ORACLE 8i DBA完全简明手册

(作者按:2002年10月下旬,参加了OCP数据库的培训,根据当时的笔记和近几年的实际经验,特别是在大家的鼓励下,完成了此本手册,以供大家实际使用中参考--2003/1/1) 注:下文中的所有例子均是基于ORACLE8i for WIN2K SERVER完成的,在不同版本和操作系统上可能会有所差别。 一、 Oracle数据库基本概念和体系结构 1.什么是Oracle数据库、DBA? Oracle是美国Oracle公司的注册商标,它的起家产品Oracle数据库是一种RDBMS(关系数据库管理系统),我们平时所说的ORACLE即指的是Oracle数据库—包括所有的物理数据及相关的物理、内存、进程等对象的组合。 DBA(DataBase Administrator)数据库管理员,主要负责数据库的设计、维护、监控、管理、备份、安全、开发人员协调等一系列工作,是数据信息管理系统的核心位置。 2.实例和数据库内部结构 Oracle数据库是由实例和数据库组成。 实例指Oracle所使用的内存和后台进程及一些配置文件; ● SGA:系统全局区。是一组内存结构,包括Buffer Cache数据高速缓存、Redo log Buffer重做日志缓冲区、Shared Pool共享池(dictionary cache数据字典高速缓存、Library Cache共享SQL池、User Session用户会话)等; ● 后台进程:SMON(系统监视器进程)、DBWR(数据库写盘进程)、PMON(进程监视器进程)、CKPT(检查点进程)、LGWR(日志写盘进程)等; 数据库指数据文件、重做日志文件及控制文件; 二、 Oracle数据库管理 1.启动和关闭数据库 ①启动数据库 D:/orant8i/bin>svrmgrl Oracle Server Manager Release 3.1.7.0.0 - Production Copyright (c) 2000, Oracle Corporation. All Rights Reserved. Oracle8i Enterprise Edition Release 8.1.7.0.0 - Production With the Partitioning option JServer Release 8.1.7.0.0 - Production SVRMGR> connect internal; 连接成功。 SVRMGR> startup 已启动 ORACLE 实例。 系统全局区域合计有 121522204个字节 Fixed Size 75804个字节 Variable Size 57708544个字节 Database Buffers 63660032个字节 Redo Buffers 77824个字节 已装入数据库。 已打开数据库。 数据库启动的3个步骤: NOMOUNT:启动Oracle实例 MOUNT:安装数据库 OPEN:打开数据库 SVRMGR> startup nomount 已启动 ORACLE 实例。 系统全局区域合计有 121522204个字节 Fixed Size 75804个字节 Variable Size 57708544个字节 Database Buffers 63660032个字节 Redo Buffers 77824个字节 SVRMGR> alter database mount; 语句已处理。 SVRMGR> alter database open; 语句已处理。 (注意:如果服务器上装有多个数据库时,在执行svrmgrl前应首先执行set oracle_sid=wwfdb,这个例子中要操作的数据库系统id为wwfdb) ②关闭数据库 SVRMGR> shutdown 已关闭数据库。 已卸下数据库。 已关闭 ORACLE 实例。 关闭数据库的四种方式 NORMAL:正常关闭数据库。不会强迫用户断开,不允许新的连接,但等待所有连接直到断开。 IMMEDIATE:断开所有连接,回退活动事务,不允许建立新连接。 ABORT:立即断开所有连接、终止所有事务,下次启动时需要进行实例恢复。 TRANSACTIONAL:等待事务完成后,即断开连接。 SVRMGR> shutdown immediate 已关闭数据库。 已卸下数据库。 已关闭 ORACLE 实例。 (注意:迫不得已不要使用ABORT参数,实际上它接近于数据库服务器突然掉电,下次开机可能要花费很长的时间进行实例恢复。) 2.数据库手工创建和相关参数配置 尽管Oracle提供了Enterprise Manager这样的图形管理工具,几乎可以完成DBA的大部分工作,但当数据库出现问题或远程管理时,手工命令是不可或缺的,另外,手工操作可以让你更深层次的了解Oracle的机理。 手工创建数据库: ① 创建参数文件;Oracle在安装时会提供一个参数例子文件,你可以以它为模板来进行修改;(我这里的位置在D:/orant8i/database/initwwfdb.ora) #一个实际的初始化文件 # Copyright (c) 1991, 2000 by Oracle Corporation # ############################################################################## # Example INIT.ORA file # # This file is provided by Oracle Corporation to help you customize # your RDBMS installation for your site. Important system parameters # are discussed, and example settings given. # Some parameter settings are generic to any size installation. # For parameters that require different values in different size # installations, three scenarios have been provided: SMALL, MEDIUM # and LARGE. Any parameter that needs to be tuned according to # installation size will have three settings, each one commented # according to installation size. # # Use the following table to approximate the SGA size needed for the # three scenarious provided in this file: # # -------Installation/Database Size------ # SMALL MEDIUM LARGE # Block 2K 4500K 6800K 17000K # Size 4K 5500K 8800K 21000K # # To set up a database that multiple instances will be using, place # all instance-specific parameters in one file, and then have all # of these files point to a master file using the IFILE command. # This way, when you change a public # parameter, it will automatically change on all instances. This is # necessary, since all instances must run with the same value for many # parameters. For example, if you choose to use private rollback segments, # these must be specified in different files, but since all gc_* # parameters must be the same on all instances, they should be in one file. # # INSTRUCTIONS: Edit this file and the other INIT files it calls for # your site, either by using the values provided here or by providing # your own. Then place an IFILE= line into each instance-specific # INIT file that points at this file. # # NOTE: Parameter values suggested in this file are based on conservative # estimates for computer memory availability. You should adjust values upward # for modern machines. # ############################################################################### db_name = "wwfdb" instance_name = wwfdb service_names = wwfdb db_files = 1024 # INITIAL # db_files = 80 # SMALL # db_files = 400 # MEDIUM # db_files = 1500 # LARGE control_files = ("D:/wwfdb/control01.ctl", "D:/wwfdb/control02.ctl", "D:/wwfdb/control03.ctl") open_cursors = 300 max_enabled_roles = 30 db_file_multiblock_read_count = 8 # INITIAL # db_file_multiblock_read_count = 8 # SMALL # db_file_multiblock_read_count = 16 # MEDIUM # db_file_multiblock_read_count = 32 # LARGE db_block_buffers = 7771 # INITIAL # db_block_buffers = 100 # SMALL # db_block_buffers = 550 # MEDIUM # db_block_buffers = 3200 # LARGE shared_pool_size = 31457280 # INITIAL # shared_pool_size = 3500000 # SMALL # shared_pool_size = 5000000 # MEDIUM # shared_pool_size = 9000000 # LARGE large_pool_size = 614400 java_pool_size = 20971520 log_checkpoint_interval = 10000 log_checkpoint_timeout = 1800 processes = 150 # INITIAL # processes = 50 # SMALL # processes = 100 # MEDIUM # processes = 200 # LARGE parallel_max_servers = 5 # SMALL # parallel_max_servers = 4 x (number of CPUs) # MEDIUM # parallel_max_servers = 4 x (number of CPUs) # LARGE log_buffer = 32768 # INITIAL # log_buffer = 32768 # SMALL # log_buffer = 32768 # MEDIUM # log_buffer = 163840 # LARGE #audit_trail = true # if you want auditing timed_statistics = true # if you want timed statistics max_dump_file_size = 10240 # limit trace file size to 5M each # Uncommenting the line below will cause automatic archiving if archiving has # been enabled using ALTER DATABASE ARCHIVELOG. log_archive_start = true log_archive_dest_1 = "location=D:/wwfdb/archive" log_archive_format = %%ORACLE_SID%%T%TS%S.ARC # If using private rollback segments, place lines of the following # form in each of your instance-specific init.ora files: #rollback_segments = ( RBS0, RBS1, RBS2, RBS3, RBS4, RBS5, RBS6 ) # If using public rollback segments, define how many # rollback segments each instance will pick up, using the formula # # of rollback segments = transactions / transactions_per_rollback_segment # In this example each instance will grab 40/5 = 8 # transactions = 40 # transactions_per_rollback_segment = 5 # Global Naming -- enforce that a dblink has same name as the db it connects to global_names = true # Edit and uncomment the following line to provide the suffix that will be # appended to the db_name parameter (separated with a dot) and stored as the # global database name when a database is created. If your site uses # Internet Domain names for e-mail, then the part of your e-mail address after # the '@' is a good candidate for this parameter value. # db_domain = us.acme.com # global database name is db_name.db_domain # Uncomment the following line if you wish to enable the Oracle Trace product # to trace server activity. This enables scheduling of server collections # from the Oracle Enterprise Manager Console. # Also, if the oracle_trace_collection_name parameter is non-null, # every session will write to the named collection, as well as enabling you # to schedule future collections from the console. # oracle_trace_enable = true oracle_trace_collection_name = "" # define directories to store trace and alert files background_dump_dest = D:/wwfdb/bdump #Uncomment this parameter to enable resource management for your database. #The SYSTEM_PLAN is provided by default with the database. #Change the plan name if you have created your own resource plan.# resource_manager_plan = system_plan user_dump_dest = D:/wwfdb/udump db_block_size = 8192 remote_login_passwordfile = EXCLUSIVE os_authent_prefix = "" # The following parameters are needed for the Advanced Replication Option job_queue_processes = 4 job_queue_interval = 10 open_links = 4 distributed_transactions = 500 mts_dispatchers = "(PROTOCOL=TCP)(PRE=oracle.aurora.server.SGiopServer)" # Uncomment the following line when your listener is configured for SSL # (listener.ora and sqlnet.ora) # mts_dispatchers = "(PROTOCOL=TCPS)(PRE=oracle.aurora.server.SGiopServer)" compatible = 8.1.0 sort_area_size = 65536 sort_area_retained_size = 65536 ② 创建与实例相关的目录 md wwfdb cd wwfdb md bdump md udump md archive ① 创建实例 ORADIM –NEW –SID wwfdb -INTPWD shbj2003 -STARTMODE auto -PFILE D:/orant8i/database/initwwfdb.ora ② 启动实例 SET ORACLE_SID=wwfdb SVRMGRL SVRMGRL>connect internal/shbj2003 SVRMGRL>startup nomount; ③ 创建数据库 CREATE DATABASE wwfdb LOGFILE GROUP 1 ‘D:/WWFDB/WWFDB1A.LOG’ SIZE 1M, GROUP 2 ‘D:/WWFDB/WWFDB2A.LOG’ SIZE 1M MAXLOGFILES 10 DATAFILE ‘D:/WWFDB/sys1wwfdb.dbf’ SIZE 100M AUTOEXTEND ON NEXT 20M MAXSIZE 200M MAXDATAFILES 150 CHARACTER SET ZHS16GBK; ④ 修改监听文件重启监听服务 打开D:/orant8i/network/ADMIN/listener.ora文件,在SID_LIST_LISTENER 项目SID_LIST里,添加: (SID_DESC = (GLOBAL_DBNAME = wwfdb) (ORACLE_HOME = D:/orant8i) (SID_NAME = wwfdb) ) 执行lsnrctl reload重启监听服务 ⑤ 安装数据字典 通过catalog.sql文件创建数据字典视图(包括sql.bsq的数据字典基本表),通过catproc.sql创建PL/SQL环境,通过pupbld.sql创建用户资源集。 ⑥ 配置网络客户 打开D:/orant8i/network/ADMIN/tnsnames.ora文件,添加 WWFDB = (DESCRIPTION = (ADDRESS_LIST = (ADDRESS = (PROTOCOL = TCP)(HOST = WWFLAP)(PORT = 1521)) ) (CONNECT_DATA = (SERVICE_NAME = wwfdb)) ) 3.数据库设计 ① 逻辑设计 这里给出Oracle公司所提供的优化的数据库逻辑分布表,各类系统可以参照设计: 表空间 用途 SYSTEM 数据字典 DATA 标准操作表 DATA_2 标准操作时使用静态表 INDEXES 标准操作表的索引 INDEXES_2 静态表的索引 RBS 标准操作的回滚段 RBS_2 用于数据装载的特定回滚段 TEMP 标准操作的临时段 TEMP_USER 由特定用户创建的临时段 TOOLS RDBMS工具表 TOOLS_1 RDBMS工具表的索引 USERS 开发数据库中的用户对象 USERS_1 测试数据库中的用户索引 SANPS 快照表 SANPS_1 快照表上的索引 AGG_DATA 聚合表和显形图 AGG_DATA_1 聚合表和显形图上的索引 PARTITIONS 表或索引段的分区 PARTITIONS_1 分区上的局部和全局索引 TEMP_WORK 数据装载时使用的临时表 ② 物理设计 4.安全和监控审计 5.备份和恢复 6.大批量的数据操作 7.回滚段管理 8.数据库调优 9.系统排错 一、 SQL命令和PL/SQL语言介绍 1.DDL 2.DML 3.存储过程、函数、触发器 二、 Oracle网络 1.NET8配置 2. 3. 三、 Oracle相关工具 1.SQL PLUS 2.SQL LOADER 3.Enterprise Manager 附录: 1、 Oracle常用视图介绍 2、 Oracle 常用SQL命令 3、 Oracle DBA相关 Unix命令 (未完待续)
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