• A common form of inter- or intradepartmental
communication in business and academia is the
memorandum (pl. memorandums or
memoranda), usually called a memo. Memos
are written by everyone from junior executives
and engineers to CEOs. Hence, it is essential to
master this basic communication form.
• Two words characterize a well-written memo:
informative and concise.
• The two most common patterns of organization
for business and technical memos are
deduction (decreasing order of importance) and
induction (increasing order of importance).
• Sense and Sensibility
• in the Auditorium
• Feb. 16
• Admission Free
• Football Match
• on Field # 2
• English Dept. vs. Russian Dept.
• Thurs. Apr. 15
• 5:00 p.m.
• Contemporary British Theatre
• Speaker: Prof. Bernard Holland
• Professor of English Literature, Cambridge University
• Author of The Experimental Theatre
• Date: Monday, 6 October
• Time: 10 a.m.
• Place: Rm. 201
• All Welcome!
• EARN EXTRA MONEY
• FOR UNDERGRADUATE
• OR GRADUATE STUDENTS
• Private Teacher of English
• Call Mr. Liu at
• Wed. Mar. 12
• Dear Prof. Brown,
• I would like to express my apologies for not
being able to keep our 10 o'clock appointment
for Mar. 16, for I have some urgent business to
deal with out of town and won't be back until
Mar. 17. I will ring you up as soon as I come
back to arrange for another appointment.
• With many apologies,
• Hao Zhiqi
• Happiness Tour Group
• Day 1 14:30 Arrival at Beijing Airport
• 15:10 Transfer to Yanjing Hotel
• 20:00 Bus Tour - Beijing by Night
• Day 2 9:00 Visit to Tiananmen Square
• 10:00 Guided walk through the Forbidden City
• 13:00Roast Beijing duck at Quanjude Restaurant
• 15:00 Stop at Qianmen for shopping
• 20:00 Evening at Beijing Opera House
• Day 3 7:00 Day trip to the Great Wall and the Ming
• Evening free
• Day 4 8:00 Visit to the Temple of Heaven
• 13:00 Boating on Kunming Lake
• 16:00 Guided walk through Peking University
• Day 5 9:40 Departure from hotel for Beijing Airport
• Best wishes for a speedy recovery.
• Get Well Soon!
• Warmest Get-Well Wishes.
• Thinking of you in the hospital.
• Good luck in your examination!
• Good Luck in your interview!
• Congratulations (and Best Wishes)!
• Hearty congratulations on your success!
• Hearty congratulations on your marriage and best
wishes to you both!
• Best wishes for a long and happy married life to you
• May this be the beginning of a lifetime of love and
• May your life together be filled with love and
• 1、Advertisment Concept
• 1) 传播者：企业
• 2) 传播媒体：
• 3) 传播内容：
• 4) 受传者：广告传播的对象
• 5) 传播目的
• 1) 覆盖地区：国际、全国、区域、地区性
• 2) 对象：消费广告、工业广告、商品批发
• 3) 内容：商品广告、企业广告、观念广告
• 4) 设计制作：报道式广告、劝告式广告、
• 5) 广告媒体：印刷品广告、电波广告、邮
• 1) 报纸
• 2) 杂志
• 3) 电视
• 4) 广播
• 5) 销售现场广告
• When writing an ad or sales letter, there are two
critical points you must NEVER, EVER forget:
• 1. Most people don't make a buying decision
based on logic. They make a buying decision
based on their emotions.
• 2. People don't want to feel like they're being
coerced or pushed into anything. They want to
feel like they arrived at a buying decision
completely of their own free will.
• sales letter using the following classic
• Inexpensive Pre-made Logos
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• Our logo store
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• Get your business logo right now!
• Winston Wagner
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• 13 Ford Street North Ryde
• Property For Sale
• Price: $600,000 - $645,000
• Property Details
• House 3 bedrooms 1
bathroom 2 carspaces,
• Building area: 594 sqm
• Open for Inspection
• Private Appointment
• Email Agent to arrange an Inspection
• Located only moments from shops, schools and parks,
this delightfully refurbished freestanding cottage opens
to reveal sunny open interiors and a large al fresco
sun deck with an ideal northern aspect.
• Close to a choice of shopping precincts and schools
• Boasting an ideal northern aspect from the rear
• Elegant open living and dining introduces the home
• New spacious kitchen with ample bench and storage
• Bill Gates' 11 Rules
• In Bill Gates' Book for high school and
college graduates，there is a list of １１thing
s they did not learn in school．In his book，
Bill Gates talks about how feel－good，
politically－correct teachings created a full
generation of kids with no concept of reality
and how this education set them up for
failure in the real world．
• The １１things are：
• １．Life is not fair，get used to it．
• ２．The world won' t care about your selfesteem．
The world will expect you to accomplish
something before you feel good about yourself．
• ３．You will not make ４０thousand dollars a year
right out of high school．You won‘ t be a vice
president with a car phone，until you earn both．
• ４．If you think your teacher is tough，wait till you
get a boss．He doesn't have tenure．
• ５．Flipping burgers is not beneath your
dignity．Your grandparents had a different word for
burger flipping；they called it opportunity．
• ６．If you mess up，it's not your parents' fault，so
don' t whine about our mistakes，learn from them．
• ７．Before you were born，your parents weren't as
boring as they are now．They got that way from
paying your bills，cleaning your clothes and listening
to you talk about how cool you are．So before you
save the rain forest from the parasites of your parents'
generation，try “delousing” the closet in your own
• ８．Your school may have done away with winners
and losers，but life has not．In some schools they
have abolished failing grades；they'll give you as
many times as you want to get the right answer．This
doesn't bear the slightest resemblance to anything in
• ９．Life is not divided into semesters．You
don't get summers off and very few
employers are interested in helping you find
yourself．Do that on your own time．
• １０．Television is NOT real life．In real
life people actually have to leave the coffee
shop and go to jobs．
• １１．Be nice to nerds．Chances are you'll
end up working for one．
• Good morning. It's a great pleasure to be
here. Today is a major milestone for Microsoft
as our first Professional Developers
Conference here in China.
• The key partnerships we build with software
developers around the world are central not
only to the success of Windows but also to
realize the possibility that PC technology
• It's through applications of every variety that
businesses will be using the personal
computer as the tool of the Information Age.
• It's rather amazing how fast this innovation is
moving. Even to keep the like of myself who
are deeply involved in the industry to go and
see the improvement and every element that
are taking place on a yearly basis is quite
• Of course one of the driving factors of this
business is the exponential increase in
processor performance. There is no doubt
that the magic of chip capability has delivered
through the advance in microprocessor
allows us to think of application which never
would have been possible before.
• The PC industry is one of the few industries that
can deliver lower price equipment at the same
time as improving the capabilities.
• The storage systems are now delivering
Gigabyte of storage as the standard capability.
Over 80 million of PCs are being sold a year.
• And the server market, the higher performance
machines that these PCs networked with, are
the fastest growing part of this business. The
performance of those servers is increasing not
only because the individual processors are
faster, but also because we are using multipleprocessor
machines, so called SMP designs
and clustering nodes together.……
• Great chips, systems developers, partners who
are sponsoring this event, making this all
• There is an incredible opportunity for
developers. The applications that are written
today will sell to an even larger base of
machines out in the market.
• There is a lot that we're doing to increase the
work of good developers-make sure they
understand where the PC is going and how
tools can help them now, more and more
marketing type of activities making sure they
got in with the customers. This is something
that we are going to increase year after year.
• The overall DNS message is one about
helping developers seize that opportunity by
bringing together the different architectures,
making things automatic and allowing this to
be done in an evolutionary fashion.
• I think it's a fantastic time to be developer
and we appreciate being here and look
forward to the opportunity to work with you
• GM -vs.- Microsoft
• Bill Gates is hanging out with the chairman of
General Motors. 'If automotive technology had kept
pace with computer technology over the past few
decades,' boasts Gates, 'you would now be driving
a V-32 instead of a V-8, and it would have a top
speed of 10,000 miles per hour,' says Gates.
'Or, you could have an economy car that weighs 30
pounds and gets a thousand miles to a gallon of
gas. In either case, the sticker price of a new car
would be less than $50,' he continues.
• In response to all this goading, the GM chairman
replies, 'Yes, but would you really want to drive a
car that crashes four times a day?'
And the memory in my head I hear nobody's been killed in a
But when it happens they wish they were dead!
Records of Formal Schooling
Necessary Entrance Examination
(Educational Testing Service)
• TOFEL (Test of English as a Foreign
• GRE (graduate Record Examination)
• GMAT (Graduate Management Admission
• LAST (Law School Admission Test)
• TSE (Test of Spoken English)
• Scholarship:奖学金(Full & partial )
• Full & partial tuition waiver: 学费全免或部分
Certificate for the degree of bachelor
• Degree-Certificate NO.6573
This is to certify that Wei Hong, female, native of
Kunming, Yunnan Province, born on August 18,
1989, specialized in Software in the Computer
Department of this University, has qualified for
graduation. In the past four years she has
satisfactorily finished all the required courses and
got enough credits. Upon the examination and in
conformity with articles of the Regulations
Regarding Academic Degrees in the People’s
Republic of China, she has been admitted to the
degree of Bachelor of Science.
President of Yunnan University
I write to recommend most warmly one of my best
student, Miss Wang Jing. As I understand, she
wishes to enter your master’s program of Computer
Science in the fall of 2005.
Miss Wang attended the courses “Software Design”
and “Programming Language” instructed by me in
the academic year 2003-2004. her grades in both
courses were the highest in her class. In one
project in the course “Software Design”, she
demonstrated her analytical power and vivid
designing techniques, showing a competence for
independent research. When in class, she often
raised thoughtful questions reflecting her active
imagination and creativity. After class, she read
extensively to enrich her learning in related fields.
This initiative and aggressive attitude is an
obvious asset to her future studies. I expect
greater academic achievements of her.
She has proved herself capable of
advanced knowledge pursuit.
Department of Computer
• Dear Mr. Curtis:
• As an experienced computer programmer who
is presently pursuing a master's degree in
electrical engineering at Rensselaer
Polytechnic Institute, I am writing to request
information about possible summer
employment opportunities with HAL. I am
interested in a position that will allow me to
combine the talents I have developed in both
computer programming and electrical
engineering. However, as you can see from
the attached resume, I have extensive
experience in many related fields, and I
always enjoy new challenges.
• I feel that it is important for me to maintain a
practical, real-world perspective while developing
my academic abilities. I am proud of the fact that I
have financed my entire education through
scholarships and summer jobs related to my field of
• This work experience has enhanced my
appreciation for the education I am pursuing. I find
that I learn as much from my summer jobs as I do
from my academic studies. For example, during
the summer of 1986, while working for IBM in Boca
Raton, Florida, I gained a great deal of practical
experience in the field of electronic circuit logic and
• When I returned to school in the fall and took
Computer Hardware Design, I found that my
experience with IBM had thoroughly prepared me
for the subject.
Teach Yourself Programming in
• Why is everyone in such a rush?
• Walk into any bookstore, and you'll see how to Teach
Yourself Java in 7 Days alongside endless variations
offering to teach Visual Basic, Windows, the Internet,
and so on in a few days or hours. I did the following
power search at Amazon.com:
• pubdate: after 1992 and title: days and
• (title: learn or title: teach yourself)
• and got back 248 hits. The first 78 were computer books
(number 79 was Learn Bengali in 30 days). I replaced
"days" with "hours" and got remarkably similar results:
253 more books, with 77 computer books followed by
Teach Yourself Grammar and Style in 24 Hours at
number 78. Out of the top 200 total, 96% were computer
• The conclusion is that either people are in a big rush
to learn about computers, or that computers are
somehow fabulously easier to learn than anything else.
There are no books on how to learn Beethoven, or
Quantum Physics, or even Dog Grooming in a few
• Let's analyze what a title like Learn Pascal in Three
Days could mean:
In 3 days you won't have time to write several
significant programs, and learn from your successes
and failures with them. You won't have time to work
with an experienced programmer and understand
what it is like to live in that environment. In short, you
won't have time to learn much. So they can only be
talking about a superficial familiarity, not a deep
understanding. As Alexander Pope said, a little
learning is a dangerous thing.
In 3 days you might be able to learn the
syntax of Pascal (if you already knew a similar
language), but you couldn't learn much about how
to use the syntax. In short, if you were, say, a Basic
programmer, you could learn to write programs in
the style of Basic using Pascal syntax, but you
couldn't learn what Pascal is actually good (and
bad) for. So what's the point? Alan Perlis once said:
"A language that doesn't affect the way you think
about programming, is not worth knowing". One
possible point is that you have to learn a tiny bit of
Pascal (or more likely, something like Visual Basic
an existing tool to accomplish a specific task. But
then you're not learning how to program; you're
learning to accomplish that task.
• in Three Days:
Unfortunately, this is not enough, as the next
• Teach Yourself Programming in Ten Years
• Researchers (Hayes, Bloom) have shown it takes about ten
years to develop expertise in any of a wide variety of areas,
including chess playing, music composition, painting, piano
playing, swimming, tennis, and research in neuropsychology
and topology. There appear to be no real shortcuts: even
Mozart, who was a musical prodigy at age 4, took 13 more
years before he began to produce world-class music. In another
genre, the Beatles seemed to burst onto the scene with a string
of #1 hits and an appearance on the Ed Sullivan show in 1964.
But they had been playing small clubs in Liverpool and
Hamburg since 1957, and while they had mass appeal early on,
their first great critical success, Sgt. Peppers, was released in
1967. Samuel Johnson thought it took longer than ten years:
"Excellence in any department can be attained only by the labor
of a lifetime; it is not to be purchased at a lesser price." And
Chaucer complained "the lyf so short, the craft so long to lerne."
• Here's my recipe for programming success:
• Get interested in programming, and do some because
it is fun. Make sure that it keeps being enough fun so
that you will be willing to put in ten years.
• Talk to other programmers; read other programs. This
is more important than any book or training course.
• Program. The best kind of learning is learning by
doing. To put it more technically, "the maximal level of
performance for individuals in a given domain is not
attained automatically as a function of extended
experience, but the level of performance can be
increased even by highly experienced individuals as a
result of deliberate efforts to improve." and "the most
effective learning requires a well-defined task with an
appropriate difficulty level for the particular individual,
informative feedback, and opportunities for repetition
and corrections of errors." (p. 20-21) The book
Cognition in Practice: Mind, Mathematics, and Culture
in Everyday Life is an interesting reference for this
If you want, put in four years at a college (or more at
a graduate school). This will give you access to
some jobs that require credentials, and it will give
you a deeper understanding of the field, but if you
don't enjoy school, you can (with some dedication)
get similar experience on the job. In any case, book
learning alone won't be enough. "Computer science
education cannot make anybody an expert
programmer any more than studying brushes and
pigment can make somebody an expert painter"
says Eric Raymond, author of The New Hacker's
Dictionary. One of the best programmers I ever
hired had only a High School degree; he's produced
a lot of great software, has his own news group, and
through stock options is no doubt much richer than
I'll ever be.
• Work on projects with other programmers. Be
the best programmer on some projects; be the
worst on some others. When you're the best,
you get to test your abilities to lead a project,
and to inspire others with your vision. When
you're the worst, you learn what the masters
do, and you learn what they don't like to do
(because they make you do it for them).
• Work on projects after other programmers. Be
involved in understanding a program written
by someone else. See what it takes to
understand and fix it when the original
programmers are not around. Think about how
to design your programs to make it easier for
those who will maintain it after you.
• Learn at least a half dozen programming languages.
Include one language that supports class abstractions
(like Java or C++), one that supports functional
abstraction (like Lisp or ML), one that supports
syntactic abstraction (like Lisp), one that supports
declarative specifications (like Prolog or C++
templates), one that supports coroutines (like Icon or
Scheme), and one that supports parallelism (like Sisal).
• Remember that there is a "computer" in "computer
science". Know how long it takes your computer to
execute an instruction, fetch a word from memory
(with and without a cache miss), read consecutive
words from disk, and seek to a new location on disk.
• Get involved in a language standardization effort. It could be
the ANSI C++ committee, or it could be deciding if your local
coding style will have 2 or 4 space indentation levels. Either
way, you learn about what other people like in a language, how
deeply they feel so, and perhaps even a little about why they
• Have the good sense to get off the language standardization
effort as quickly as possible.
• With all that in mind, its questionable how far you can get just
by book learning. Before my first child was born, I read all the
How To books, and still felt like a clueless novice. 30 Months
later, when my second child was due, did I go back to the
books for a refresher? No. Instead, I relied on my personal
experience, which turned out to be far more useful and
reassuring to me than the thousands of pages written by
• Fred Brooks, in his essay No Silver Bullets identified a threepart
plan for finding great software designers:
• Systematically identify top designers as early as
• Assign a career mentor to be responsible for the
development of the prospect and carefully keep a
• Provide opportunities for growing designers to
interact and stimulate each other.
• This assumes that some people already have the
qualities necessary for being a great designer; the
job is to properly coax them along. Alan Perlis put it
more succinctly: "Everyone can be taught to sculpt:
Michelangelo would have had to be taught how not
to. So it is with the great programmers".
• So go ahead and buy that Java book; you'll
probably get some use out of it. But you won't
change your life, or your real overall expertise as a
programmer in 24 hours, days, or even months.
• Use your friends. When asked "what operating
system should I use, Windows, Unix, or Mac?",
my answer is usually: "use whatever your
friends use." The advantage you get from
learning from your friends will offset any
intrinsic difference between OS, or between
programming languages. Also consider your
future friends: the community of programmers
that you will be a part of if you continue. Does
your chosen language have a large growing
community or a small dying one? Are there
books, web sites, and online forums to get
answers from? Do you like the people in those
• Keep it simple. Programming languages such
as C++ and Java are designed for professional
development by large teams of experienced
programmers who are concerned about the
run-time efficiency of their code. As a result,
these languages have complicated parts
designed for these circumstances. You're
concerned with learning to program. You don't
need that complication. You want a language
that was designed to be easy to learn and
remember by a single new programmer.
Public integer SQRT(real x)
Y: = 0
<=x y: = y+1
• An abstract is a stand-alone statement that
briefly conveys the essential information of a
paper, article, document or book; presents the
objective, methods, results, and conclusions of
a research project; has a brief, non-repetitive
• Although an abstract appears as the first
section of a paper, it should be written last. You
need to have completed all other sections
before you can select and summarize the
essential information from those sections.
• Many abstracts are published without the complete
paper itself in abstract journals or in online databases.
Thus, an abstract might serve as the only means by
which a researcher determines what information a
paper contains. Moreover, a researcher might make a
decision whether to read the paper or not based on
the abstract alone. Because of this need for selfcontained
compactness, an abstract must convey the
essential results of a paper.
• Many publications have a required style for abstracts;
the "Guidelines for Authors" provided by the publisher
will provide specific instructions. This document
describes general guidelines.
What goes in an abstract?
• In doing any research, a researcher has an objective,
uses methods, obtains results, and draws conclusions.
In writing the paper to describe the research, an
author might discuss background information, review
relevant literature, and detail procedures and
methodologies. However, an abstract of the paper
• describe the objective, methods, results, and
• omit background information, a literature review, and
detailed description of methods;
• avoid reference to other literatures.
What is the style of an abstract?
• The style of an abstract should be concise and
clear. Readers do not expect the abstract to
have the same sentence structure flow of a
paper. Rather, the abstract's wording should be
very direct. For example, the following abstract
is a self-contained description of an imaginary
physics project. The key elements of an
abstract are in boldface, and its style conforms
to the suggestions above.
• In this paper, we present Google, a prototype of a
large-scale search engine which makes heavy use of
the structure present in hypertext. Google is designed
to crawl and index the Web efficiently and produce
much more satisfying search results than existing
systems. The prototype with a full text and hyperlink
database of at least 24 million pages is available at
To engineer a search engine is a challenging
task. Search engines index tens to hundreds of
millions of web pages involving a comparable number
of distinct terms. They answer tens of millions of
queries every day. Despite the importance of largescale
search engines on the web, very little academic
research has been done on them.
• Furthermore, due to rapid advance in technology and
web proliferation, creating a web search engine today
is very different from three years ago. This paper
provides an in-depth description of our large-scale
web search engine -- the first such detailed public
description we know of to date.
• Apart from the problems of scaling traditional search
techniques to data of this magnitude, there are new
technical challenges involved with using the additional
information present in hypertext to produce better
search results. This paper addresses this question of
how to build a practical large-scale system which can
exploit the additional information present in hypertext.
Also we look at the problem of how to effectively deal
with uncontrolled hypertext collections where anyone
can publish anything they want.
: World Wide Web, Search
Engines, Information Retrieval, PageRank,
• Struts是一个基于Sun J2EE平台的MVC框架，主要是采用
How do you write an abstract?
• Writing an abstract involves boiling down the
essence of a whole paper into a single
paragraph that conveys as much new
information as possible. One way of writing an
effective abstract is to start with a draft of the
complete paper and do the following:
• Highlight the objective and the conclusions that
are in the paper's introduction and the
• Bracket information in the methods section of
the paper that contains keyword information.
• Highlight the results from the discussion or
results section of the paper.
• Compile the above highlighted and bracketed
information into a single paragraph.
• Condense the bracketed information into the
key words and phrases that identify but do not
explain the methods used.
• Delete extra words and phrases.
• Delete any background information.
• Rephrase the first sentence so that it
starts off with the new information
contained in the paper, rather than with
the general topic. One way of doing this is
to begin the first sentence with the phrase
"this paper" or "this study."
• Revise the paragraph so that the abstract
conveys the essential information.
Technologically Enabled Crime: Shifting
Paradigms for the Year 2000
• This paper will consider the social and ethical
factors involved in the transmission of
computer viruses and other malicious
software. In addition to the people, we will
consider the part the systems and
technology play in the spread of this sort of
data. We will draw parallels with one of the
more well known scientific paradigms, the
medical one, and note the similarities with
the problems we now face.
• We will describe the evolution of methods of
virus distribution: virus exchange bulletin
boards, virus exchange networks, distribution
sites, robots/servers, and books. The paper will
discuss viruses for sale and make some
comparisons between distribution of computer
viruses and the distribution methods of
``hacking tools''. Other issues examined in this
paper include the characteristics of individuals
involved in the distribution of these types of
programs, and problems of legal redress, as
well as possible solutions based on ethics and
• PLAZA DE ESPANA
• It is said that in death, all things become clear; Ensei
Tankado now knew it was true. As he clutched his
chest and fell to the ground in pain, he realize the
horror of his mistake. People appeared, hovering over
him, trying to help. But Tankado did not want help - it
was too late for that. Trembling, he raised his left hand
and held his fingers outward. Look at my hand! The
faces around him stared, but he could tell they did not
understand. On his finger was an engaved golden ring.
For an instant, the markings glimmered in the
Andalusian sun. Ensei Tankado knew it was the last
light he would ever see.
"Susan, it's David. Did I wake you?"
She smiled, rolling over in bed. "I was just dreaming of
you. Come over and play."
He laughed. "It's still dark out."
"Mmm." She moaned sensuously. "Then definitely
come over and play. We can sleep in before we head
David let out a frustrated sigh. "That's why I'm calling.
It's about our trip. I've got to postpone."
Susan was suddenly wide awake. "What!"
• Susan's Volvo sedan rolled to a stop in the shadow of
the ten-foot-high, barbed Cyclone fence. A young
guard placed his hand on the roof.
Susan obliged and settled in for the usual half-minute
wait. The officer ran her card through a computerized
scanner. Finally he looked up. "Thank you, Ms.
Fletcher." He gave an imperceptible sign, and the gate
Half a mile ahead Susan repeated the entire
procedure at an equally imposing electrified fence.
Come on, guys... I've been through here a million
• As she approached the final checkpoint, a stocky
sentry with two attack dogs and a machine gun
glanced down at her license plate and waved her
through. She followed Caine Road for another 250
yards and pulled into Employee Lot C.
Unbelievable, she thought. Twenty-six thousand
employees and a twelve-billion-dollar budget; you'd
think they could make it through the weekend
without me. Susan gunned the car into her
reserved spot and killed the engine. After crossing
the landscaped terrace and entering the main
building, she cleared two more internal checkpoints
and finally arrived at the windowless tunnel that led
to the new wing. A voice-scan booth blocked her
• NATIONAL SECURITY AGENCY (NSA)
AUTHORIZED PERSONNEL ONLY
• The armed guard looked up. "Afternoon, Ms.
Susan smiled tiredly. "Hi, John."
"Didn't expect you today."
"Yeah, me neither." She leaned toward the parabloic
microphone. "Susan Fletcher," she stated clearly. The
computer instantly confirmed the frequency
concentrations in her voice, and the gate clicked open.
She stepped through.
Different Folks, Different
• A small but picky group of the computer-using
population has always hated the key boards
supplied with the systems enough to trash
them and spend good money on a replacement.
Some folks complain that their keyboards are
• , others, too “mushy”. Now the issue has moved
beyond connoisseurship. Many people, their
wrists and fingers aching from repetitive stress
injuries are looking at so-called ergonomic
keyboards, claimed to be more comfortable.
The computer as a communication
• In a few years, men will be able to communicate
more effectively through a machine than face to face.
• That is a rather startling thing to say, but it is our
conclusion. As if in confirmation of it, we participated
a few weeks ago in a technical meeting held through
a computer. In two days, the group accomplished
with the aid of a computer what normally might have
taken a week.
• We shall talk more about the mechanics of the
meeting later; it is sufficient to note here that we were
all in the same room. But for all the communicating
we did directly across that room, we could have been
thousands of miles apart and communicated just as
effectively-as people-over the distance.
• Our emphasis on people is deliberate. A
communications engineer thinks of communicating as
transferring information from one point to another in
• codes and signals. But to communicate is more than
to send and to receive.
• Do two tape recorders communicate when they play to
each other and record from each other? Not really-not
in our sense. We believe that communicators have to
do something nontrivial with the information they send
• And we believe that we are entering a technological
age in which we will be able to interact with the
richness of living information—not merely in the
passive way that we have become accustomed to
using books and libraries, but as active participants in
an ongoing process, bringing something to it through
• our interaction with it, and not simply receiving
something from it by our connection to it.
• Still there is not much direct interaction with the
airline information service; the tape recording is
not changed by the customer’s call.
• We want to emphasize something beyond its
one-way transfer: the increasing significance of
the jointly constructive, the mutually reinforcing
aspect of communication—the part that
transcends “now we both know a fact that
• only one of us knew before.”
• When minds interact, new ideas emerge. We
want to talk about the creative aspect of
• Creative, interactive communication requires a plastic
or moldable medium that can be modeled, a dynamic
medium in which premises will flow into consequences,
and above all a common medium that can be
contributed to and experimented with by all.
• Such a medium is at hand—the programmed digital
computer. Its presence can change the nature and
value of communication even more profoundly
• than did the printing press and the picture tube, for, as
we shall show, a well-programmed computer can
provide direct access both to informational
• resources and to the processes for making use of the
The project meeting as a model
• When mental models are dissimilar, the
achievement of communication might be
signaled by changes in the structure
• of one of the models, or both of them.
Processor Products -- Final Report of
SPREAD Task Group, December 28, 1961
• This report recommends a new family of
compatible processors for the IBM product
line. A summary of the major points follows.
1. IBM customers' needs for general-purpose
processors can be most profitably met by a
single compatible [Top of Page 7] family
extending from the smallest stored-program
core-memory machine to the machine for
customers growing beyond the 7094 and
• There are processor needs above and below
this range; it is not yet evident that these
can be compatible with the new processor
family. 2. Justification for the compatible
family has been established with respect to
marketing. It is clearly advantageous to
development and manufacturing.
Competitors appear to be relying heavily on
common programming languages to ...
A. Mission and Objectives
• 1. The SPREAD activity was initiated to
establish an overall IBM plan for data
processor products. The plan is to encompass
all stored- program processor developments in
IBM, is to extend to 1970, and must consider
the following factors.
• a. Solid logic technology (SLT), which
promises improved cost/performance and
• b. New market demands for systems capable
of multiterminal, on-line, real-time,
• c. The explosive growth in applied programming
demanded by a larger number of dissimilar
• d. The 15- 20 engineering groups generating
processor products and the need for the
establishment of consistency -- i.e., an IBM
"image" in the processor field.
• e. The need to resolve the interactions
between present and new processor products
across divisional and World Trade lines.
• 2. Faced with these present problems, the
SPREAD task force set as its objectives:
• a. The definition of a new line of processor
products. b. The establishment of logical design,
engineering, and applied programming ground
rules, within which a processor product line
consistent across divisions and World Trade
must be defined. c. The creation of a plan for
the introduction of these new products that will
optimize the conflicting demands of: (1) Market
need. (2) Impact on present installed
processors. d. The initiation of an appropriate
management measurement and control
mechanism to assure the implementation of the
SPREAD product concepts.
THE IBM 360 ARCHITECTURE
T H E I B M 3 6 0 A R C H I T E C T U R E
• In mid-April 1964 IBM introduced the 360 family
• The beginning of modern computer architecture can
be dated from then.
• The profound intellectual innovation was the strict
separation of architecture from implementation
• The IBM, at that time, had about 6 or 7 separate and
incompatible product lines (this is in contrast to IBM's
line of punched card equipment which was one
consistent sequence of equipment):
• Some of the determining characteristics of these
"lines" were small vs. large computers, business vs.
scientific applications, history/technology,
organizational; e.g., Endicott vs. Poughkeepsie Labs
vs. San Jose Labs vs. World Trand (England); all
were independently designing computers.
• Lost economies of scale, particularly in peripherals, research
and development, ....
• Decided they would have one product line that was upward and
compatible (Upward compatible was common, you
have a program for one computer, then the next one up would
be designed to include all the instructions and other capabilities
of the original plus "some"; you just wouldn't use the "plus
some." But going the other way was more difficult. How could
you run an application that was programmed on a powerful
computer with a rich instruction set on a small computer with a
small set? It was not clear that this could be accomplished.
• An idea of MV Wilke's (through IBM World Trade) from the
fifties provided the answer. The solution was
m i c r o p r o g r a m i n g
. The idea was to build the architecture
around micro instructions. Then arbitrarily complicated
instructions (at the programmer level) could be emulated by
microprograms that were stored non-volatilely in read only
memories (ROM). Firmware
F i r m w a r e
. Then for the small computers, the
instructions not available in hardware could be emulated in
• April 7, 1964 IBM announced the IBM 360 family:
Models 30, 40, 50, 60, 62, 70 spanning a performance
range of about 25 to 1.
• The new family was incompatible with all the previous
lines (although emulators were implemented for most
of them, again based on microprogramming)
• Ultimately, the family evolved into the IBM 370
(announced in 1970), IBM 303x (beginning in 1977),
IBM 43XX (beginning in 1979), and IBM 308X (starting
in 1981) all with 360 architecture and resulting in a
performance range of thousands to one. 309X, (3090-
400 over 2000 times faster than the System 360
• Important firsts, integrated scientific and business,
upward and downward
demarcation between architecture and implementation,
multiprogramming, microcoded emulation.
• The IBM was one of the earliest realizations of an
instruction set architecture. It was a CISC (Complex
Instruction Set Computing) architecture. The trend
towards CISC was promoted by:
• The desire to maintain upward compatibility.
• The desire to reduce the semantic gap between
natural or high level computer language and machine
language by adding instructions closer to those used
by programmers. (Because of the higher semantic
content these were more complex; moreover, they
often did not match exactlly what programmers
wanted and were underutilized)
• The desire to improve performance by the movement
of functions from software to microcode to hardware
without consideration of impact on implementation
• The availability of tools and methodologies for
designing more complex architectures; e.g., CAD and
microprogramming support programs.
• For years, the IBM architectural approach dominated.
PC's copied it as
• For years, the IBM architectural approach dominated.
PC's copied it as well as they could. As new
computers were developed they had to be upward
compatible with old, so there was an accretion of
instructions, both hardwired, and in firmware. "We
have increased the number of instructions by almost
50 percent, ...." Andris Padegs (re 360 architecture in
• The compilers were not too good, so the idea became
to build a lot of high level features into the instruction
set. So special, and complex "block" commands, and
call routines were built into the instruction set. This
was the CISC or Complex Instruction Set Computer
architecture. Most mainframes today are still of this
type. The Intel microprocessors today are mostly
CISC, although the Pentium less so (hybrid).