Linux / MacOS 修改 ls 显示年月日的时间格式

Linux 修改时间显示格式

本文参考转自米扑博客:Linux / MacOS 修改 ls 显示年月日的时间格式

Linux 系统的 ls 默认支持 --full-time,但是 MacOS 系统下的 ls 不支持 --full-time

1、Linux 系统下的 ls --full-time

# ll /var/log/ | head -5
total 10024
drwxr-x---. 2 root   root      4096 May 28  2014 audit
-rw-r--r--  1 root   root      9835 May 30  2018 boot.log
-rw-------  1 root   utmp     62208 Dec  8 19:53 btmp
-rw-------  1 root   utmp    235392 Dec  1 04:14 btmp-20191201
[root@mimvp-bj ~]# 
[root@mimvp-bj ~]# ll --full-time /var/log/ | head -5  
total 10024
drwxr-x---. 2 root   root      4096 2014-05-28 22:37:06.000000000 +0800 audit
-rw-r--r--  1 root   root      9835 2018-05-30 09:13:01.455403717 +0800 boot.log
-rw-------  1 root   utmp     62208 2019-12-08 19:53:53.303521055 +0800 btmp
-rw-------  1 root   utmp    235392 2019-12-01 04:14:21.953041715 +0800 btmp-20191201

2、Linux 自定义日期格式 (推荐)

# Linux 下修改 .bashrc 或者 .profile , 添加 export TIME_STYLE='+%Y-%m-%d %H:%M:%S' 即可

vim ~/.bashrc 
在最后一行添加:export TIME_STYLE='+%Y-%m-%d__%H:%M:%S'
 
接着,使修改的配置生效
source ~/.bashrc

最后,验证

[root@mimvp-bj ~]# ll /var/log/ | head -5
total 10024
drwxr-x---. 2 root   root      4096 2014-05-28__22:37:06 audit
-rw-r--r--  1 root   root      9835 2018-05-30__09:13:01 boot.log
-rw-------  1 root   utmp     62208 2019-12-08__19:53:53 btmp
-rw-------  1 root   utmp    235392 2019-12-01__04:14:21 btmp-20191201
[root@mimvp-bj ~]# ll --full-time /var/log/ | head -5
total 10024
drwxr-x---. 2 root   root      4096 2014-05-28 22:37:06.000000000 +0800 audit
-rw-r--r--  1 root   root      9835 2018-05-30 09:13:01.455403717 +0800 boot.log
-rw-------  1 root   utmp     62208 2019-12-08 19:53:53.303521055 +0800 btmp
-rw-------  1 root   utmp    235392 2019-12-01 04:14:21.953041715 +0800 btmp-20191201

 

注意:

若想跟 --full-time 格式一样,显示出纳秒(秒 - 毫秒 - 微妙 - 纳秒),纳秒日期格式为:%N,详见米扑博客:Linux date日期格式及加减运算

即日志格式化:export TIME_STYLE='+%Y-%m-%d__%H:%M:%S.%N'

vim ~/.bashrc 
在最后一行添加:export TIME_STYLE='+%Y-%m-%d__%H:%M:%S.%N'
 
接着,使修改的配置生效
source ~/.bashrc

最后,验证

[root@mimvp-bj ~]# ll /var/log/ | head -5            
total 10028
drwxr-x---. 2 root   root      4096 2014-05-28__22:37:06.000000000 audit
-rw-r--r--  1 root   root      9835 2018-05-30__09:13:01.455403717 boot.log
-rw-------  1 root   utmp     62208 2019-12-08__19:53:53.303521055 btmp
-rw-------  1 root   utmp    235392 2019-12-01__04:14:21.953041715 btmp-20191201
[root@mimvp-bj ~]# 
[root@mimvp-bj ~]# ll --full-time /var/log/ | head -5
total 10028
drwxr-x---. 2 root   root      4096 2014-05-28 22:37:06.000000000 +0800 audit
-rw-r--r--  1 root   root      9835 2018-05-30 09:13:01.455403717 +0800 boot.log
-rw-------  1 root   utmp     62208 2019-12-08 19:53:53.303521055 +0800 btmp
-rw-------  1 root   utmp    235392 2019-12-01 04:14:21.953041715 +0800 btmp-20191201

 

Macbook  修改时间显示格式

1、Macbook(Unix)可以使用 ls -lT (增加了时分秒,但年月日格式不变)

yg-mac:~ homer$ ll /var/log/ | head
total 243160
drwxr-xr-x   3 root             wheel                 102 12 19  2017 Bluetooth
-rw-r--r--@  1 root             wheel                  12  4 13  2018 CDIS.custom
drwxr-xr-x   2 root             wheel                  68 10 19  2017 CoreDuet
-rw-r--r--   1 root             wheel                   0  4 21  2018 alf.log
drwxr-xr-x   2 root             wheel                  68 10 10  2017 apache2
-rw-r--r--   1 root             wheel                   0  4 21  2018 appfirewall.log
yg-mac:~ homer$ 
yg-mac:~ homer$ 
yg-mac:~ homer$ ll -lT /var/log/ | head
total 243160
drwxr-xr-x   3 root             wheel                 102 12 19 20:27:33 2017 Bluetooth
-rw-r--r--@  1 root             wheel                  12  4 13 23:05:38 2018 CDIS.custom
drwxr-xr-x   2 root             wheel                  68 10 19 11:39:25 2017 CoreDuet
-rw-r--r--   1 root             wheel                   0  4 21 11:10:17 2018 alf.log
drwxr-xr-x   2 root             wheel                  68 10 10 10:58:11 2017 apache2
-rw-r--r--   1 root             wheel                   0  4 21 11:10:48 2018 appfirewall.log

 

2、Macbook(Unix)自定义日期格式(没生效,失败)

vim ~/.bashrc 
在最后一行添加:export TIME_STYLE='+%Y-%m-%d__%H:%M'
 
接着,使修改的配置生效
source ~/.bashrc

打印定义的变量 TIME_STYLE,并验证日期格式,没生效!失败了!!!

yg-mac:~ homer$ echo $TIME_STYLE      
+%Y-%m-%d__%H:%M:%S
yg-mac:~ homer$ 
yg-mac:~ homer$ ll /var/log/ | head -5
total 243688
drwxr-xr-x   3 root             wheel                 102 12 19  2017 Bluetooth
-rw-r--r--@  1 root             wheel                  12  4 13  2018 CDIS.custom
drwxr-xr-x   2 root             wheel                  68 10 19  2017 CoreDuet
drwxrwx---  33 root             admin                1122 12  8 11:00 DiagnosticMessages

 

3、Macbook(Unix)借助第三方日期格式 (成功,推荐)

格式依旧不太直观, 安装 `coreutils`, 使用 `gls`

1)brew install coreutils    (注:经测试,只支持 MacOS,不支持Linux,因为MacOS下安装的 gls 本身同 Linux 下的 ls)

2)which gls

yg-mac:~ homer$ which gls
/usr/local/bin/gls

3)man gls   (功能同 Linux 下的 ls 一样了,因为 MacOS默认ls与Linux并不同)

yg-mac:~ homer$ gls --help
Usage: gls [OPTION]... [FILE]...
List information about the FILEs (the current directory by default).
Sort entries alphabetically if none of -cftuvSUX nor --sort is specified.
 
Mandatory arguments to long options are mandatory for short options too.
  -a, --all                  do not ignore entries starting with .
  -A, --almost-all           do not list implied . and ..
      --author               with -l, print the author of each file
  -b, --escape               print C-style escapes for nongraphic characters
      --block-size=SIZE      with -l, scale sizes by SIZE when printing them;
                               e.g., '--block-size=M'; see SIZE format below
  -B, --ignore-backups       do not list implied entries ending with ~
  -c                         with -lt: sort by, and show, ctime (time of last
                               modification of file status information);
                               with -l: show ctime and sort by name;
                               otherwise: sort by ctime, newest first
  -C                         list entries by columns
      --color[=WHEN]         colorize the output; WHEN can be 'always' (default
                               if omitted), 'auto', or 'never'; more info below
  -d, --directory            list directories themselves, not their contents
  -D, --dired                generate output designed for Emacs' dired mode
  -f                         do not sort, enable -aU, disable -ls --color
  -F, --classify             append indicator (one of */=>@|) to entries
      --file-type            likewise, except do not append '*'
      --format=WORD          across -x, commas -m, horizontal -x, long -l,
                               single-column -1, verbose -l, vertical -C
      --full-time            like -l --time-style=full-iso
  -g                         like -l, but do not list owner
      --group-directories-first
                             group directories before files;
                               can be augmented with a --sort option, but any
                               use of --sort=none (-U) disables grouping
  -G, --no-group             in a long listing, don't print group names
  -h, --human-readable       with -l and -s, print sizes like 1K 234M 2G etc.
      --si                   likewise, but use powers of 1000 not 1024
  -H, --dereference-command-line
                             follow symbolic links listed on the command line
      --dereference-command-line-symlink-to-dir
                             follow each command line symbolic link
                               that points to a directory
      --hide=PATTERN         do not list implied entries matching shell PATTERN
                               (overridden by -a or -A)
      --hyperlink[=WHEN]     hyperlink file names; WHEN can be 'always'
                               (default if omitted), 'auto', or 'never'
      --indicator-style=WORD  append indicator with style WORD to entry names:
                               none (default), slash (-p),
                               file-type (--file-type), classify (-F)
  -i, --inode                print the index number of each file
  -I, --ignore=PATTERN       do not list implied entries matching shell PATTERN
  -k, --kibibytes            default to 1024-byte blocks for disk usage;
                               used only with -s and per directory totals
  -l                         use a long listing format
  -L, --dereference          when showing file information for a symbolic
                               link, show information for the file the link
                               references rather than for the link itself
  -m                         fill width with a comma separated list of entries
  -n, --numeric-uid-gid      like -l, but list numeric user and group IDs
  -N, --literal              print entry names without quoting
  -o                         like -l, but do not list group information
  -p, --indicator-style=slash
                             append / indicator to directories
  -q, --hide-control-chars   print ? instead of nongraphic characters
      --show-control-chars   show nongraphic characters as-is (the default,
                               unless program is 'ls' and output is a terminal)
  -Q, --quote-name           enclose entry names in double quotes
      --quoting-style=WORD   use quoting style WORD for entry names:
                               literal, locale, shell, shell-always,
                               shell-escape, shell-escape-always, c, escape
                               (overrides QUOTING_STYLE environment variable)
  -r, --reverse              reverse order while sorting
  -R, --recursive            list subdirectories recursively
  -s, --size                 print the allocated size of each file, in blocks
  -S                         sort by file size, largest first
      --sort=WORD            sort by WORD instead of name: none (-U), size (-S),
                               time (-t), version (-v), extension (-X)
      --time=WORD            with -l, show time as WORD instead of default
                               modification time: atime or access or use (-u);
                               ctime or status (-c); also use specified time
                               as sort key if --sort=time (newest first)
      --time-style=TIME_STYLE  time/date format with -l; see TIME_STYLE below
  -t                         sort by modification time, newest first
  -T, --tabsize=COLS         assume tab stops at each COLS instead of 8
  -u                         with -lt: sort by, and show, access time;
                               with -l: show access time and sort by name;
                               otherwise: sort by access time, newest first
  -U                         do not sort; list entries in directory order
  -v                         natural sort of (version) numbers within text
  -w, --width=COLS           set output width to COLS.  0 means no limit
  -x                         list entries by lines instead of by columns
  -X                         sort alphabetically by entry extension
  -Z, --context              print any security context of each file
  -1                         list one file per line.  Avoid '\n' with -q or -b
      --help     display this help and exit
      --version  output version information and exit

 

上面帮助里,划重点:

      --full-time            like -l --time-style=full-iso

      --time-style=TIME_STYLE  time/date format with -l; see TIME_STYLE below

4)gls 使用示例

gls --full-time /var/log/ | head -5

$ gls --full-time /var/log/ | head -5
total 122080
drwxr-xr-x  3 root            wheel                102 2017-12-19 20:27:33.000000000 +0800 Bluetooth
-rw-r--r--  1 root            wheel                 12 2018-04-13 23:05:38.000000000 +0800 CDIS.custom
drwxr-xr-x  2 root            wheel                 68 2017-10-19 11:39:25.000000000 +0800 CoreDuet
drwxrwx--- 33 root            admin               1122 2019-12-08 11:00:01.000000000 +0800 DiagnosticMessages

gls -l --time-style 的多种等价格式 (强烈推荐)

gls -l --time-style +'%Y-%m-%d__%H:%M:%S.%N' /var/log/ | head -5

gls -l --time-style "+%Y-%m-%d__%H:%M:%S.%N" /var/log/ | head -5

gls -l --time-style="+%Y-%m-%d__%H:%M:%S.%N" /var/log/ | head -5

$ gls -l --time-style +'%Y-%m-%d__%H:%M:%S.%N' /var/log/ | head -5
total 122164
drwxr-xr-x  3 root            wheel                102 2017-12-19__20:27:33.000000000 Bluetooth
-rw-r--r--  1 root            wheel                 12 2018-04-13__23:05:38.000000000 CDIS.custom
drwxr-xr-x  2 root            wheel                 68 2017-10-19__11:39:25.000000000 CoreDuet
drwxrwx--- 33 root            admin               1122 2019-12-08__11:00:01.000000000 DiagnosticMessages
$ 
yg-mac:~ homer$ gls -l --time-style "+%Y-%m-%d__%H:%M:%S.%N" /var/log/ | head -5     
total 122168
drwxr-xr-x  3 root            wheel                102 2017-12-19__20:27:33.000000000 Bluetooth
-rw-r--r--  1 root            wheel                 12 2018-04-13__23:05:38.000000000 CDIS.custom
drwxr-xr-x  2 root            wheel                 68 2017-10-19__11:39:25.000000000 CoreDuet
drwxrwx--- 33 root            admin               1122 2019-12-08__11:00:01.000000000 DiagnosticMessages
$ 
$ gls -l --time-style="+%Y-%m-%d__%H:%M:%S.%N" /var/log/ | head -5 
total 122172
drwxr-xr-x  3 root            wheel                102 2017-12-19__20:27:33.000000000 Bluetooth
-rw-r--r--  1 root            wheel                 12 2018-04-13__23:05:38.000000000 CDIS.custom
drwxr-xr-x  2 root            wheel                 68 2017-10-19__11:39:25.000000000 CoreDuet
drwxrwx--- 33 root            admin               1122 2019-12-08__11:00:01.000000000 DiagnosticMessages

--time-style 的更多日期格式和参数,请见米扑博客:Linux date日期格式及加减运算

 

5)自定义重命名 alias (不推荐,容易混,直接使用 gls 代替 ls 即可,也很简便)

修改 .bashrc 或者 .profile 

vim ~/.bashrc 
在最后一行添加两行,并保存
alias ls="gls -G"
alias ll="ls -al"
 
接着,使修改的配置生效
source ~/.bashrc

使用测试结果

$ ll /var/log/ | head -5
total 122256
drwxr-xr-x 69 root                2346 12  8 19:39 .
drwxr-xr-x 30 root                1020  8  9  2018 ..
drwxr-xr-x  3 root                 102 12 19  2017 Bluetooth
-rw-r--r--  1 root                  12  4 13  2018 CDIS.custom
$ 
$ ll --full-time /var/log/ | head -5
total 122256
drwxr-xr-x 69 root                2346 2019-12-08 19:39:56.000000000 +0800 .
drwxr-xr-x 30 root                1020 2018-08-09 23:50:36.000000000 +0800 ..
drwxr-xr-x  3 root                 102 2017-12-19 20:27:33.000000000 +0800 Bluetooth
-rw-r--r--  1 root                  12 2018-04-13 23:05:38.000000000 +0800 CDIS.custom
$ 
$ ls -lT
gls: option requires an argument -- 'T'
Try 'gls --help' for more information.

由上可见,重命名 alias 后的 ls 与 Linux 下的 ls 已经完全一致,即 MacOS下的 gls 同 Linux 下的 ls

但是,MacOS 原生的 ls -lT 已经报错了,这也是不推荐重命名alias,而推荐直接使用 gls 的核心所在

 

那么,知道错了,如何恢复呢,直接注释掉 alias ?错!

哈哈,其实很简单,可能您别惊吓到了,没想到如此简单:

vim ~/.bashrc 
在最后一行添加两行,并保存
alias ls="ls"
alias ll="ls -al"
 
接着,使修改的配置生效
source ~/.bashrc

说明:ls 仍然修改回去即可,不要重命名 alias 到 gls 了,各用各的,安得其所

alias ls="ls"
alias ll="ls -al"

 

最后,验证是否都各司其职:

$ ll /var/log/ | head -5            
total 244688
drwxr-xr-x  69 root             wheel                2346 12  8 19:39 .
drwxr-xr-x  30 root             wheel                1020  8  9  2018 ..
drwxr-xr-x   3 root             wheel                 102 12 19  2017 Bluetooth
-rw-r--r--@  1 root             wheel                  12  4 13  2018 CDIS.custom
$ 
$ gls --full-time /var/log/ | head -5
total 122344
drwxr-xr-x  3 root            wheel                102 2017-12-19 20:27:33.000000000 +0800 Bluetooth
-rw-r--r--  1 root            wheel                 12 2018-04-13 23:05:38.000000000 +0800 CDIS.custom
drwxr-xr-x  2 root            wheel                 68 2017-10-19 11:39:25.000000000 +0800 CoreDuet
drwxrwx--- 33 root            admin               1122 2019-12-08 11:00:01.000000000 +0800 DiagnosticMessages
$ 
$ ls -lT /var/log/ | head -5
total 244696
drwxr-xr-x   3 root             wheel                 102 12 19 20:27:33 2017 Bluetooth
-rw-r--r--@  1 root             wheel                  12  4 13 23:05:38 2018 CDIS.custom
drwxr-xr-x   2 root             wheel                  68 10 19 11:39:25 2017 CoreDuet
drwxrwx---  33 root             admin                1122 12  8 11:00:01 2019 DiagnosticMessages

说明:ls -lT /var/log/ | head -5  恢复正常,不报错,完美! 成功! 万岁!!

 

 

参考推荐

Linux date日期格式及加减运算

CentOS 修改date系统时间

AWS EC2修改系统时区

Mac OS 查看网络端口

Mac 强制退出程序的六种方法

Mac Launchctl 命令行参数详解

MacOS 终端中文乱码的解决方法

MacOS Charles 抓包使用实例

常用抓包工具的最全汇总

相关推荐
©️2020 CSDN 皮肤主题: 编程工作室 设计师:CSDN官方博客 返回首页