利用VC设计简易逻辑表达式词法分析器

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简易逻辑表达式词法分析器

待分析的逻辑表达式如下:

EXISTS(x)(Missile(x) AND Owns(Father(Nono),Part_of(x))) => Sells(West,x,Nono)

为了处理逻辑表达式,必须首先提取出逻辑表达式的各个部分:关键字(AND, OR, NOT, FORALL, EXISTS, =>)、谓词和参数,同时必须对于表达式中多余的空格必须删除。这项工作由一个词法分析器完成。

该词法分析器最基础的部分是一个自定义节点Node,定义如下:

classNode
...{
public:
//VARIABLEs
enumNodeType...{KEYWORD,PREDICATE,PARAM};//Typesofthenode.
staticwstringKeyWord[];
NodeTypetype;
wstringcontent;
//contentofthenode.
intlevel;//Recordthelevelofthenode,forexample:
//Owns(Nono,Sub(x))---"Owns"inlevel0,"Nono""Sub"inlevel1andxinlevel2.

//FUNCTIONs
Node();
Node(wstringcon,NodeTypetype_
=KEYWORD,intlev=0);
~Node();
virtualNode&operator=(Node&);//Overridesofoperator=

protected:

}
;

Node主要有三个部分:该节点内容、节点类型、节点的等级(用以对提取出的表达式进行进一步的分析)。

同时定义了一个链表:

typedef list<Node> NodeList; // Define List.

该链表用于存储整个逻辑表达式。

同时定义了一个类Parser,封装了NodeList用于对逻辑表达式进行操作。

classParser
...{
public:
//VARIABLEs
NodeListlist;
Node
*node;

//FUNCTIONs
Parser()...{node=NULL;};
~Parser();
Node
*Parse(wstringstr,intcur_pos=0);//functiontoparseastring.

private:

}
;

词法分析器的核心函数就是Node* Parser::Parse(wstring str,int cur_pos)该函数主要针对逻辑表达式中的'('' '','以及')'进行分析,流程图如下:


运行结果如下:

词法分析器运行结果


分析结果以树的形式表示:同一级节点表示具有相同的等级,参数比它的谓词的等级要高,比如Missile(x)中Missile等级为0级,x为1级。分 析之后各个节点存储在Parser.list中,可以根据该链表的节点的level属性将各节点插入树种的相应位置。
分析以上逻辑表达式可知,各个节点的等级如下:
Missile x AND Owns Nono Sub x => Sells West x Nono
0 1 0 0 1 1 2 0 0 1 1 1
可见,利用堆栈来辅助将节点插入树中是最理想的方法。思路如下:将树的TVI_ROOT压栈;若当前节点的等级大于其前一个节点,将前一个节点压栈;若当 前节点等级小于前一个节点,出栈前一节点等级 和 当前节点等级之差次;若当前节点等级等于前一节点等级,既不压栈也不出栈。每个当前节点的父节点为栈顶元素。


源代码如下:

/**///////////////////////////////////////////////////
//
//FunctionName:Parse
//Input:awstring(must),
//thestartpositionofbeingparsed(choiced).
//Output:aparsedlist'shead.
//
/**///////////////////////////////////////////////////
Node*Parser::Parse(wstringstr,intcur_pos)
...{
//intstart=cur_pos;
Node*tmpNode=NULL;
wchar_tpstr[
40]=L"";//tempvartorecordwords.
intk=0;//usedtogetherwithpstr.
intlevel=0;
intspace_pos=0;

//Dealwiththefirstkeywordsofapropositionalfuction.
//SuchasNOT,EXISTS(x),FORALL(y)andsoon.
//EXAMPLE:EXISTS(x)(Missile(x)ANDOwns(Nono,x))=>Sells(West,x,Nono)
//EXAMPLE:NOT(Missile(x))ANDOwns(Nono,Sub(x))=>Sells(West,x,Nono)
//EXAMPLE:Missile(x)ANDOwns(Nono,Sub(x))=>Sells(West,x,Nono)
while(cur_pos!=str.length())
...{
if(str[cur_pos]==L'(')//Wordsbefore'('onlycanbeKEYWORDorPREDICATE.
...{
boolisKeyWord=false;
for(inti=0;i<sizeof(Node::KEYWORD);++i)
...{
if(!wcscmp(pstr,Node::KeyWord[i].c_str()))//pstr==Node::KeyWord[i]
...{
isKeyWord
=true;
tmpNode
=newNode(pstr,Node::KEYWORD,level);
list.push_back(
*tmpNode);//Insertkeyword.
break;
}

}

if(!isKeyWord&&wcscmp(pstr,L""))//pstrisnotkeywordorNULL
...{
tmpNode
=newNode(pstr,Node::PREDICATE,level);
list.push_back(
*tmpNode);//InsertPREDICATE.
}

++level;
++cur_pos;
k
=0;
}

elseif(str[cur_pos]==L'')
...{
if(str[cur_pos-1]!=L')')//ifa''follows')',thencomparethefollowingtoorthreewithkeyword.
...{
if(wcscmp(pstr,L""))//pstrisnotempty
...{
wstringstrAND(str,cur_pos
-3,3);
wstringstrOR(str,cur_pos
-2,2);
if(!strAND.compare(L"AND")||!strOR.compare(L"OR")||!strOR.compare(L"=>"))
...{
tmpNode
=newNode(pstr,Node::KEYWORD,level);
list.push_back(
*tmpNode);//Insertkeyword.
++cur_pos;
k
=0;

memset(pstr,L
'',sizeof(pstr));
continue;
}

else
exit(
0);//Error!
}

}


++cur_pos;//Ignorewhitespace.
continue;
}

elseif(str[cur_pos]==L',')//pstrmustbeaparam
...{
if(!wcscmp(pstr,L"")&&str[cur_pos-1]==L')')//Inacaselike:Owns(Father(Nono),Sub(x))
...{
++cur_pos;
}

elseif(wcscmp(pstr,L""))//pstrisnotempty
...{
if(str[cur_pos-1]==L')')//Somethingbetweena')'anda',',Error!
exit(1);
else
...{
tmpNode
=newNode(pstr,Node::PARAM,level);
list.push_back(
*tmpNode);//InsertPARAM.
++cur_pos;
}

}


k
=0;
}

elseif(str[cur_pos]==L')')
...{
if(!wcscmp(pstr,L"")&&str[cur_pos-1]==L')')//Inacaselike:Owns(Father(Nono),Sub(x))
...{
++cur_pos;
}

elseif(wcscmp(pstr,L""))//ifpstrisnotempty
...{
if(str[cur_pos-1]==L')')//Error!
exit(1);
else
...{
tmpNode
=newNode(pstr,Node::PARAM,level);
list.push_back(
*tmpNode);//InsertPARAM.
++cur_pos;
}

}


--level;
k
=0;
}

else
...{
pstr[k
++]=str[cur_pos++];
continue;
}


memset(pstr,L
'',sizeof(pstr));
}

return&list.front();
}



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