冯辉

如履薄冰,从零开始

《MongoDB权威指南》读书笔记

插入文档

使用insert向集合中插入一个文档:

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> db.test.insert({"name":"mrbird"})
WriteResult({ "nInserted" : 1 })
> db.test.findOne()
{ "_id" : ObjectId("58a99b8168e0d7b9f6992c69"), "name" : "mrbird" }

插入的文档没有“_id”键的话,这个操作会自动为文档添加一个“_id”键。 批量插入文档则需使用insertMany函数,函数接收一个文档数组:

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> db.test.insertMany([{"name":"Jane"},{"name":"KangKang"}])
{
"acknowledged" : true,
"insertedIds" : [
ObjectId("58a99d6468e0d7b9f6992c6b"),
ObjectId("58a99d6468e0d7b9f6992c6c")
]
}
> db.test.find()
{ "_id" : ObjectId("58a99b8168e0d7b9f6992c69"), "name" : "mrbird" }
{ "_id" : ObjectId("58a99d6468e0d7b9f6992c6b"), "name" : "Jane" }
{ "_id" : ObjectId("58a99d6468e0d7b9f6992c6c"), "name" : "KangKang" }

要查看一个文档的大小,可以使用Object.bsonsize(doc)函数(单位为字节):

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> Object.bsonsize(db.test.find({"name":"mrbird"}))
1215

删除文档

删除文档使用remove函数,接收一个查询文档,所有匹配的文档都将会被删除:

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> db.test.remove({"name":"mrbird"})
WriteResult({ "nRemoved" : 1 })
> db.test.find()
{ "_id" : ObjectId("58a99d6468e0d7b9f6992c6b"), "name" : "Jane" }
{ "_id" : ObjectId("58a99d6468e0d7b9f6992c6c"), "name" : "KangKang" }

要清空整个集合的话,可以使用drop函数:

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> db.test.drop()
true
> db.test.find()

更新文档

使用update函数更新文档,接收两个参数,查询文档和修改器文档,如:

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> db.test.findOne({"name":"mrbird"})
{
"_id" : ObjectId("58a9ace92363ff29a7d881e9"),
"name" : "mrbird",
"blog" : "mrbird.leanote.com"
}
> var mrbird = db.test.findOne({"name":"mrbird"})
> mrbird.blog = "mrbird's blog"
mrbird's blog
> db.test.update({"name":"mrbird"},mrbird)
WriteResult({ "nMatched" : 1, "nUpserted" : 0, "nModified" : 1 })
> db.test.findOne({"name":"mrbird"})
{
"_id" : ObjectId("58a9ace92363ff29a7d881e9"),
"name" : "mrbird",
"blog" : "mrbird's blog"
}

$inc修改器用来增加或减少已有的键值,如果该键不存在则创造一个。比如:

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> db.test.findOne({"name":"mrbird"})
{
"_id" : ObjectId("58a9ace92363ff29a7d881e9"),
"name" : "mrbird",
"blog" : "mrbird's blog"
}
> db.test.update({"name":"mrbird"},{"$inc":{"pageview":1}})
WriteResult({ "nMatched" : 1, "nUpserted" : 0, "nModified" : 1 })
> db.test.findOne({"name":"mrbird"})
{
"_id" : ObjectId("58a9ace92363ff29a7d881e9"),
"name" : "mrbird",
"blog" : "mrbird's blog",
"pageview" : 1
}
> db.test.update({"name":"mrbird"},{"$inc":{"pageview":100}})
WriteResult({ "nMatched" : 1, "nUpserted" : 0, "nModified" : 1 })
> db.test.findOne({"name":"mrbird"})
{
"_id" : ObjectId("58a9ace92363ff29a7d881e9"),
"name" : "mrbird",
"blog" : "mrbird's blog",
"pageview" : 101
}
> db.test.update({"name":"mrbird"},{"$inc":{"pageview":-50}})
WriteResult({ "nMatched" : 1, "nUpserted" : 0, "nModified" : 1 })
> db.test.findOne({"name":"mrbird"})
{
"_id" : ObjectId("58a9ace92363ff29a7d881e9"),
"name" : "mrbird",
"blog" : "mrbird's blog",
"pageview" : 51
}

$inc只能用于整型,长整型或双精度浮点型的值。

$set用于修改文档的字段值,当这个字段不存在的时候就创建一个。如:

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> db.test.findOne({"name":"mrbird"})
{
"_id" : ObjectId("58a9ace92363ff29a7d881e9"),
"name" : "mrbird",
"blog" : "mrbird's blog",
"pageview" : 51
}
> db.test.update({"_id":ObjectId("58a9ace92363ff29a7d881e9")},
... {"$set":{"note":"love leanote!!"}})
WriteResult({ "nMatched" : 1, "nUpserted" : 0, "nModified" : 1 })
> db.test.findOne({"_id":ObjectId("58a9ace92363ff29a7d881e9")})
{
"_id" : ObjectId("58a9ace92363ff29a7d881e9"),
"name" : "mrbird",
"blog" : "mrbird's blog",
"pageview" : 51,
"note" : "love leanote!!"
}

$set还可以修改键的类型,比如将note键的值改为数组类型:

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> db.test.update({"_id":ObjectId("58a9ace92363ff29a7d881e9")},
... {"$set":{"note":["love leanote","the fun of code"]}})
WriteResult({ "nMatched" : 1, "nUpserted" : 0, "nModified" : 1 })
> db.test.findOne({"_id":ObjectId("58a9ace92363ff29a7d881e9")})
{
"_id" : ObjectId("58a9ace92363ff29a7d881e9"),
"name" : "mrbird",
"blog" : "mrbird's blog",
"pageview" : 51,
"note" : [
"love leanote",
"the fun of code"
]
}

$set也可以修改内嵌文档,比如:

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> db.blog.findOne()
{
"_id" : ObjectId("58aa47f645b899838bfb6114"),
"name" : "mrbird's blog",
"post" : "mongodb",
"comment" : {
"name" : "xiaohema",
"msg" : "学习了,感谢分享"
}
}
> db.blog.update({"name":"mrbird's blog"},
... {"$set":{"comment.msg":"好,支持威武有希望了"}})
> db.blog.findOne()
{
"_id" : ObjectId("58aa47f645b899838bfb6114"),
"name" : "mrbird's blog",
"post" : "mongodb",
"comment" : {
"name" : "xiaohema",
"msg" : "好,支持威武有希望了"
}
}

使用$unset可删除键,比如:

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> db.test.update({"_id":ObjectId("58a9ace92363ff29a7d881e9")},
... {"$unset":{"note":1}})
WriteResult({ "nMatched" : 1, "nUpserted" : 0, "nModified" : 1 })
> db.test.findOne({"_id":ObjectId("58a9ace92363ff29a7d881e9")})
{
"_id" : ObjectId("58a9ace92363ff29a7d881e9"),
"name" : "mrbird",
"blog" : "mrbird's blog",
"pageview" : 51
}

数组修改器

$push会向已有的数组末尾添加一个值,如果数组不存在,则创建该数组。比如:

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> db.blog.findOne()
{
"_id" : ObjectId("58aa47f645b899838bfb6114"),
"name" : "mrbird's blog",
"post" : "mongodb"
}
> db.blog.update({"name":"mrbird's blog"}, {"$push":
...{"comments": {"name":"ltsc","msg":"不明觉厉"}}})
WriteResult({ "nMatched" : 1, "nUpserted" : 0, "nModified" : 1 })
> db.blog.findOne()
{
"_id" : ObjectId("58aa47f645b899838bfb6114"),
"name" : "mrbird's blog",
"post" : "mongodb",
"comments" : [
{
"name" : "ltsc",
"msg" : "不明觉厉"
}
]
}

如果要一次性向数组中添加多个值,可以使用$push结合$each修改器。比如:

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> db.blog.update({"name":"mrbird's blog"},
... {"$push":{"comments":{"$each":[
... {"name":"Althars","msg":"siguoyi"},
... {"name":"jint","msg":"厉害了我的哥"}]}}})
WriteResult({ "nMatched" : 1, "nUpserted" : 0, "nModified" : 1 })
> db.blog.findOne()
{
"_id" : ObjectId("58aa47f645b899838bfb6114"),
"name" : "mrbird's blog",
"post" : "mongodb",
"comments" : [
{
"name" : "ltsc",
"msg" : "不明觉厉"
},
{
"name" : "Althars",
"msg" : "siguoyi"
},
{
"name" : "jint",
"msg" : "厉害了我的哥"
}
]

$slice可以在为数组添加值的时候截取数组,但必须配合$push$each一起使用,否则报语法错误,比如:

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> db.user.findOne()
{
"_id" : ObjectId("58aa5e8a6a294f5543ff66eb"),
"name" : "KangKang",
"sex" : "male",
"habbit" : [
"basketball",
"football",
"swimming",
"running"
]
}
> db.user.update({"name":"KangKang"},
... {"$push":{"habbit":{"$each":
... ["eating"],"$slice":-3}}})
WriteResult({ "nMatched" : 1, "nUpserted" : 0, "nModified" : 1 })
> db.user.findOne()
{
"_id" : ObjectId("58aa5e8a6a294f5543ff66eb"),
"name" : "KangKang",
"sex" : "male",
"habbit" : [
"swimming",
"running",
"eating"
]
}

从结果可以看出,$slice截取了数组最新的三个值。注意,$slice的值必须是负整数。

现在有这么一种情况,$push修改器可以向一个数组中添加重复的值,如:

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> db.user.findOne({"name":"mrbird"})
{
"_id" : ObjectId("58aa7cb06a294f5543ff66ec"),
"name" : "mrbird",
"email" : [
"mrbird@qq.com"
]
}
> db.user.update({"name":"mrbird"}, {"$push":{"email":"mrbird@qq.com"}})
WriteResult({ "nMatched" : 1, "nUpserted" : 0, "nModified" : 1 })
> db.user.findOne({"name":"mrbird"})
{
"_id" : ObjectId("58aa7cb06a294f5543ff66ec"),
"name" : "mrbird",
"email" : [
"mrbird@qq.com",
"mrbird@qq.com"
]
}

如果希望数组中添加的值不重复的话,可以使用$addToSet修改器:

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> db.user.update({"name":"mrbird"}, {"$unset":{"email":1}})
WriteResult({ "nMatched" : 1, "nUpserted" : 0, "nModified" : 1 })
> db.user.findOne({"name":"mrbird"})
{ "_id" : ObjectId("58aa7cb06a294f5543ff66ec"), "name" : "mrbird" }
> db.user.update({"name":"mrbird"},
... {"$addToSet":{"email":{"$each":["mrbird@qq.com","mrbird@qq.com","mrbird@gmail.com"]}}})
WriteResult({ "nMatched" : 1, "nUpserted" : 0, "nModified" : 1 })
> db.user.findOne({"name":"mrbird"})
{
"_id" : ObjectId("58aa7cb06a294f5543ff66ec"),
"name" : "mrbird",
"email" : [
"mrbird@qq.com",
"mrbird@gmail.com"
]
}

删除数组元素有几种方法,比如$pop{“$pop”:{"key":1}}表示从数组尾部删除元素,-1则表示从头部删除:

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> db.user.findOne({"name":"mrbird"})
{
"_id" : ObjectId("58aa7cb06a294f5543ff66ec"),
"name" : "mrbird",
"email" : [
"mrbird@qq.com",
"mrbird@gmail.com"
]
}
> db.user.update({"name":"mrbird"},
... {"$pop":{"email":1}})
WriteResult({ "nMatched" : 1, "nUpserted" : 0, "nModified" : 1 })
> db.user.findOne({"name":"mrbird"})
{
"_id" : ObjectId("58aa7cb06a294f5543ff66ec"),
"name" : "mrbird",
"email" : [
"mrbird@qq.com"
]
}

另外一个删除数组元素的修改器为$pull,该操作符会将所有匹配的元素从数组中删除。比如:

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> db.user.update({"name":"KangKang"},
... {"$push":{"habbit":"eating"}})
WriteResult({ "nMatched" : 1, "nUpserted" : 0, "nModified" : 1 })
> db.user.findOne({"name":"KangKang"})
{
"_id" : ObjectId("58aa5e8a6a294f5543ff66eb"),
"name" : "KangKang",
"sex" : "male",
"habbit" : [
"swimming",
"running",
"eating",
"eating"
]
}
> db.user.update({"name":"KangKang"},
... {"$pull":{"habbit":"eating"}})
WriteResult({ "nMatched" : 1, "nUpserted" : 0, "nModified" : 1 })
> db.user.findOne({"name":"KangKang"})
{
"_id" : ObjectId("58aa5e8a6a294f5543ff66eb"),
"name" : "KangKang",
"sex" : "male",
"habbit" : [
"swimming",
"running"
]
}

还可以通过数组的下标修改数组内容,如下所示:

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> db.blog.find({"name":"mrbird's blog"}).pretty()
{
"_id" : ObjectId("58aa47f645b899838bfb6114"),
"name" : "mrbird's blog",
"post" : "mongodb",
"comments" : [
{
"name" : "ltsc",
"msg" : "不明觉厉"
},
{
"name" : "Althars",
"msg" : "siguoyi"
},
{
"name" : "jint",
"msg" : "厉害了我的哥"
}
]
}
> db.blog.update({"name":"mrbird's blog"},
... {"$set":{"comments.1.msg":"四国以"}})
WriteResult({ "nMatched" : 1, "nUpserted" : 0, "nModified" : 1 })
> db.blog.find({"name":"mrbird's blog"}).pretty()
{
"_id" : ObjectId("58aa47f645b899838bfb6114"),
"name" : "mrbird's blog",
"post" : "mongodb",
"comments" : [
{
"name" : "ltsc",
"msg" : "不明觉厉"
},
{
"name" : "Althars",
"msg" : "四国以"
},
{
"name" : "jint",
"msg" : "厉害了我的哥"
}
]
}

这种做法有局限性,就是必须先知道待修改字段的数组下标,可以使用另外一种方法,下面这种方法只需要知道待修改字段就行了:

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> db.blog.update({"comments.msg":"四国以"},
... {"$set":{"comments.$.msg":"看完此文,犹如醍醐灌顶"}})
WriteResult({ "nMatched" : 1, "nUpserted" : 0, "nModified" : 1 })
> db.blog.find({"name":"mrbird's blog"}).pretty()
{
"_id" : ObjectId("58aa47f645b899838bfb6114"),
"name" : "mrbird's blog",
"post" : "mongodb",
"comments" : [
{
"name" : "ltsc",
"msg" : "不明觉厉"
},
{
"name" : "Althars",
"msg" : "看完此文,犹如醍醐灌顶"
},
{
"name" : "jint",
"msg" : "厉害了我的哥"
}
]
}

update函数的第三个参数为upsert,设置为true时,新一个文档,没有找到匹配的查询文档时,插入该文档,找到了就更新,比如:

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> db.blog.findOne({"name":"mrbrid","post":"MongoDB文档CUD"})
null
> db.blog.update({"name":"mrbrid","post":"MongoDB文档CUD"},
... {"$inc":{"pageview":1}},true)
WriteResult({
"nMatched" : 0,
"nUpserted" : 1,
"nModified" : 0,
"_id" : ObjectId("58acf0743c8ad0b0d9d65f45")
})
> db.blog.findOne({"name":"mrbrid","post":"MongoDB文档CUD"})
{
"_id" : ObjectId("58acf0743c8ad0b0d9d65f45"),
"name" : "mrbrid",
"post" : "MongoDB文档CUD",
"pageview" : 1
}

update函数的第四个参数为multi,设置为true的时候,批量更新和查询文档匹配的文档,比如将mrbird’s blog集合中所有文档的pageview增加1:

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> db.blog.find().pretty()
{
"_id" : ObjectId("58acf0743c8ad0b0d9d65f45"),
"name" : "mrbird's blog",
"post" : "MongoDB文档CUD",
"pageview" : 1
}
{
"_id" : ObjectId("58acf64b3c8ad0b0d9d65f4a"),
"name" : "mrbird's blog",
"post" : "MongoDB shell",
"pageview" : 1
}
{
"_id" : ObjectId("58acf65d3c8ad0b0d9d65f4d"),
"name" : "mrbird's blog",
"post" : "start Spring Boot",
"pageview" : 1
}
> db.blog.update({"name":"mrbird's blog"},{"$inc":{"pageview":1}},
... false,true)
WriteResult({ "nMatched" : 3, "nUpserted" : 0, "nModified" : 3 })
> db.blog.find().pretty()
{
"_id" : ObjectId("58acf0743c8ad0b0d9d65f45"),
"name" : "mrbird's blog",
"post" : "MongoDB文档CUD",
"pageview" : 2
}
{
"_id" : ObjectId("58acf64b3c8ad0b0d9d65f4a"),
"name" : "mrbird's blog",
"post" : "MongoDB shell",
"pageview" : 2
}
{
"_id" : ObjectId("58acf65d3c8ad0b0d9d65f4d"),
"name" : "mrbird's blog",
"post" : "start Spring Boot",
"pageview" : 2
}

另外,调用getLastError可查看最近一次更新的文档数量,如:

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> db.runCommand({getLastError:1})
{
"connectionId" : 1,
"updatedExisting" : true,
"n" : 3,
"syncMillis" : 0,
"writtenTo" : null,
"err" : null,
"ok" : 1
}

拥有类似事务特性的更新与查询操作findAndModify。它是原子性的,会返回符合查询条件的更新后的文档。一次最多只更新一个文档,也就是条件query条件,且执行sort后的第一个文档。语法如下:

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db.COLLECTION_NAME.findAndModify({
query:{},
update:{},
remove:true|false,
new:true|false,
sort:{},
fields:{},
upsert:true|false}
);​

  1. query是查询选择器,与findOne的查询选择器相同。

  2. update是要更新的值,不能与remove同时出现。

  3. remove表示删除符合query条件的文档,不能与update同时出现。

  4. new为true:返回更新后的文档,false:返回更新前的,默认是false。

  5. sort:排序条件,与sort函数的参数一致。

  6. fields:投影操作,与find的第二个参数一致。

  7. upsert:与update的upsert参数一样。

例子:

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> db.blog.findAndModify({
... "query":{"name":"mrbird's blog"},
... "update":{
... "$inc":{"pageview":1},
... "$set":{"like":1}}})
{
"_id" : ObjectId("58acf0743c8ad0b0d9d65f45"),
"name" : "mrbird's blog",
"post" : "MongoDB文档CUD",
"pageview" : 3
}
> db.blog.find().pretty()
{
"_id" : ObjectId("58acf0743c8ad0b0d9d65f45"),
"name" : "mrbird's blog",
"post" : "MongoDB文档CUD",
"pageview" : 4,
"like" : 1
}
{
"_id" : ObjectId("58acf64b3c8ad0b0d9d65f4a"),
"name" : "mrbird's blog",
"post" : "MongoDB shell",
"pageview" : 3
}
{
"_id" : ObjectId("58acf65d3c8ad0b0d9d65f4d"),
"name" : "mrbird's blog",
"post" : "start Spring Boot",
"pageview" : 3
}

可发现,执行findAndModify后,返回被更新前(默认显示更新前的)的文档,并且只更新了匹配的第一条文档。

如果要返回被更新后的文档,我们设置new 为true:

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> db.blog.findAndModify({
..."query":{"name":"mrbird's blog"},
..."update":{ "$inc":{"pageview":1}, "$set":{"like":2}},
..."new":true})
{
"_id" : ObjectId("58acf0743c8ad0b0d9d65f45"),
"name" : "mrbird's blog",
"post" : "MongoDB文档CUD",
"pageview" : 5,
"like" : 2
}
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