
     using  System.ComponentModel;
     using  System.ComponentModel.Design;
     using  System;
     using  Microsoft.Win32;
     using  Microsoft.Win32.SafeHandles;
 
     /// <devdoc>
     ///    <para>Handles recurring events in an application.</para>
     /// </devdoc>
     [
     DefaultProperty( "Interval" ),
     DefaultEvent( "Elapsed" ),
     HostProtection(Synchronization= true , ExternalThreading= true )
     ]
     public  class  Timer : Component, ISupportInitialize {
         private  double  interval;
         private  bool   enabled;
         private  bool  initializing;
         private  bool  delayedEnable;
         private  ElapsedEventHandler onIntervalElapsed;
         private  bool  autoReset;
         private  ISynchronizeInvoke synchronizingObject;
         private  bool  disposed;
         private  System.Threading.Timer timer;
         private  TimerCallback callback;
         private  Object cookie;
 
         /// <devdoc>
         /// <para>Initializes a new instance of the <see cref='System.Timers.Timer'/> class, with the properties
         ///    set to initial values.</para>
         /// </devdoc>
         public  Timer()
         : base () {
             interval = 100;
             enabled = false ;
             autoReset = true ;
             initializing = false ;
             delayedEnable = false ;
             callback = new  TimerCallback( this .MyTimerCallback);
         }
  
         /// <devdoc>
         ///    <para>
         ///       Initializes a new instance of the <see cref='System.Timers.Timer'/> class, setting the <see cref='System.Timers.Timer.Interval'/> property to the specified period.
         ///    </para>
         /// </devdoc>
         public  Timer( double  interval)
         : this () {
             if  (interval <= 0)
                 throw  new  ArgumentException(SR.GetString(SR.InvalidParameter, "interval" , interval));
 
             int  i = ( int )Math.Ceiling(interval);
             if ( i < 0) {
                 throw  new  ArgumentException(SR.GetString(SR.InvalidParameter, "interval" , interval));
             }
  
             this .interval = interval;
         }
  
         /// <devdoc>
         /// <para>Gets or sets a value indicating whether the Timer raises the Tick event each time the specified
         /// Interval has elapsed,
         ///    when Enabled is set to true.</para>
         /// </devdoc>
         [Category( "Behavior" ),  TimersDescription(SR.TimerAutoReset), DefaultValue( true )]
         public  bool  AutoReset {
             get  {
                 return  this .autoReset;
             }
  
             set  {
                 if  (DesignMode)
                      this .autoReset = value;
                 else  if  ( this .autoReset != value) {
                      this .autoReset = value;
                     if ( timer != null ) {
                          UpdateTimer();
                     }
                 }
             }
         }
 
         /// <devdoc>
         /// <para>Gets or sets a value indicating whether the <see cref='System.Timers.Timer'/>
         /// is able
         /// to raise events at a defined interval.</para>
         /// </devdoc>
         //[....] - The default value by design is false, don't change it.
         [Category( "Behavior" ), TimersDescription(SR.TimerEnabled), DefaultValue( false )]
         public  bool  Enabled {
             get  {
                 return  this .enabled;
             }
  
             set  {
                 if  (DesignMode) {
                     this .delayedEnable = value;
                     this .enabled = value;
                 }
                 else  if  (initializing)
                     this .delayedEnable = value;
                 else  if  (enabled != value) {
                     if  (!value) {
                         if ( timer != null ) {
                             cookie = null ;
                             timer.Dispose();
                             timer = null ;
                         }
                         enabled = value;
                     }
                     else  {
                         enabled = value;
                         if ( timer == null ) {
                             if  (disposed) {
                                 throw  new  ObjectDisposedException(GetType().Name);
                             }
 
                             int  i = ( int )Math.Ceiling(interval);
                             cookie = new  Object();
                             timer = new  System.Threading.Timer(callback, cookie, i, autoReset? i:Timeout.Infinite);
                         }
                         else  {
                             UpdateTimer();
                         }
                     }
 
                 }
           }
         }
  
  
         private  void  UpdateTimer() {
             int  i = ( int )Math.Ceiling(interval);
             timer.Change(i, autoReset? i :Timeout.Infinite );
         }
 
         /// <devdoc>
         ///    <para>Gets or
         ///       sets the interval on which
         ///       to raise events.</para>
         /// </devdoc>
         [Category( "Behavior" ), TimersDescription(SR.TimerInterval), DefaultValue(100d), RecommendedAsConfigurable( true )]
         public  double  Interval {
             get  {
                 return  this .interval;
             }
 
             set  {
                 if  (value <= 0)
                     throw  new  ArgumentException(SR.GetString(SR.TimerInvalidInterval, value, 0));
  
                 interval = value;
                 if  (timer != null ) {
                     UpdateTimer();
                 }
             }
         }
  
 
         /// <devdoc>
         /// <para>Occurs when the <see cref='System.Timers.Timer.Interval'/> has
         ///    elapsed.</para>
         /// </devdoc>
         [Category( "Behavior" ), TimersDescription(SR.TimerIntervalElapsed)]
         public  event  ElapsedEventHandler Elapsed {
             add {
                 onIntervalElapsed += value;
             }
             remove {
                 onIntervalElapsed -= value;
             }
         }
  
         /// <devdoc>
         ///    <para>
         ///       Sets the enable property in design mode to true by default.
         ///    </para>
         /// </devdoc>
         /// <internalonly/>
         public  override  ISite Site {
             set  {
                 base .Site = value;
                 if  ( this .DesignMode)
                     this .enabled= true ;
             }
 
             get  {
                 return  base .Site;
             }
         }
  
 
         /// <devdoc>
         ///    <para>Gets or sets the object used to marshal event-handler calls that are issued when
         ///       an interval has elapsed.</para>
         /// </devdoc>
         [
         Browsable( false ),
         DefaultValue( null ),
         TimersDescription(SR.TimerSynchronizingObject)
         ]
         public  ISynchronizeInvoke SynchronizingObject {
             get  {
                 if  ( this .synchronizingObject == null  && DesignMode) {
                     IDesignerHost host = (IDesignerHost)GetService( typeof (IDesignerHost));
                     if  (host != null ) {
                         object  baseComponent = host.RootComponent;
                         if  (baseComponent != null  && baseComponent is  ISynchronizeInvoke)
                             this .synchronizingObject = (ISynchronizeInvoke)baseComponent;
                     }
                 }
  
                 return  this .synchronizingObject;
             }
 
             set  {
                 this .synchronizingObject = value;
             }
         }
  
         /// <devdoc>
         ///    <para>
         ///       Notifies
         ///       the object that initialization is beginning and tells it to stand by.
         ///    </para>
         /// </devdoc>
         public  void  BeginInit() {
             this .Close();
             this .initializing = true ;
         }
 
         /// <devdoc>
         ///    <para>Disposes of the resources (other than memory) used by
         ///       the <see cref='System.Timers.Timer'/>.</para>
         /// </devdoc>
         public  void  Close() {
             initializing = false ;
             delayedEnable = false ;
             enabled = false ;
 
             if  (timer != null  ) {
                 timer.Dispose();
                 timer = null ;
             }
         }
 
         /// <internalonly/>
         /// <devdoc>
         /// </devdoc>
         protected  override  void  Dispose( bool  disposing) {
             Close();
             this .disposed = true ;
             base .Dispose(disposing);
         }
 
         /// <devdoc>
         ///    <para>
         ///       Notifies the object that initialization is complete.
         ///    </para>
         /// </devdoc>
         public  void  EndInit() {
             this .initializing = false ;
             this .Enabled = this .delayedEnable;
         }
  
         /// <devdoc>
         /// <para>Starts the timing by setting <see cref='System.Timers.Timer.Enabled'/> to <see langword='true'/>.</para>
         /// </devdoc>
         public  void  Start() {
             Enabled = true ;
         }
  
         /// <devdoc>
         ///    <para>
         ///       Stops the timing by setting <see cref='System.Timers.Timer.Enabled'/> to <see langword='false'/>.
         ///    </para>
         /// </devdoc>
         public  void  Stop() {
             Enabled = false ;
         }
  
         private  void  MyTimerCallback( object  state) {
             // System.Threading.Timer will not cancel the work item queued before the timer is stopped.
             // We don't want to handle the callback after a timer is stopped.
             if ( state != cookie) {
                 return ;
             }
 
             if  (! this .autoReset) {
                 enabled = false ;
             }
  
             FILE_TIME filetime = new  FILE_TIME();
             GetSystemTimeAsFileTime( ref  filetime);
             ElapsedEventArgs elapsedEventArgs = new  ElapsedEventArgs(filetime.ftTimeLow, filetime.ftTimeHigh);
             try  {
                 // To avoid ---- between remove handler and raising the event
                 ElapsedEventHandler intervalElapsed = this .onIntervalElapsed;
                 if  (intervalElapsed != null ) {
                     if  ( this .SynchronizingObject != null  && this .SynchronizingObject.InvokeRequired)
                         this .SynchronizingObject.BeginInvoke(intervalElapsed, new  object []{ this , elapsedEventArgs});
                     else
                        intervalElapsed( this ,  elapsedEventArgs);
                 }
             }
             catch  {
             }
         }
 
         [StructLayout(LayoutKind.Sequential)]
         internal  struct  FILE_TIME {
             internal  int  ftTimeLow;
             internal  int  ftTimeHigh;
         }
 
         [DllImport(ExternDll.Kernel32), SuppressUnmanagedCodeSecurityAttribute()]
         internal  static  extern  void  GetSystemTimeAsFileTime( ref  FILE_TIME lpSystemTimeAsFileTime);      
     }
}
  
 
// File provided for Reference Use Only by Microsoft Corporation (c) 2007.  

在初始化的时候它的代码实现是这样的.

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public  Timer()
: base () {
     interval = 100;
     enabled = false ;
     autoReset = true ;
     initializing = false ;
     delayedEnable = false ;
     callback = new  TimerCallback( this .MyTimerCallback);
}

 

 

而如果你是这样的话

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public  Timer( double  interval)
        : this () {
            if  (interval <= 0)
                throw  new  ArgumentException(SR.GetString(SR.InvalidParameter, "interval" , interval));
 
            int  i = ( int )Math.Ceiling(interval);
            if ( i < 0) {
                throw  new  ArgumentException(SR.GetString(SR.InvalidParameter, "interval" , interval));
            }
 
            this .interval = interval;
        }

 

 

你就需要再设置下AutoReset = True;

 

我们加载事件的Elapsed的代码实现是这样的.

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/// <devdoc>
/// <para>Occurs when the <see cref='System.Timers.Timer.Interval'/> has
///    elapsed.</para>
/// </devdoc>
[Category( "Behavior" ), TimersDescription(SR.TimerIntervalElapsed)]
public  event  ElapsedEventHandler Elapsed {
     add {
         onIntervalElapsed += value;
     }
     remove {
         onIntervalElapsed -= value;
     }
}

 

 

对它的基本原理有一定了解后,我们开始写一个简单的实现程序。