Java有意思的知识点

今天在论坛上看到的几个题,有几个貌似还挺有意思的。
 
public static void test() {
String x = "hello";
String y = "world";
String z = new String("helloworld");
String a = "helloworld";
System.out.println("x == hello:" + (x == "hello"));
System.out.println("a == helloworld:" + (a == "hello" + "world"));
System.out.println("a == x+y:" + (a == (x + y)));
}

x == hello:true
a == helloworld:true
a == x+y:false
请看翻译过的源码:
public static void test();
0 ldc <String "hello"> [15]
2 astore_0 [x]
3 ldc <String "world"> [17]
5 astore_1 [y]
6 ldc <String "helloworld"> [19]
8 astore_2 [a]
9 getstatic java.lang.System.out : java.io.PrintStream [21]
12 new java.lang.StringBuilder [27]
15 dup
16 ldc <String "x == hello:"> [29]
18 invokespecial java.lang.StringBuilder(java.lang.String) [31]
21 aload_0 [x]
22 ldc <String "hello"> [15]
24 if_acmpne 31
27 iconst_1
28 goto 32
31 iconst_0
32 invokevirtual java.lang.StringBuilder.append(boolean) : java.lang.StringBuilder [34]
35 invokevirtual java.lang.StringBuilder.toString() : java.lang.String [38]
38 invokevirtual java.io.PrintStream.println(java.lang.String) : void [42]
41 getstatic java.lang.System.out : java.io.PrintStream [21]
44 new java.lang.StringBuilder [27]
47 dup
48 ldc <String "a == helloworld:"> [47]
50 invokespecial java.lang.StringBuilder(java.lang.String) [31]
53 aload_2 [a]
54 ldc <String "helloworld"> [19]
56 if_acmpne 63
59 iconst_1
60 goto 64
63 iconst_0
64 invokevirtual java.lang.StringBuilder.append(boolean) : java.lang.StringBuilder [34]
67 invokevirtual java.lang.StringBuilder.toString() : java.lang.String [38]
70 invokevirtual java.io.PrintStream.println(java.lang.String) : void [42]
73 getstatic java.lang.System.out : java.io.PrintStream [21]
76 new java.lang.StringBuilder [27]
79 dup
80 ldc <String "a == x+y:"> [49]
82 invokespecial java.lang.StringBuilder(java.lang.String) [31]
85 aload_2 [a]
86 new java.lang.StringBuilder [27]
89 dup
90 aload_0 [x]
91 invokestatic java.lang.String.valueOf(java.lang.Object) : java.lang.String [51]
94 invokespecial java.lang.StringBuilder(java.lang.String) [31]
97 aload_1 [y]
98 invokevirtual java.lang.StringBuilder.append(java.lang.String) : java.lang.StringBuilder [57]
101 invokevirtual java.lang.StringBuilder.toString() : java.lang.String [38]
104 if_acmpne 111
107 iconst_1
108 goto 112
111 iconst_0
112 invokevirtual java.lang.StringBuilder.append(boolean) : java.lang.StringBuilder [34]
115 invokevirtual java.lang.StringBuilder.toString() : java.lang.String [38]
118 invokevirtual java.io.PrintStream.println(java.lang.String) : void [42]
121 return

对于String常量,包括“hello”+“world”这种方式的的值(第54行),都被设置为常量。然而对于x+y这种方式,其实首先是创建了一个StringBuilder,然后把两个变量都加到StringBuilder内,再转换成String。此时,就形成了一个新的String对象了。equals方法也就不适用了。

三、Override覆盖

public class Parent {

public static String say() {
return "parent static say";
}

public String say2() {
return "parent say";
}
}

public class Child extends Parent {
public static String say() {
return "child static say";
}

public String say2() {
return "child say";
}
}

public class OverrideTest {

public static void main(String[] args) {
Parent p = new Child();
System.out.println(p.say());
System.out.println(p.say2());

}

}

parent static say
child say

所谓静态方法,并不仅仅指该方法在所有实例中只有一份,同时也指该方法是“静态”加载的,即在编译期就已决定其行为。此处p的静态类型为Parent,所以它所调用的方法也在编译期和Parent的say()方法绑定:
  // Method descriptor #15 ([Ljava/lang/String;)V
// Stack: 2, Locals: 2
public static void main(java.lang.String[] args);
0 new com.ibm.oneteam.Child [16]
3 dup
4 invokespecial com.ibm.oneteam.Child() [18]
7 astore_1 [p]
8 getstatic java.lang.System.out : java.io.PrintStream [19]
11 invokestatic com.ibm.oneteam.Parent.say() : java.lang.String [25]
14 invokevirtual java.io.PrintStream.println(java.lang.String) : void [31]
17 getstatic java.lang.System.out : java.io.PrintStream [19]
20 aload_1 [p]
21 invokevirtual com.ibm.oneteam.Parent.say2() : java.lang.String [37]
24 invokevirtual java.io.PrintStream.println(java.lang.String) : void [31]
27 return


六、提前引用
public class ForwardReference {  

static int first = test();
static int second = 2;

static int test() {
return second;
}

public static void main(String[] args) {
System.out.println("first = " + first);
}

}

first = 0

这段代码有点诡异,但明白万变不离其宗,只要牢记静态方法&变量是“[b]静态[/b]”加载的,即编译时就决定的即可。当然,对于静态变量的这种[b]先定义后赋值[/b]的行为,还是需要小心:

public class com.ibm.oneteam.Main {

// Field descriptor #6 I
static int first;

// Field descriptor #6 I
static int second;

// Method descriptor #9 ()V
// Stack: 1, Locals: 0
static {};
0 invokestatic com.ibm.oneteam.Main.test() : int [11]
3 putstatic com.ibm.oneteam.Main.first : int [15]
6 iconst_2
7 putstatic com.ibm.oneteam.Main.second : int [17]
10 return
Line numbers:
[pc: 0, line: 5]
[pc: 6, line: 6]
[pc: 10, line: 3]

// Method descriptor #9 ()V
// Stack: 1, Locals: 1
public Main();
0 aload_0 [this]
1 invokespecial java.lang.Object() [22]
4 return
Line numbers:
[pc: 0, line: 3]
Local variable table:
[pc: 0, pc: 5] local: this index: 0 type: com.ibm.oneteam.Main

// Method descriptor #14 ()I
// Stack: 1, Locals: 0
static int test();
0 getstatic com.ibm.oneteam.Main.second : int [17]
3 ireturn
Line numbers:
[pc: 0, line: 9]

看这段代码也许更加直观点:
public class Main {

static int first = test();
static int second = 2;

static int test() {
return second;
}

static int third = 3;

public static void main(String[] args) {
System.out.println("first = " + first);
}
}

编译后的代码:
// Compiled from Main.java (version 1.6 : 50.0, super bit)
public class com.ibm.oneteam.Main {

// Field descriptor #6 I
static int first;

// Field descriptor #6 I
static int second;

// Field descriptor #6 I
static int third;

// Method descriptor #10 ()V
// Stack: 1, Locals: 0
static {};
0 invokestatic com.ibm.oneteam.Main.test() : int [12]
3 putstatic com.ibm.oneteam.Main.first : int [16]
6 iconst_2
7 putstatic com.ibm.oneteam.Main.second : int [18]
10 iconst_3
11 putstatic com.ibm.oneteam.Main.third : int [20]
14 return
Line numbers:
[pc: 0, line: 5]
[pc: 6, line: 6]
[pc: 10, line: 12]
[pc: 14, line: 3]

// Method descriptor #10 ()V
// Stack: 1, Locals: 1
public Main();
0 aload_0 [this]
1 invokespecial java.lang.Object() [25]
4 return
Line numbers:
[pc: 0, line: 3]
Local variable table:
[pc: 0, pc: 5] local: this index: 0 type: com.ibm.oneteam.Main

// Method descriptor #15 ()I
// Stack: 1, Locals: 0
static int test();
0 getstatic com.ibm.oneteam.Main.second : int [18]
3 ireturn
Line numbers:
[pc: 0, line: 9]

// Method descriptor #30 ([Ljava/lang/String;)V
// Stack: 4, Locals: 1
public static void main(java.lang.String[] args);
0 getstatic java.lang.System.out : java.io.PrintStream [31]
3 new java.lang.StringBuilder [37]
6 dup
7 ldc <String "first = "> [39]
9 invokespecial java.lang.StringBuilder(java.lang.String) [41]
12 getstatic com.ibm.oneteam.Main.first : int [16]
15 invokevirtual java.lang.StringBuilder.append(int) : java.lang.StringBuilder [44]
18 invokevirtual java.lang.StringBuilder.toString() : java.lang.String [48]
21 invokevirtual java.io.PrintStream.println(java.lang.String) : void [52]
24 return
Line numbers:
[pc: 0, line: 15]
[pc: 24, line: 16]
Local variable table:
[pc: 0, pc: 25] local: args index: 0 type: java.lang.String[]
}


七、对象引用
public class TestRef {  

public static void main(String[] args) {
StringBuffer a = new StringBuffer("a");
StringBuffer b = new StringBuffer("b");
append(a, b);
System.out.println(a.toString() + "," + b.toString());
b = a;
System.out.println(a.toString() + "," + b.toString());
}

public static void append(StringBuffer a, StringBuffer b) {
a.append(b);
b = a;
}
}

ab,b
ab,ab
这段代码就十分简单了,明白了引用拷贝就知道原因了。
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