pdf reference 格式详细说明

1. PDF概要

1.1. 图像模型

PDF能以平台无关、高效率的方式描叙复杂的文字、图形、排版。

PDF 用图像模型来实现设备无关。图像模型允许应用程序以抽象对象描叙文字、图像、图标,而不是通过具体的像素点。把描述抽象对象的语言称作“页描述语言”。PDF文档中存储都是以“页描述语言”表示的各种抽象对象。

要把PDF文档输出到具体设备上,产生具体像素点,需要有个翻译软件,把抽象对象渲染到具体输出设备上,称这个“翻译软件”为“规则扫描”软件。

1.2. 属性

PDF 具有设备无关、可压缩、安全、增量修改、可扩展等特性。

2. 语法

2.1. 字符集

PDF是大小写敏感的语言的,及Aa是不一样的。

PDF字符集分文三种:

1).空白字符

  空白字符包括Null(NUL)Tab(HT)Line Feed(LF)Form Feed(FF)Carriage return(CR)Space(SP)。除了在commentstringstreams中,所有的空白符都是一样的。PDF把多个连续的空白符看作一个。

2).分割字符

分隔字符包括(, ), <, >, [, ], {, }, /, and %。分割字符是用来分开需实体对象的,包括stringcommentarraysnames

3).常规字符

除了上面的两种字符之外的字符都称作常规字符。

2.2. 注释(comment

注释没有语义,只是注释说明作用。注释以%开头,到本行结尾。例如

abc% comment {/%) blah blah blah

123

 “comment {/%) blah blah blah”为注释。

2.3. 对象

3.3.1 Boolean 对象

Boolean 对象只有truefalse两种值,可以用在arraydictionary中。truefalse是关键字。

3.3.2 Numeric 对象

Numeric对象是数组对象,它的取值范围和具体的机器有关,具体范围可以参考“《PDF referenceappendix C”。

Numeric 对象分为IntegerReal对象。Integer对象就是证书对象,可以在数字前面加+/-的符号,标识正负。例如。

123 43445 +17 98 0

Real对象是实数对象。需要注意的是PDFReal对象是定点小数,而不是浮点小数,不支持像“6.02E23”这样的标识。正确标识例如:

34.5 3.62 +123.6 4. .002 0.0

如果Integer对象超出的标识范围,会自动转化为Real对象。但是如果Real对象超出标识范围,会报错。

所有可以用Real对象的地方都可以用Integer对象,Integer对象会自动转换为Real对象。所以对于需要Real对象1.0的地方,直接写1就可以,不用写成1.0

3.3.3 String 对象

String对象是一个字节数列的集合,字节的取值范围为0~255。字符串的长度范围跟具体平台有关,具体参考“《PDF referenceappendix C”。

String对象分为Literal stringHexadecimal string

Literal string对象是是用()括起来的一些字符,除了不对称的括号(如“(”或者“)”)或者反斜杠(“/”)外的字符,都可以出现在Literal string中。例如:

(This is a string)

(Strings may contain newlines

and such.)

(Strings may contain balanced parentheses ( ) and

special characters (*!&}^% and so on).)

(The following is an empty string.)

()

(It has zero (0) length.)

Literal String 可以使用转意字符,如表1

TABLE 3.2 Escape sequences in literal strings

SEQUENCE

MEANING

\n

Line feed (LF)

\r

Carriage return (CR)

\t

Horizontal tab (HT)

\b

Backspace (BS)

\f

Form feed (FF)

\(

Left parenthesis

\)

Right parenthesis

\\

Backslash

\ddd

Character code ddd (octal)

所以不在表1中的转义字符会被忽略。

如果一个字符串太长,放在一行不在方便,可以分开写在多行,然后用反斜杠连接起来,如下。

(These \

two strings \

are the same.)

(These two strings are the same.)

如果不加反斜杠,就会相当在末尾加了一个\n。如下

(These

two strings

are the same.)

 

(These \n

two strings \n

are the same.)

 

\ddd 标识是一个八进制数,提供一种标识不可显示的ASCII的方式。如

(This string contains \245two octal characters\307.)

\ddd 只需“\” 后后面三位数,包括0,例如

\0053是表示\0053。而不是\053或者\53

Hexadecimal string 是用尖括号<>括起来的0-9A-Fa-f)的字符,如

<4E6F762073686D6F7A206B6120706F702E>

每一对表示一个字节。如果字符是奇数,在字符最后字符补零,组成一对。例如:

<901FA3> 标识的901FA3。如果是<901FA>会是901FA0

3.3.4 Name objects

Name对象一串原子、唯一的字符,用来标识一个对象。原子性是说Name对象没有内部结构了。唯一性是说如果两个Name是一样的,说明它们标识的师动一个对象。

Name对象以“/”开头,后面紧跟对象名,“/”和第一个字符之间不能有空格。“/”并不是Name对象的一部分,只是用来说明“/”后面的字符是Name对象。例如:

/Name1

/ASomewhatLongerName

/A;Name_WithVarious***Characters?

/1.2

/$$

/@pattern

/.notdef

Name对象一般是由“常规字符”组成,不能是“空白字符”和“分割字符”。

但是在PDF1.2中,可以包括“空白字符”和“分隔字符”,但是必须以“#”开头,紧跟相应字符的两位十六进制编码。例如表2#20代表的一个字符,而不是三个字符。例如/A#20B是四个字符,而不是六个。

Literal Name

Result T

/Adobe#20Green

Adobe Green

/PANTONE#205757#20CV

PANTONE 5757 CV

/paired#28#29parentheses

paired()parentheses

/The_Key_of_F#23_Minor

The_Key_of_F#_Minor

/A#42

AB

 

3.3.5 Array 对象

Array对象是一个一维对象集合,集合可以包括String对象、Name对象等任何其他对象。如果要组成多维数组,可通过Array对象中包含Array对象的方式。

Array对象的标识方式:

[549 3.14 false (Ralph) /SomeName]

3.3.6 Dictionary 对象

Dictionary对象是键值对的集合,用来描述复杂对象。键必须是name对象,值可以是任何对象,包括Dictionary对象。

Dictionary对象是用“<< >>”括起来的表示,例如:

<< /Type /Example

/Subtype /DictionaryExample

/Version 0.01

/IntegerItem 12

/StringItem (a string)

/Subdictionary << /Item1 0.4

/Item2 true

/LastItem (not!)

/VeryLastItem (OK)

>>

>>

每个Dictionary 对象代表一个复杂对象,每个键值对表示对象的一个属性。

按照惯例,每个Dictionary都会有一个Type键值对,用来标识这个Dictionary描述的对象的类别。一般还会有个SubType键值对,用来标识Dictionary标识对象子类别。例如一个字体的DictionaryType键的值是FontsubType键的值是Type1, TrueType,或者别的字形名称。

3.3.7 Stream 对象

Stream对象和String对象一样也是一个字节序列,但是不一样的地方,Stream对象可以被PDF应用程序递增的读取,而不是像String对象要整个读入内存。Stream对象可以不限长度的,而String对象是长度后受平台最大字符长度的限制。

Stream对象包括一个Dictionary对象和

treamendstream关键字,以及streamendstream中见包含的一行或者多行字节。格式如下:

dictionary

stream

Zero or more lines of bytes

Endstream

Stream对象必须包含在Indirect对象中,并且Dictionary对象不是Indirect对象。

关键字stream必须以“\r\n”或者“\r”结尾,不能以“\n”结尾。组成Stream对象的字节位于关键字streamendstream中间。Dictionary对象一个属相用来说明字节的长度。在PDF1.2中,组成Stream对象的字节也可以来自文件,在Stream对象的Dictionary对象中指定文件的路径。在这种情况下,关键字streamendstream中间的字节是被忽略的。

在表3中列出了,Stream对象中的Dictionary对象常有一些属性。

KEY

TYPE

VALUE

Length

integer

(Required) The number of bytes from the beginning of the line following

the keyword stream to the last byte just before the keyword

endstream. (There may be an additional EOL marker, preceding

endstream, that is not included in the count and is not logically part

of the stream data.) See Stream Extent,above, for further discussion.

Filter

name or array

(Optional) The name of a filter to be applied in processing the stream

data found between the keywords stream and endstream, or an array

of such names. Multiple filters should be specified in the order in

which they are to be applied.

DecodeParms

dictionary or array

(Optional) A parameter dictionary, or an array of such dictionaries,

used by the filters specified by Filter. If there is only one filter and that

filter has parameters, DecodeParms must be set to the filters parameter

dictionary unless all the filters parameters have their default

values, in which case the DecodeParms entry may be omitted. If there

are multiple filters and any of the filters has parameters set to nondefault

values, DecodeParms must be an array with one entry for

each filter: either the parameter dictionary for that filter, or the null

object if that filter has no parameters (or if all of its parameters have

their default values). If none of the filters have parameters, or if all

their parameters have default values, the DecodeParms entry may be

omitted. (See implementation note 7 in Appendix H.)

F

file specification

(Optional; PDF 1.2) The file containing the stream data. If this entry

is present, the bytes between stream and endstream are ignored, the

filters are specified by FFilter rather than Filter, and the filter parameters

are specified by FDecodeParms rather than DecodeParms. However,

the Length entry should still specify the number of those bytes.

(Usually there are no bytes and Length is 0.)

FFilter

name or array

(Optional; PDF 1.2) The name of a filter to be applied in processing

the data found in the streams external file, or an array of such names.

The same rules apply as for Filter.

FDecodeParms

dictionary or array

(Optional; PDF 1.2) A parameter dictionary, or an array of such dictionaries,

used by the filters specified by FFilter. The same rules apply

as for DecodeParms.

 

3.3.8 Null 对象

Null对象不等于任何对象,用关键字null代表。Indirect对象引用不存在对象等价与引用空对象。

3.3.9 Indirect 对象

任何的对象都可以声明为Indirect对象,Indirect对象用一个Object Identifier标识这个对象,以便其他对象可以通过Object Identifier引用它。

Object Indirect有两部分组成:

1).Object Number 由一个正数表示,一般PDF中的Object Number是连续的,但不是必须的,他可以是任意顺序。

2).Generation Number由一个非负数标识。在一个新建立的PDF文档中,Generation Number0。当文档被更新或者修改以后,Generation Number会被修改为非零值。

除了Object Identifier ,Inderect 对象还包括关键字objendobj以及他们中间包含的对象。例如:

12 0 obj

(Brillig)

Endobj

12 Object Number0Generation NumberIndirect对象值为(Brillig)

这个对象可以被引用通过Object Indirect 和关键字R。例如:

12 0 R

如果引用一个没有定义的Indirect对象,并不报错,而是等价于引用了一个Null对象(值为null)。

例子Example 3.1 定义了一个Indirect对象,它的Object Identifier7 0

它长度有引用了一个Object Identifier8 0Indirect对象。

Example 3.1

7 0 obj

<< /Length 8 0 R >> % An indirect reference to object 8

stream

BT

/F1 12 Tf

72 712 Td

(A stream with an indirect length) Tj

ET

endstream

Endobj

2.4. 过滤器(Filter

Filter Stream对象中引入的,可以通过Stream对象中的Dictionary对象的

 

Filter键表示(如果字节通过文件引入,是FFilter键),有一写Filter需要一些参数可以通过DecodeParms(如果字节通过文件引入,是FDecodeParams

/Filter [/ASCII85Decode /LZWDecode]

在创建PDF过程中,应用程序用对PDf中的数据做了压缩或或者转码,等到有应用程序读取PDF的时候,在用对应的Filter对数据进行解码,然后输出到显示设备,进行显示。

如果存在多个Filter,这些Filter会组成一个管道,即第一个Filter输出,会作为第二个Filter的输入,第二个Filter的输出回作为第三个Filter的输入,一次类推。

Filter的种类大概分为两类:

ASCII Filter用来解码恢复已经倍编码为ASCII文本的数据。

Decompression filters 用来解压那些被压缩的数据。

关于具体的Filter的种类和解码方式等细节参考《PDF reference3.3.1-3.3.7节中介绍。

2.5. 文档结构

档结构如图1

PDF的文

 

Header只有一行,用来表示文件遵循的PDF协议版本号。

Body 中存放的是组成文件的所有的Objects

Cross-reference table 中存放的是关于Indirect对象的信息。

Trailer 中指明了Cross-reference table的位置和在Body中特别指定的对象的位置。

Incremental Updates 是在Trailer后面添加的对象。如果一个文件被修改了,在文件的末尾还会包含增加的对象。

文件中一行的结尾符可以是‘\r’、‘\r\n’、‘\n’。除了在Stream对象中的字节,一般一行不超过255个字节。

3.5.1 Header

PDF文档开头会包含此文件所遵循的PDF协议版本,格式如下:

%PDF-1.4

 

查看PDF文档的软件,如Adobe ReaderAdobe Acrobat等等,都能向后兼容。

比如软件是按1.4版本实现,对于遵循版本1.4之前的版本,比如1.31.2,都可以查看。

对于文档遵循版本比软件遵循版本高的情况,软件会忽略那些它不认识的新特性。

3.5.2 Body

PDF文档的Body是有好多代表文档内容的Indirect对象组成。这些对象代表文字、图像、表格等组成PDF文档的Objects

3.5.3 Cross-reference table

一个PDF可以包含一个或者多个Cross-reference sections,一般PDF文档创建的时候,Cross-reference table 就由一个Cross-reference section组成。如果是Linearized PDF(线性PDF用于网络浏览PDF格式,具体可以参见《PDF referenceAppendix F)会有两个。如果此PDF添加新的对象,就会添加新的Cross-reference section

每个Cross-reference section,以关键字xref独占一行开头。后边跟着一个或者多个Cross-reference subsection

每一个Cross-reference subsection 第一行是两个以空格分割的数字开头,第一个数字代表此Cross-reference subsection包含的起始ObjectObject Identifier;第二个数字代表这个Cross-reference subsection包含的Object的个数。所以这个特性决定,每个Cross-reference subsection 中的Object编号都是连续的。比如,第一行是

28 5

标识此Cross-reference subsection 包含Object Number28325Object

在第一行之后包含一个或者多个Entries(条目),每个Entry独占一行,一共占20个字节,有两种格式,一种是代表Entry正在使用称作Used Entry,第三个字段使用关键词n表示,另一种代表Entry不在使用,代表Free Entry,第三个字段用f表示。Used Entry的格式为:

nnnnnnnnnn ggggg n eol

nnnnnnnnnn 10个字节代表对象在文档中的偏移量(offset)。如果偏移量不够10前面补零。

ggggg 5个字节代表对象Generation,作用后边做进一步解释。如果数字不够五位,也是前面补零凑齐。

n 一个字节代表这个对象还是使用。

eol 两个字节标识行结束(end of line)。可以是‘\r\n’、‘\r’、‘\n,如果是‘\r’、‘\n,在前面不一个空格组成两个字节。

 每个字段用一个空格分割。总共加一起是20个字符。

 

Free Entry的格式为:

nnnnnnnnnn ggggg f eol

nnnnnnnnnn 是一个10字节的数字,标识的是下一个Free EntryObject identifier。这样所有 Free Entry可以组成一个链表。

ggggg 是一个5字节的数字,标识Generation。作用后面解释。

f 是一个字节,代表这是一个Free Entry

eol 是两个字节行结束符。

 

Free Entry的第一个字段表示下一个Free EntryObject Number,这样所有的Free Entry都可以组成一个链表结构。如果是链表就需要有个链表头,所以规定Cross-reference subsection第一个EntryFree Entry,它的第一个字段是0,第二个字段Generation65536,作为Free Entry链表头。链表最后一个Free Entry的第一个字段设置为0,指向第一个Object

除了第一个EntryPDF文档中所有的Generation初始值都是0。如果Indirect Object 被删除了,相应的Used Entry修改为Free Entry,这个EntryGeneration被加一。所以当一个Entry被重新使用,这个Entry都会有一个新的Generation

Generation的最大值为65536,当达到最大值以后,这个Entry就不能在重新使用了。

Example 3.5

xref

0 6

0000000003 65535 f

0000000017 00000 n

0000000081 00000 n

0000000000 00007 f

0000000331 00000 n

0000000409 00000 n

Example 3.5 显示了一个Cross-reference section,这个Cross-reference section由一个Cross-reference subsection 组成。Cross-reference subsection有六个Entries组成。其中有四个Used EntryObject Number分别是1245。还有两个free EntryObject Number分别是03Object Number 3的对象已经被删除了,所以Object Number 0Free Entry 的第一个字段是3。而Object Number3Free Entry的第一个字段为0,指向第一个Entry。这样Free Entry就是连起来了。

Example 3.6

xref

0 1

0000000000 65535 f

3 1

0000025325 00000 n

23 2

0000025518 00002 n

0000025635 00000 n

30 1

0000025777 00000 n

Example 3.5 显示了一个Cross-reference section,这个Cross-reference section4Cross-reference subsection 组成。

 

 

 

 

 

 

3.5.4 File Trailer

一个Trailer允许PDF应用程序快速的查找Cross-reference section和一些特定的ObjectTrailer的格式是:

trailer

<< key1 value1

key2 value2

keyn valuen

>>

startxref

Byte_offset_of_last_cross-reference_section

%%EOF

 

一个Trailer关键字后面跟着一个Dictionary对象,然后跟着startxref关键字占一行,然后跟着一个offset(指的从文件开头到最后一个Cross-reference section的偏移量),最后跟着Trailer的一行结束标志%%EOF

4显示Trailer中的Dictionary对象的成员。

Key

Type

Value

Size

Integer

(Required) The total number of entries in the files cross-reference table, as defined

by the combination of the original section and all update sections. Equivalently, this

value is 1 greater than the highest object number used in the file.

Prev

Integer

(Present only if the file has more than one cross-reference section) The byte offset from

the beginning of the file to the beginning of the previous cross-reference section.

Root

Dictionary

(Required; must be an indirect reference) The catalog dictionary for the PDF document

contained in the file (see Section 3.6.1, Document Catalog).

Encrypt

Dictionary

(Required if document is encrypted; PDF 1.1) The documents encryption dictionary

(see Section 3.5, Encryption).

Info

Dictionary

(Optional; must be an indirect reference) The documents information dictionary

(see Section 9.2.1, Document Information Dictionary).

ID

Array

(Optional; PDF 1.1) An array of two strings constituting a file identifier (see Section

9.3, File Identifiers) for the file.

 

Example 3.7

trailer

<< /Size 22

/Root 2 0 R

/Info 1 0 R

/ID [ <81b14aafa313db63dbd6f981e49f94f4>

<81b14aafa313db63dbd6f981e49f94f4>]

>>

startxref

18799

%%EOF

 

 

3.5.5 增量更新(Incremental Updates

增量更新允许PDF文件的修改可以不用修改整个文件,只是把改变、增加的对象添加到文件末尾。优点如下:

1).提高对大文件的小的修改的速度。

2).减少数据丢失的风险。

3).提高HTTP connection修改文件的效率。

4).对于一些已经签名(signed)文件,是不可能修改原来的数据,因为只要修改原来的数据,之前的签名就无效了。

增量更新一个PDF文件的时候,增加、修改的对象会被添加到文件末尾,形成一个Update Body,然后包含增加、修改和删除队形的Cross-reference section会被添加到Update Body的后面。最后会包含的一个新的Trail,它的offset会指导新添加的Cross-reference section,他的Dictionary对象中的Prev属性值之处之前Cross-reference section的位置。这样就和之前文档结构关联起来了。

经过多次增量更新之后,一个PDF文件格式就可能如图。

 

 

2.6. 加密(encryption


PDF可以通过加密保护文档内容,阻止未授权的访问。PDF至加密String对象和Stream对象,不会加密Number对象和Boolean对象等标识文档结构,而不是文档内容的对象。

PDF的机密信息,用Trailer中的Dictionary对象中的Encrypt属性标识,Encrypt属性也是个Dictionary对象,称这个DictionaryEncryption Dictionary。下表显示Encryption Dictionary的属性。

 

Key

Type

Value

Filter

Name

(Required) The name of the security handler for this document; see below. Default value:

Standard, for the built-in security handler. (Names for other security handlers can be

registered using the procedure described in Appendix E.)

V

Number

(Optional but strongly recommended) A code specifying the algorithm to be used in encrypting

and decrypting the document:

0 An algorithm that is undocumented and no longer supported, and whose use is

strongly discouraged.

1 Algorithm 3.1 on page 73, with an encryption key length of 40 bits; see below.

2 (PDF 1.4) Algorithm 3.1 on page 73, but allowing encryption key lengths greater

than 40 bits.

3 (PDF 1.4) An unpublished algorithm allowing encryption key lengths ranging

from 40 to 128 bits. (This algorithm is unpublished as an export requirement of

the U.S. Department of Commerce.)

The default value if this entry is omitted is 0, but a value of 1 or greater is strongly recommended.

(See implementation note 15 in Appendix H.)

Length

Number

(Optional; PDF 1.4; only if V is 2 or 3) The length of the encryption key, in bits. The value

must be a multiple of 8, in the range 40 to 128. Default value: 40.

R

Number

(Required) A number specifying which revision of the standard security handler should

be used to interpret this dictionary. The revision number should be 2 if the document is

encrypted with a V value less than 2 (see Table 3.13) and does not have any of the access

permissions set (via the P entry, below) that are designated Revision 3in Table 3.15;

otherwise (that is, if the document is encrypted with a V value greater than 2 or has any

Revision 3access permissions set), this value should be 3.

O

String

(Required) A 32-byte string, based on both the owner and user passwords, that is used in

computing the encryption key and in determining whether a valid owner password was

entered. For more information, see Encryption Key Algorithmon page 78 andPassword

Algorithmson page 79.

U

String

(Required) A 32-byte string, based on the user password, that is used in determining

whether to prompt the user for a password and, if so, whether a valid user or owner password

was entered. For more information, see Password Algorithmson page 79.

P

Integer

(Required) A set of flags specifying which operations are permitted when the document is

opened with user access (see Table 3.15).

不像其他对象中的String对象,Encryption Dictionary中的String对象不能用常规的加密方法,进行加密。Encryption Dictionary中的Filter属性指定Security Handler负责对其加密。默认的情况Filter的值为Standard。

3.6.1 标准加密算法(General Encryption Algorithm

PDF通用加密使用MD5作为hash函数,选用RC4作为加密算法。RC4是对称加密算法,他的密钥可以通过各种方式计算出来,下节讨论生成密钥的方面。先看一下加密的过程。

1).取得要加密对象的Object Identifier(包括Object NumberObject Generation组成)。对于不是Indirect String对象,取包涵它的Indirect对象的Object Identifier

2).n字节的key,加上由Object Number的后三位加上Object Generation后两位组成的5位,组成n+5个字节。然后用这(n+5)个字节作为hash函数的输入参数。

3).使用hash输出结果的(n+5)个字节,最多不超过16个字节,作为key,调用RC4,对要加密数据进行加密。

构建PDF文档时候,对于Stream对象是先加密,然后在用编码Filter进行编码。查看PDF文档时候,是用Filter进行解码,然后在解密。

对于String对象先进行escape-sequence processing and hexadecimal decoding

,然后在进行解密。

3.6.2 密钥的生成

PDF的加解密过程是通过两个密码进行的:Owner PasswordUser Password

PDF 生成是的时候是更具是否用户提供密码和一些权限限制,如果是就是对文档进行加密。

PDF读取软件,读取PDF的时候,如果是加密文档,会要求用户输入两个密码中的任意一个。如果输入的是Owner Password,那么用户就有文档权限,除了修改文档和密码的权限。

权限通过Encryption Dictionary中的P属性值进行指定,P值是一个32为的Number对象,其中bit代表不同的权限。在不同的版本(Reversion)中,P每个bit代表的权限值,是不一样。具体值可以参考《PDF Reference》中第77页。

版本是通过Encryption Dictionary 中的R属性值指定,可以是2或者3

Encryption Dictionary中的O属性值是Owner Password通过一定加密过程生成值,而U属性是User Password通过一定加密过程生成的。对于R=2R=3的情况,O属性值和U属性值的生成过程是不一样。具体可以参考《PDF Reference79页。

上文提到的RC4加密之后用到的密钥,也是通过Owner PasswordUser Password 按照一定方法生成的具体过程可以参考《PDF Reference78页。

2.7. 文档结构

PDF文档可以被看成一个有PDF Body部分的对象组成的一个TreeTree的根就是Catalog Dictionary(目录结构),而Catalog Dictionary结构中有包含很多属性。比如Page Tree包含了所有组成文档Page的对象。

下图可以标识PDF文档的层级结构。

 

3.7.1目录结构(document catalog

 

Key

Type

Value

Type

Name

(Required) The type of PDF object that this dictionary describes; must

be Catalog for the catalog dictionary.

Version

Name

(Optional; PDF 1.4) The version of the PDF specification to which the

document conforms (for example, 1.4), if later than the version specified

in the files header (see Section 3.4.1,File Header). If the header specifies

a later version, or if this entry is absent, the document conforms to

the version specified in the header. This entry enables a PDF producer

application to update the version using an incremental update; see Section

3.4.5, Incremental Updates.(See implementation note 18 in Appendix

H.)

Note: The value of this entry is a name object, not a number, and so must

be preceded by a slash character (/) when written in the PDF file (for example,

/1.4).

Pages

Dictionary

(Required; must be an indirect reference) The page tree node that is the

root of the documents page tree (see Section 3.6.2,Page Tree).

Pagelabels

NumberTree

(Optional; PDF 1.3) A number tree (see Section 3.8.5, Number Trees)

defining the page labeling for the document. The keys in this tree are

page indices; the corresponding values are page label dictionaries (see

Section 8.3.1, Page Labels). Each page index denotes the first page in a

labeling range to which the specified page label dictionary applies. The

tree must include a value for page index 0.

Names

Dictionary

(Optional; PDF 1.2) The documents name dictionary (see Section 3.6.3,

Name Dictionary).

Dests

Dictionary

(Optional; PDF 1.1; must be an indirect reference) A dictionary of names

and corresponding destinations (see Named Destinationson page

476).

ViewerPreferences

Dictionary

(Optional; PDF 1.2) A viewer preferences dictionary (see Section 8.1,

Viewer Preferences) specifying the way the document is to be displayed

on the screen. If this entry is absent, viewer applications should

use their own current user preference settings.

PageLayout

Name

(Optional) A name object specifying the page layout to be used when the

document is opened:

SinglePage Display one page at a time.

OneColumn Display the pages in one column.

TwoColumnLeft Display the pages in two columns, with oddnumbered

pages on the left.

TwoColumnRight Display the pages in two columns, with oddnumbered

pages on the right.

(See implementation note 19 in Appendix H.) Default value: SinglePage.

PageMode

Name

(Optional) A name object specifying how the document should be displayed

when opened:

UseNone Neither document outline nor thumbnail images

visible

UseOutlines Document outline visible

UseThumbs Thumbnail images visible

FullScreen Full-screen mode, with no menu bar, window

controls, or any other window visible

Default value: UseNone.

Outlines

Dictionary

(Optional) A name object specifying how the document should be displayed

when opened:

UseNone Neither document outline nor thumbnail images

visible

UseOutlines Document outline visible

UseThumbs Thumbnail images visible

FullScreen Full-screen mode, with no menu bar, window

controls, or any other window visible

Default value: UseNone.

Threads

Array

(Optional; must be an indirect reference) The outline dictionary that is the

root of the documents outline hierarchy (see Section 8.2.2,Document

Outline).

OpenAction

Array or dictionary

(Optional; PDF 1.1) A value specifying a destination to be displayed or

 an action to be performed when the document is opened. The value is

either an array defining a destination (see Section 8.2.1, Destinations)

or an action dictionary representing an action (Section 8.5, Actions). If

this entry is absent, the document should be opened to the top of the

first page at the default magnification factor.

AA

Dictionary

(Optional; PDF 1.4) An additional-actions dictionary defining the actions

to be taken in response to various trigger events affecting the document

as a whole (see Trigger Eventson page 514). (See also implementation

note 20 in Appendix H.)

URI

Dictionary

(Optional) A URI dictionary containing document-level information for

URI (uniform resource identifier) actions (see URI Actionson page

.

AcroForm

Dictionary

 

(Optional; PDF 1.2) The documents interactive form (AcroForm) dictionary

(see Section 8.6.1, Interactive Form Dictionary).

523)

Metadata

Stream

(Optional; PDF 1.4; must be an indirect reference) A metadata stream

containing metadata for the document (see Section 9.2.2, Metadata

Streams).

 

StructTreeBoot

Dictionary

(Optional; PDF 1.3) The documents structure tree root dictionary (see

Section 9.6.1, Structure Hierarchy).

 

MarkInfo

Dictionary

 

(Optional; PDF 1.4) A mark information dictionary containing information

about the documents usage of Tagged PDF conventions (see Section

9.7.1, Mark Information Dictionary).

 

Lang

Text String

(Optional; PDF 1.4) A language identifier specifying the natural language

for all text in the document except where overridden by language specifications

for structure elements or marked content (see Section 9.8.1,

Natural Language Specification). If this entry is absent, the language is

considered unknown.

 

SpiderInfo

Dictionary

(Optional; PDF 1.3) A Web Capture information dictionary containing

state information used by the Acrobat Web Capture (AcroSpider) plugin

extension (see Section 9.9.1, Web Capture Information Dictionary).

 

OutputIntents

Array

(Optional; PDF 1.4) An array of output intent dictionaries describing the

color characteristics of output devices on which the document might be

rendered (see Output Intentson page 684).

 

3.7.2 页面树(Page Tree

组成PDF文档的所有页都通过Tree结构进行组织,称作Page TreeTree结构可以允许读取PDF内容的应用程序,在有限的内存上,读取很大文档。

组成Page Tree有两种类型的节点:一种是节点他自己也是一个page tree,称作page tree node。另一种节点叶子节点,称作page objects

为了进一步优化性能,好多创建PDF文件的软件,把page tree组成一个平衡数(balanced tree)。

3.7.2.1 page tree nodes

 

KEY

TYPE

VALUE

Type

Name

(Required) The type of PDF object that this dictionary describes; must be Pages for

a page tree node.

Parent

Dictionary

(Required except in root node; must be an indirect reference) The page tree node that

is the immediate parent of this one.

Kids

Array

(Required) An array of indirect references to the immediate children of this node.

The children may be page objects or other page tree nodes.

Count

Integer

(Required) The number of leaf nodes (page objects) that are descendants of this

node within the page tree.

 

 

 

 

Example 3.9

2 0 obj

<< /Type /Pages

/Kids [ 4 0 R

10 0 R

24 0 R

]

/Count 3

>>

endobj

4 0 obj

<< /Type /Page

Additional entries describing the attributes of this page

>>

endobj

10 0 obj

<< /Type /Page

Additional entries describing the attributes of this page

>>

endobj

24 0 obj

<< /Type /Page

Additional entries describing the attributes of this page

>>

Endobj

 

Example 3.9 展示了一个文档有三个页,对于每个页的内容,具体查看下一节的介绍。

 

3.7.2.2 Page Objects

Page Objects Page Tree的叶子节点,包含了文档中一个页的所有属性。下标列出Page Object的所有属性,在表中属性,标有(inheritable)的条目,是说明其值可以从他的父对象中继承(具体可以参考下一节)。关于表中rectangledate对象3.9小节进行介绍。

 

KEY

TYPE

VALUE

Type

Name

(Required) The type of PDF object that this dictionary describes; must be

Page for a page object.

Parent

Dictionary

(Required; must be an indirect reference) The page tree node that is the immediate

parent of this page object.

LastModified

Date

(Required if PieceInfo is present; optional otherwise; PDF 1.3) The date and

time (see Section 3.8.2, Dates) when the pages contents were most recently

modified. If a page-piece dictionary (PieceInfo) is present, the

modification date is used to ascertain which of the application data dictionaries

that it contains correspond to the current content of the page

(see Section 9.4, Page-Piece Dictionaries).

Resources

Dictionary

(Required; inheritable) A dictionary containing any resources required by

the page (see Section 3.7.2, Resource Dictionaries). If the page requires

no resources, the value of this entry should be an empty dictionary; omitting

the entry entirely indicates that the resources are to be inherited from

an ancestor node in the page tree.

MediaBox

Rectangle

(Required; inheritable) A rectangle (see Section 3.8.3, Rectangles), expressed

in default user space units, defining the boundaries of the physical

medium on which the page is intended to be displayed or printed (see

Section 9.10.1, Page Boundaries).

CropBox

Rectangle

(Optional; inheritable) A rectangle, expressed in default user space units,

defining the visible region of default user space. When the page is displayed

or printed, its contents are to be clipped (cropped) to this rectangle

and then imposed on the output medium in some implementationdefined

manner (see Section 9.10.1, Page Boundaries). Default value:

the value of MediaBox.

BleedBox

Rectangle

(Optional; PDF 1.3) A rectangle, expressed in default user space units, defining

the region to which the contents of the page should be clipped

when output in a production environment (see Section 9.10.1, Page

Boundaries). Default value: the value of CropBox.

TrimBox

Rectangle

(Optional; PDF 1.3) A rectangle, expressed in default user space units, defining

the intended dimensions of the finished page after trimming (see

Section 9.10.1, Page Boundaries). Default value: the value of CropBox.

ArtBox

Rectangle

(Optional; PDF 1.3) A rectangle, expressed in default user space units, defining

the extent of the pages meaningful content (including potential

white space) as intended by the pages creator (see Section 9.10.1,Page

Boundaries). Default value: the value of CropBox.

BoxColorInfo

Dictionary

(Optional) A box color information dictionary specifying the colors and

other visual characteristics to be used in displaying guidelines on the

screen for the various page boundaries (see Display of Page Boundaries

on page 679). If this entry is absent, the viewer application should use its

own current default settings.

Contents

Stream or array

(Optional) A content stream (see Section 3.7.1, Content Streams) describing

the contents of this page. If this entry is absent, the page is empty.

The value may be either a single stream or an array of streams. If it is an

array, the effect is as if all of the streams in the array were concatenated, in

order, to form a single stream. This allows a program generating a PDF

file to create image objects and other resources as they occur, even though

they interrupt the content stream. The division between streams may

occur only at the boundaries between lexical tokens (see Section 3.1, Lexical

Conventions), but is unrelated to the pages logical content or organization.

Applications that consume or produce PDF files are not required

to preserve the existing structure of the Contents array. (See implementation

note 22 in Appendix H.)

 

Rotate

Integer

(Optional; inheritable) The number of degrees by which the page should

be rotated clockwise when displayed or printed. The value must be a multiple

of 90. Default value: 0.

Group

dictionary

(Optional; PDF 1.4) A group attributes dictionary specifying the attributes

of the pages page group for use in the transparent imaging model (see

Sections 7.3.6, Page Group,and 7.5.5,Transparency Group XObjects).

Thumb

Stream

(Optional) A stream object defining the pages thumbnail image (see Section

8.2.3, Thumbnail Images).

 

B

array

(Optional; PDF 1.1; recommended if the page contains article beads) An array

of indirect references to article beads appearing on the page (see Section

8.3.2, Articles; see also implementation note 23 in Appendix H).

The beads are listed in the array in natural reading order.

Dur

Number

(Optional; PDF 1.1) The pages display duration (also called its advance

timing): the maximum length of time, in seconds, that the page will be

displayed during presentations before the viewer application automatically

advances to the next page (see Section 8.3.3, Presentations). By

default, the viewer does not advance automatically.

Trans

Dictionary

(Optional; PDF 1.1) A transition dictionary describing the transition effect

to be used when displaying the page during presentations (see Section

8.3.3, Presentations).

Annots

Array

(Optional) An array of annotation dictionaries representing annotations

associated with the page (see Section 8.4, Annotations).

AA

Dictionary

(Optional; PDF 1.2) An additional-actions dictionary defining actions to

be performed when the page is opened or closed (see Section 8.5.2, Trigger

Events; see also implementation note 24 in Appendix H).

Metadata

Stream

(Optional; PDF 1.4) A metadata stream containing metadata for the page

(see Section 9.2.2, Metadata Streams).

PieceInfo

Dictionary

(Optional; PDF 1.3) A page-piece dictionary associated with the page (see

Section 9.4, Page-Piece Dictionaries).

StructParents

Integer

(Required if the page contains structural content items; PDF 1.3) The integer

key of the pages entry in the structural parent tree (seeFinding Structure

Elements from Content Itemson page 600).

ID

String

(Optional; PDF 1.3; indirect reference preferred) The digital identifier of the

pages parent Web Capture content set (see Section 9.9.5,Object Attributes

Related to Web Capture).

PZ

Number

(Optional; PDF 1.3) The pages preferred zoom (magnification) factor: the

factor by which it should be scaled to achieve the naturaldisplay magnification

(see Section 9.9.5, Object Attributes Related to Web Capture).

SeperationInfo

Dictionary

(Optional; PDF 1.3) A separation dictionary containing information needed

to generate color separations for the page (see Section 9.10.3, Separation

Dictionaries).

 

Example 3.10 显示文档中一个Page,这个Page由一个thumb,两个Annotation

MediaBox指定这个Page将要一个信纸大小的纸上。Resources指定这个Page使用了三种字体,分别是是F3F5F7.

Example 3.10

3 0 obj

<< /Type /Page

/Parent 4 0 R

/MediaBox [0 0 612 792]

/Resources << /Font << /F3 7 0 R

/F5 9 0 R

/F7 11 0 R

>>

/ProcSet [/PDF]

>>

/Contents 12 0 R

/Thumb 14 0 R

/Annots [ 23 0 R

24 0 R

]

>>

endobj

 

3.7.2.3 页属性的继承(Inheritance of Page Attributes

上表可以看到有些页的属性值被指定为inheritableinheritable说明page object的属性值如果被省略了,它的值可以从他的父对象page tree object中继承。如果这个属性在page object中是required,那么父对象中,一定要提供这个值。如果这个属性是optional的,那么使用父对象的中的属性值或者取默认值。

3.7.3.4 名字对照表(Name Dictionary

PDF文档,有些对象是通过Name直接引用的,而不是通过Indirect ObjectName和对应的对象之间的关系是通过Name Dictionary表建立,Name Dictionary可以通过Trailer中文件目录中的Names属性值找到。

3.8 Content Streams and Resources

3.8.1 Content Stream

Content Stream 是一个Stream对象,其数据部分是一个指令(instruction)队列,用来描述一个页是怎么被显示的。每一个页可能由多个Content Stream组成,这种情况所有的Content Stream组成一个指令队列,相当于一个大的Content Stream

Content Stream 中的之类,在被解释执行之前,先要用指定的Filtercontent Stream的内容进行解码。

每一个指令由operand (操作数)和operator(操作码)组成。Operand位于Operator前面

Operands可以由任意的PDF基本对象组成,除了Stream对象。有一些特殊的Operators需要Dictionary作为他的OperandsIndirect对象不允许做Operands

Operators PDF文档中的关键字,它和Name对象的区别是,不以‘/’开头。

4569章进步说明PDF支持的Operators

通常情况下,如果一个PDF读取软件的时候遇到不认识的Operators,会报错。如果不想让其报错,可以用BXEX关键字包含那些指令。这样PDF读取软件会忽略不认识的Operators

3.8.2 Resources Dictionary

有的时候,Operator需要引用自身Content Stream之外的Indirect对象,例如字体、一个包含图片的Stream对象。这种情况就需要需要把引用到的Indirect对象声明为Named ResourceResources Dictionary中定义各种Named Resource

Resource Dictionary 通过三种方式和Content Stream关联在一起:

1).Content Stream 是页内容的Contents属性的值,这种情况,对应的Resource Dictionary是页内容的Resources的属性的值。

2).对于除了页内容外的其他Content Stream,对应的Resource Dictionary是通过Stream中的Dictionary对象的Resource属性的值指定的。

3).对于XObjectType 3 font会忽略Content Stream中的Resource属性,这种情况,Resource是使用包含XobjectType 3 font的页的Resource的值。

 

每一个Resource DictionaryKey值是资源类型的名字,Key对应Value也是一个Dictionary对象,我们称作SubDictionarySubDictionary对象的Key值指定类型的一个资源名称,SubDictionary对象Value值是引用的资源对象。

下表列出了所有的资源类型名称。

ExtGState

Dictionary

(Optional) A dictionary mapping resource names to graphics state parameter

dictionaries (see Section 4.3.4, Graphics State Parameter Dictionaries).

ColorSpace

Dictionary

(Optional) A dictionary mapping each resource name to either the name of a

device-dependent color space or an array describing a color space (see Section

4.5, Color Spaces).

Pattern

Dictionary

(Optional) A dictionary mapping resource names to pattern objects (see Section

4.6, Patterns).

Shading

Dictionary

(Optional; PDF 1.3) A dictionary mapping resource names to shading dictionaries

(see Shading Dictionarieson page 233).

XObject

Stream

(Optional) A dictionary mapping resource names to external objects (see Section

4.7, External Objects).

 

Font

Dictionary

(Optional) A dictionary mapping resource names to font dictionaries (see

Chapter 5).

ProSet

Array

(Optional) An array of predefined procedure set names (see Section 9.1,

Procedure Sets).

Properties

Dictionary

(Optional; PDF 1.2) A dictionary mapping resource names to property list

dictionaries for marked content (see Section 9.5.1, Property Lists).

 

 

Example 3.11

<< /ProcSet [/PDF /ImageB]

/Font << /F5 6 0 R

/F6 8 0 R

/F7 10 0 R

/F8 12 0 R

>>

/XObject << /Im1 13 0 R

/Im2 15 0 R

>>

>>

 

Example 定一个包含 FontProcSetXObject类型资源的Resource DictionaryFont资源包含四个对象分别是F5F6F7F8

3.9 Common Data Structures

这节介绍四种数据对象Text StringDateRectanglesName TreesNumber Trees。这五种数据类型,不能用在Content Stream对象中。

3.9.1 Text Strings

Text Strings 对象是PDFDocEncoding或者Unicode编码。PDFDocEncodingISO Latin 1编码的一个超集。

如果用Unicode编码,Text Strings前两个字节必须是254256,代表Text StringUnicode编码。

任何使用Unicode编码的地方,都会有一个转义字符串来表名字符串使用哪国语言写的。转移字符串有下列部分顺序组成。

1. The Unicode value U+001B (that is, the byte sequence 0 followed by 27)

2. A 2-character ISO 639 language codefor example, en for English or ja for

Japanese

3. (Optional) A 2-character ISO 3166 country codefor example, US for the

United States or JP for Japan

4. The Unicode value U+001B

3.9.2 Dates

PDF文档的日期格式是:

(D:YYYYMMDDHHmmSSOHH'mm')

l YYYY代表年

l MM代表月

l DD代表月

l HH代表小时

l mm代表分

l SS代表秒

l O表示是本地时间和标准国际标准时间(UT time)的关系,O如果是‘+’标识本地时间比国际标准时间慢,O如果是‘-’标识本地时间比国际标准时间快,具体的差值由O后面的HHmm标识。

l HH表示本地时间和国际标准时间查多少个小时。

l mm’ 表示本地时间和国际标准时间查多少个分钟。mm后面的单引号是语法的一部分,不能省略。

YYYY后面所有的项都是可以省略的,MMDD的默认值是01,其他项的默认值是00

For example, December 23, 1998, at 7:52 PM, U.S. Pacific Standard Time, is represented

by the string

D:19981223195208'00'

 

3.9.3 Rectangles

Rectangles 是一个Array对象,通过两个对角坐标来描述矩形位置,通常格式是:

[llx lly urx ury]

llx lly 表示左下角(lower-left)的坐标xy

urx ury 标识右上角(up-right)的坐标xy

也可以通过左上交和右下角坐标确定一个矩形。

3.9.4 Name Trees

Name Trees 由几种节点组成,每个节点都是一个Dictionary对象。Name Trees有三种类型的节点,Root节点、Kids节点、Name节点(相当于叶子节点)。

Root节点中包含对Kids节点或者Name节点的引用,但是不能同时两种都存在。

Kids节点中包含对Name节点应用。

这样由这三种节点就可以组成一颗逻辑上的数。

Name Trees 各种节点Dictionary中有三种属性。

Key

Type

Value

Kids

Array

(Root and intermediate nodes only; required in intermediate nodes; present in the root node

if and only if Names is not present) An array of indirect references to the immediate children

of this node. The children may be intermediate or leaf nodes.

Names

array

(Root and leaf nodes only; required in leaf nodes; present in the root node if and only if Kids

is not present) An array of the form

[key1 value1 key2 value2 keyn valuen]

where each keyi is a string and the corresponding valuei is an indirect reference to the

object associated with that key. The keys are sorted in lexical order, as described below.

 

Limits

Array

(Intermediate and leaf nodes only; required) An array of two strings, specifying the (lexically)

least and greatest keys included in the Names array of a leaf node or in the Names

arrays of any leaf nodes that are descendants of an intermediate node.

The

 

Name属性的的KeyString对象,而且Key是按字母顺序排序的。

Limit对象是一个由两个String对象组成,标识Limit属性所在节点(包括它的子节点)中,最小和最大的Name属性的Key值。

 

Example 3.24Name Trees结构描述如下图分类的元素周期表。

 

1 0 obj

/Kids [ 2 0 R % Root node

3 0 R

4 0 R

]

>>

endobj

2 0 obj

<< /Limits [(Actinium) (Gold)] % Intermediate node

/Kids [ 5 0 R

6 0 R

7 0 R

8 0 R

9 0 R

10 0 R

11 0 R

]

>>

endobj

3 0 obj

<< /Limits [(Hafnium) (Protactinium)] % Intermediate node

/Kids [ 12 0 R

13 0 R

14 0 R

15 0 R

16 0 R

17 0 R

18 0 R

19 0 R

]

>>

endobj

40 obj

<< /Limits [(Radium) (Zirconium)] % Intermediate node

/Kids [ 20 0 R

21 0 R

22 0 R

23 0 R

24 0 R

]

>>

endobj

5 0 obj

<< /Limits [(Actinium) (Astatine)] % Leaf node

/Names [ (Actinium) 25 0 R

(Aluminum) 26 0 R

(Americium) 27 0 R

(Antimony) 28 0 R

(Argon) 29 0 R

(Arsenic) 30 0 R

(Astatine) 31 0 R

]

>>

endobj

24 0 obj

<< /Limits [(Xenon) (Zirconium)] % Leaf node

/Names [ (Xenon) 129 0 R

(Ytterbium) 130 0 R

(Yttrium) 131 0 R

(Zinc) 132 0 R

(Zirconium) 133 0 R

]

>>

endobj

25 0 obj

89 % Atomic number (Actinium)

endobj

133 0 obj

40 % Atomic number (Zirconium)

Endobj

 

3.9.5 Number Trees

Number Trees Name Trees结构相似,区别在于Number Trees节点Name属性中的Key值是Integer对象,而不是String对象。

 

3.9 Functions(函数)对象

虽然PDF不是一个编程语言,但是提供了一些函数对象,用于数学、采样还原等等计算。所有的函数对象都会有一些通用的属性如下表:

Key

Type

Value

FunctionType

Integer

(Required) The function type:

0 Sampled function

2 Exponential interpolation function

3 Stitching function

4 PostScript calculator function

Domain

Array

(Required) An array of 2 × m numbers, where m is the number of input

values. For each i from 0 to m 1, Domain2i must be less than or equal to

Domain2i+1, and the ith input value, xi , must lie in the interval

Domain2i xiDomain2i+1. Input values outside the declared domain are

clipped to the nearest boundary value.

Range

array

(Required for type 0 and type 4 functions, optional otherwise; see below) An

array of 2 × n numbers, where n is the number of output values. For each j

from 0 to n 1, Range2j must be less than or equal to Range2j+1, and the jth

output value, yj , must lie in the interval Range2j yj Range2j+1. Output

values outside the declared range are clipped to the nearest boundary value.

If this entry is absent, no clipping is done.

 

每种类型的函数,还会有特定的函数属性和计算过程,具体可以参考《PDF reference3.9.13.9.4节的介绍。

 

3.10 文件引用(File Specifications

我们可以通过文件引用(File Specifications),在PDF文档中已用别的文件中的内容。文件引用分文简单文件引用(simple file specification)和全文件引用(full file specification)。简单文件引用可以是String对象也可以是Dictionary对象。全文件引用只能是Dictionary对象。

文件引用是平台无关的,当在具体平台上读取PDF文档的时候,会转换为平台相关的文件引用。

3.10.1 文件引用字符串(File Specification Strings

文件引用字符串通过多个子字符串组成,每个部分用‘/’进行分割。如果‘/’是子字符串的一部分,就需要转义,在前面加两个反斜杠“\\”。

(in\\/out) 代表的是(in/out

文件引用还可以分文相对文件引用和绝对文件引用,其含义和相对路劲和绝对路径差不多。以‘/’开头的是绝对文件引用,否则为相对文件引用。

PDF1.2以后的协议中,允许组成文件引用的子字符串可以是多字节字符,比如中文。这种必须要有String对象的十六进制的表示方法。由于‘/(ASCII码为0x2f)和‘\’(ASCII码为0x5c),但多自己字符中包含2f5c的时候,要在前面添加一个5c,比如有个两个字节的编码为<89 5C>,要写成<89 5C 5C>

3.10.2 文件引用字典(File Specification Strings

文件引用字典是个Dictionary对象。它允许多个文件对应多个不同的文件系统。

下边是Dictionary对象包含的属性:

 

Key

Type

Value

Type

Name

required)值为FileSpec指明这是个文件引用对象。

FS

Name

optional)文件系统的文成,PDF只有一个标准文件系统URL

F

String

Required if DosMacUnix entries are all absent)文件描述字符串。当DosMacUnix属性都没有的时候使用。

Dos

String

optional)指定Dos系统中使用的文件引用。

Mac

String

optional)指定Mac系统中使用的文件引用。

Unix

String

optional)指定Unix系统中使用的文件引用。

ID

Array

optional)文件标识(具体作用参考《PDF reference9.3节)。

V

Boolean

optional PDF1.2)指定引用文件是是否是易变(volatile)。如果是TruePDF读取软件不要缓冲引用文件的内容。

EF

Dictionary

嵌入(embedded)引用文件Dictionary对象。

RF

Dictionary

引用文件Dictionary对象。

 

参考文章


 

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