Chapter 4– Functions and Program Structure of TCPL (Part 11)

Exercise 4-8

Suppose that there will never be more than one character of pushback. Modify getch and ungetch accordingly.

/* K&R Exercise 4-8 */

/*

written by Steven Huang

revised by ffffx0@gmail.com

*/

 

#include <stdio.h>

 

int buf = EOF; /* buffer for ungetch */

 

int getch(void) /* get a (possibly pushed back) character */

{

    int temp = buf;

    buf = EOF;

    return temp==EOF ? (getchar()) : temp;

}

 

void ungetch(int c) /* push character back on input */

{

    if(buf != EOF)

        printf("ungetch: too many characters/n");

    else      

        buf = c;

}

 

int main(void)

{

    int c;

   

    while ((c = getch()) != EOF) {

        if (c == '/') {

            putchar(c);

            if ((c = getch()) == '*') {

                ungetch('!');

            }        

        }

        putchar(c);

    }

   

    return 0;

}

/* K&R Exercise 4-8 */

/* written by ffffx0@gmail.com */

 

/* the simple solution is change BUFSIZE to 1 */

 

#include <stdio.h>

#define BUFSIZE 1

 

char buf[BUFSIZE]; /* buffer for ungetch */

int bufp = 0;      /* next free postion in buf */

int getch(void) /* get a (possibly pushed back) character */

{

    return bufp > 0 ? buf[--bufp] : getchar();

}

 

void ungetch(int c) /* push character back on input */

{

    if(bufp >= BUFSIZE)

        printf("ungetch: too many characters/n");

    else      

        buf[bufp++] = c;

}

 

int main(void)

{

    int c;

   

    while ((c = getch()) != EOF) {

        if (c == '/') {

            putchar(c);

            if ((c = getch()) == '*') {

                ungetch('!');

            }        

        }

        putchar(c);

    }

   

    return 0;

}

Exercise 4-9

Our getch and ungetch do not handle a pushed-back EOF correctly. Decide what their properties ought to be if an EOF is pushed back, and then implement your design.

#include <stdio.h>

 

/* it's better to avoid this happening. */

 

#include <stdio.h>

#define BUFSIZE 1

 

char buf[BUFSIZE]; /* buffer for ungetch */

int bufp = 0;      /* next free postion in buf */

 

int getch(void);   /* get a (possibly pushed back) character */

void ungetch(int); /* push character back on input */

 

int main() {

    int c;

    /*ungetch('1');

    ungetch('2'); */

   

    ungetch(EOF); /* ungetch('!'); ungetch('4');*/

    c= getch();

    printf("%c/n", c);

    c = getch();

    printf("%c/n", c);

    return 0;

}

 

int getch(void) /* get a (possibly pushed back) character */

{

    if (bufp > 0) {

        return buf[--bufp];

    }

    else

        return getchar();

}

 

void ungetch(int c) /* push character back on input */

{

    if(bufp >= BUFSIZE)

        printf("ungetch: too many characters/n");

    else if (c != EOF)

         buf[bufp++] = c;   

}

Exercise 4-10

An alternate organization uses getline to read an entire input line; this makes getch and ungetch unnecessary. Revise the calculator to use this approach.

 

Exercise 4-11

Modify getop so that it doesn't need to use ungetch. Hint: use an internal static variable.

/* getop: get next operator or numeric operand */

int getop(char *s)

{

    int c;

    static int buf = EOF;

 

    if (buf == EOF || buf == ' ' || buf == '/t')

        while ((*s = c = getch()) == ' ' || c == '/t')

            ;

    else

        *s = c = buf;

    buf = EOF;

    *(s + 1) = '/0';

    if (!isdigit(c) && c != '.')

        return c;       /* not a number */

    if (isdigit(c))     /* collect integer part */

        while (isdigit(*++s = c = getch()))

            ;

    if (c == '.')       /* collect fraction part */

        while (isdigit(*++s = c = getch()))

            ;

    *++s = '/0';

    buf = c;

    return NUMBER;

}

Exercise 4-12

Adapt the ideas of printd to write a recursive version of itoa ; that is, convert an integer into a string by calling a recursive routine.

#include <stdio.h>

 

/* itoa_recursive: convert an integer to a string.

use recrusive method */

void itoa_recursive(int n, char s[]);

 

int main() {

    int n = -123456;

    char num[64]={0};

    printf("%d/n", strlen(num));

    itoa_recursive(n ,num);

    printf("%s/n", num);

   

    return 0;

}

 

void itoa_recursive(int n, char s[]) {

  

    int i;

    if (n < 0) {

        i = strlen(s);

        s[i++] = '-';

        s[i] = '/0';

        n = -n;

    }

    if (n / 10)

        itoa_recursive(n/10, s);

    i = strlen(s);

    s[i++] = abs(n % 10) + '0';

    s[i] = '/0';

}

 

Exercise 4-13

Write a recursive version of the function reverse(s) , which reverses the string s in place.

#include <stdio.h>

 

/* reverse_recursive: reverse string s in place */

void reverse_recursive(char[], int, int);

 

int main() {

    char s[] = "reverse_recursive";

    printf("before reverse: %s/n", s);

    reverse_recursive(s, 0, strlen(s)-1);

    printf("before reverse: %s/n", s);

    return 0;

}

 

void reverse_recursive(char s[], int p1, int p2) {

    int temp;

    if (p1 < p2) {

        temp = s[p1];

        s[p1] = s[p2];

        s[p2] = temp;

        reverse_recursive(s, p1+1, p2-1);

    }

    else return;       

}

Exercise 4-14

Define a macro swap(t,x,y) that interchanges two arguments of type t . (Block structure will help.)

#include <stdio.h>

#define swap(t, x, y) /

    do { /

    t safe ## x ## y; /

    safe ## x ## y = x; /

    x = y; /

    y = safe ## x ## y; /

    } while (0)

 

 

int main() {

    int x = 5, y = 8;

    printf("before swap:/n");

    printf("x = %d, y = %d/n", x, y);

    printf("after swap:/n");

    swap(int, x, y);

    printf("x = %d, y = %d/n", x, y);   

    return 0;

}

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