Android 局域网内功能模块开发,教你怎么快速获取局域网内所有IP并且进行通信------ MulticastSocket

在当今的互联网时代,很多互联网公司、方案公司、智能设备公司或多或少都会接触一些局域网内的相关开发,比如某公司研发了一个app,该app需求是在局域网和网域网都可以获取自己好友的消息或信息,网域网下技术人员可以通过服务器转接信息和发送,实现交互,但是在非联网的局域网下使用部分非使用网络的功能,这就需要研究一些比较不常用的类,在通常情况下,可能大部分人首先想到的肯定是0-255的逐个去ping,这样效率超级低!而且粗暴的方式还可能导致oom,之前说到的 ping ,就是比如局域网下发射信号的主机即服务器,这里我就形象的说是路由器吧,比如路由器的ip是192.168.0.1,那连接它的其他设备的ip被分配的ip也是192.168.0.xxx,这里的xxx是一个取值范围0-255,很多时候大家为了方便就采用循环来对0-255这样的一个一个的去ping,也就是像192.168.0.2、192.168.0.3......这样一直到255,效率非常慢。。。

所以今天就给大家分享一个好东西,java.net.MulticastSocket

MulticastSocket 继承自 DatagramSocket

/*
 *  Licensed to the Apache Software Foundation (ASF) under one or more
 *  contributor license agreements.  See the NOTICE file distributed with
 *  this work for additional information regarding copyright ownership.
 *  The ASF licenses this file to You under the Apache License, Version 2.0
 *  (the "License"); you may not use this file except in compliance with
 *  the License.  You may obtain a copy of the License at
 *
 *     http://www.apache.org/licenses/LICENSE-2.0
 *
 *  Unless required by applicable law or agreed to in writing, software
 *  distributed under the License is distributed on an "AS IS" BASIS,
 *  WITHOUT WARRANTIES OR CONDITIONS OF ANY KIND, either express or implied.
 *  See the License for the specific language governing permissions and
 *  limitations under the License.
 */

package java.net;

import java.io.IOException;
import java.util.Enumeration;
import libcore.io.IoUtils;

/**
 * This class implements a multicast socket for sending and receiving IP
 * multicast datagram packets.
 *
 * @see DatagramSocket
 */
public class MulticastSocket extends DatagramSocket {
    /**
     * Stores the address supplied to setInterface so we can return it from getInterface. The
     * translation to an interface index is lossy because an interface can have multiple addresses.
     */
    private InetAddress setAddress;

    /**
     * Constructs a multicast socket, bound to any available port on the
     * local host.
     *
     * @throws IOException if an error occurs.
     */
    public MulticastSocket() throws IOException {
        setReuseAddress(true);
    }

    /**
     * Constructs a multicast socket, bound to the specified {@code port} on the
     * local host.
     *
     * @throws IOException if an error occurs.
     */
    public MulticastSocket(int port) throws IOException {
        super(port);
        setReuseAddress(true);
    }

    /**
     * Constructs a {@code MulticastSocket} bound to the address and port specified by
     * {@code localAddress}, or an unbound {@code MulticastSocket} if {@code localAddress == null}.
     *
     * @throws IllegalArgumentException if {@code localAddress} is not supported (because it's not
     * an {@code InetSocketAddress}, say).
     * @throws IOException if an error occurs.
     */
    public MulticastSocket(SocketAddress localAddress) throws IOException {
        super(localAddress);
        setReuseAddress(true);
    }

    /**
     * Returns an address of the outgoing network interface used by this socket. To avoid
     * inherent unpredictability, new code should use {@link #getNetworkInterface} instead.
     *
     * @throws SocketException if an error occurs.
     */
    public InetAddress getInterface() throws SocketException {
        checkOpen();
        if (setAddress != null) {
            return setAddress;
        }
        InetAddress ipvXaddress = (InetAddress) impl.getOption(SocketOptions.IP_MULTICAST_IF);
        if (ipvXaddress.isAnyLocalAddress()) {
            // the address was not set at the IPv4 level so check the IPv6
            // level
            NetworkInterface theInterface = getNetworkInterface();
            if (theInterface != null) {
                Enumeration<InetAddress> addresses = theInterface.getInetAddresses();
                if (addresses != null) {
                    while (addresses.hasMoreElements()) {
                        InetAddress nextAddress = addresses.nextElement();
                        if (nextAddress instanceof Inet6Address) {
                            return nextAddress;
                        }
                    }
                }
            }
        }
        return ipvXaddress;
    }

    /**
     * Returns the outgoing network interface used by this socket.
     *
     * @throws SocketException if an error occurs.
     */
    public NetworkInterface getNetworkInterface() throws SocketException {
        checkOpen();
        int index = (Integer) impl.getOption(SocketOptions.IP_MULTICAST_IF2);
        if (index != 0) {
            return NetworkInterface.getByIndex(index);
        }
        return NetworkInterface.forUnboundMulticastSocket();
    }

    /**
     * Returns the time-to-live (TTL) for multicast packets sent on this socket.
     *
     * @throws IOException if an error occurs.
     */
    public int getTimeToLive() throws IOException {
        checkOpen();
        return impl.getTimeToLive();
    }

    /**
     * Returns the time-to-live (TTL) for multicast packets sent on this socket.
     *
     * @throws IOException if an error occurs.
     * @deprecated Use {@link #getTimeToLive} instead.
     */
    @Deprecated
    public byte getTTL() throws IOException {
        checkOpen();
        return impl.getTTL();
    }

    /**
     * Adds this socket to the specified multicast group. A socket must join a
     * group before data may be received. A socket may be a member of multiple
     * groups but may join any group only once.
     *
     * @param groupAddr
     *            the multicast group to be joined.
     * @throws IOException if an error occurs.
     */
    public void joinGroup(InetAddress groupAddr) throws IOException {
        checkJoinOrLeave(groupAddr);
        impl.join(groupAddr);
    }

    /**
     * Adds this socket to the specified multicast group. A socket must join a
     * group before data may be received. A socket may be a member of multiple
     * groups but may join any group only once.
     *
     * @param groupAddress
     *            the multicast group to be joined.
     * @param netInterface
     *            the network interface on which the datagram packets will be
     *            received.
     * @throws IOException
     *                if the specified address is not a multicast address.
     * @throws IllegalArgumentException
     *                if no multicast group is specified.
     */
    public void joinGroup(SocketAddress groupAddress, NetworkInterface netInterface) throws IOException {
        checkJoinOrLeave(groupAddress, netInterface);
        impl.joinGroup(groupAddress, netInterface);
    }

    /**
     * Removes this socket from the specified multicast group.
     *
     * @param groupAddr
     *            the multicast group to be left.
     * @throws NullPointerException
     *                if {@code groupAddr} is {@code null}.
     * @throws IOException
     *                if the specified group address is not a multicast address.
     */
    public void leaveGroup(InetAddress groupAddr) throws IOException {
        checkJoinOrLeave(groupAddr);
        impl.leave(groupAddr);
    }

    /**
     * Removes this socket from the specified multicast group.
     *
     * @param groupAddress
     *            the multicast group to be left.
     * @param netInterface
     *            the network interface on which the addresses should be
     *            dropped.
     * @throws IOException
     *                if the specified group address is not a multicast address.
     * @throws IllegalArgumentException
     *                if {@code groupAddress} is {@code null}.
     */
    public void leaveGroup(SocketAddress groupAddress, NetworkInterface netInterface) throws IOException {
        checkJoinOrLeave(groupAddress, netInterface);
        impl.leaveGroup(groupAddress, netInterface);
    }

    private void checkJoinOrLeave(SocketAddress groupAddress, NetworkInterface netInterface) throws IOException {
        checkOpen();
        if (groupAddress == null) {
            throw new IllegalArgumentException("groupAddress == null");
        }

        if (netInterface != null && !netInterface.getInetAddresses().hasMoreElements()) {
            throw new SocketException("No address associated with interface: " + netInterface);
        }

        if (!(groupAddress instanceof InetSocketAddress)) {
            throw new IllegalArgumentException("Group address not an InetSocketAddress: " +
                    groupAddress.getClass());
        }

        InetAddress groupAddr = ((InetSocketAddress) groupAddress).getAddress();
        if (groupAddr == null) {
            throw new SocketException("Group address has no address: " + groupAddress);
        }

        if (!groupAddr.isMulticastAddress()) {
            throw new IOException("Not a multicast group: " + groupAddr);
        }
    }

    private void checkJoinOrLeave(InetAddress groupAddr) throws IOException {
        checkOpen();
        if (groupAddr == null) {
            throw new IllegalArgumentException("groupAddress == null");
        }
        if (!groupAddr.isMulticastAddress()) {
            throw new IOException("Not a multicast group: " + groupAddr);
        }
    }

    /**
     * Sends the given {@code packet} on this socket, using the given {@code ttl}. This method is
     * deprecated because it modifies the TTL socket option for this socket twice on each call.
     *
     * @throws IOException if an error occurs.
     * @deprecated Use {@link #setTimeToLive} instead.
     */
    @Deprecated
    public void send(DatagramPacket packet, byte ttl) throws IOException {
        checkOpen();
        InetAddress packAddr = packet.getAddress();
        int currTTL = getTimeToLive();
        if (packAddr.isMulticastAddress() && (byte) currTTL != ttl) {
            try {
                setTimeToLive(ttl & 0xff);
                impl.send(packet);
            } finally {
                setTimeToLive(currTTL);
            }
        } else {
            impl.send(packet);
        }
    }

    /**
     * Sets the outgoing network interface used by this socket. The interface used is the first
     * interface found to have the given {@code address}. To avoid inherent unpredictability,
     * new code should use {@link #getNetworkInterface} instead.
     *
     * @throws SocketException if an error occurs.
     */
    public void setInterface(InetAddress address) throws SocketException {
        checkOpen();
        if (address == null) {
            throw new NullPointerException("address == null");
        }

        NetworkInterface networkInterface = NetworkInterface.getByInetAddress(address);
        if (networkInterface == null) {
            throw new SocketException("Address not associated with an interface: " + address);
        }
        impl.setOption(SocketOptions.IP_MULTICAST_IF2, networkInterface.getIndex());
        this.setAddress = address;
    }

    /**
     * Sets the outgoing network interface used by this socket to the given
     * {@code networkInterface}.
     *
     * @throws SocketException if an error occurs.
     */
    public void setNetworkInterface(NetworkInterface networkInterface) throws SocketException {
        checkOpen();
        if (networkInterface == null) {
            throw new SocketException("networkInterface == null");
        }

        impl.setOption(SocketOptions.IP_MULTICAST_IF2, networkInterface.getIndex());
        this.setAddress = null;
    }

    /**
     * Sets the time-to-live (TTL) for multicast packets sent on this socket.
     * Valid TTL values are between 0 and 255 inclusive.
     *
     * @throws IOException if an error occurs.
     */
    public void setTimeToLive(int ttl) throws IOException {
        checkOpen();
        if (ttl < 0 || ttl > 255) {
            throw new IllegalArgumentException("TimeToLive out of bounds: " + ttl);
        }
        impl.setTimeToLive(ttl);
    }

    /**
     * Sets the time-to-live (TTL) for multicast packets sent on this socket.
     * Valid TTL values are between 0 and 255 inclusive.
     *
     * @throws IOException if an error occurs.
     * @deprecated Use {@link #setTimeToLive} instead.
     */
    @Deprecated
    public void setTTL(byte ttl) throws IOException {
        checkOpen();
        impl.setTTL(ttl);
    }

    @Override
    synchronized void createSocket(int aPort, InetAddress addr) throws SocketException {
        impl = factory != null ? factory.createDatagramSocketImpl() : new PlainDatagramSocketImpl();
        impl.create();
        try {
            impl.setOption(SocketOptions.SO_REUSEADDR, Boolean.TRUE);
            impl.bind(aPort, addr);
            isBound = true;
        } catch (SocketException e) {
            close();
            throw e;
        }
    }

    /**
     * Returns true if multicast loopback is <i>disabled</i>.
     * See {@link SocketOptions#IP_MULTICAST_LOOP}, and note that the sense of this is the
     * opposite of the underlying Unix {@code IP_MULTICAST_LOOP}.
     *
     * @throws SocketException if an error occurs.
     */
    public boolean getLoopbackMode() throws SocketException {
        checkOpen();
        return !((Boolean) impl.getOption(SocketOptions.IP_MULTICAST_LOOP)).booleanValue();
    }

    /**
     * Disables multicast loopback if {@code disable == true}.
     * See {@link SocketOptions#IP_MULTICAST_LOOP}, and note that the sense of this is the
     * opposite of the underlying Unix {@code IP_MULTICAST_LOOP}: true means disabled, false
     * means enabled.
     *
     * @throws SocketException if an error occurs.
     */
    public void setLoopbackMode(boolean disable) throws SocketException {
        checkOpen();
        impl.setOption(SocketOptions.IP_MULTICAST_LOOP, Boolean.valueOf(!disable));
    }
}

了解一下该类后可以开始下面的编程,首先说一下客户端,再说服务端,最后说明使用方法

①客户端代码核心:

	@Override
	protected void onResume() {
		super.onResume();
		/**
		 * @author Engineer-Jsp
		 * 笔者在该 Activity 的 onResume()函数初始化接收的侦听
		 */
		onBrodacastReceiver();
	}
②onBrodacastReceiver()函数:

	MulticastSocket multicastSocket;
	
	/**
	 * @author Engineer-Jsp
	 * onBrodacastReceiver()
	 */
	private void onBrodacastReceiver() {
		new Thread(new Runnable() {
			@Override
			public void run() {
				try {
					// 接收数据时需要指定监听的端口号
					multicastSocket = new MulticastSocket(10001);
					// 创建组播ID地址
					InetAddress address = InetAddress.getByName("239.0.0.1");
					// 加入地址
					multicastSocket.joinGroup(address);
					// 包长
					byte[] buf = new byte[1024];
					while (true) {
						// 数据报
						DatagramPacket datagramPacket = new DatagramPacket(buf, buf.length);
						// 接收数据,同样会进入阻塞状态
						multicastSocket.receive(datagramPacket); 
						// 从buffer中截取收到的数据
						byte[] message = new byte[datagramPacket.getLength()];
						// 数组拷贝
						System.arraycopy(buf, 0, message, 0, datagramPacket.getLength());
						// 打印来自组播里其他服务的or客户端的ip
						System.out.println(datagramPacket.getAddress());
						// 打印来自组播里其他服务的or客户端的消息
						System.out.println(new String(message));
						// 收到消息后可以进行记录然后二次确认,如果只是想获取ip,在发送方收到该消息后可关闭套接字,从而释放资源
						onBrodacastSend(datagramPacket.getAddress());
					}
				} catch (IOException e) {
					e.printStackTrace();
				}
			}
		}).start();
	}

③ onBrodacastSend() 函数

	/**
	 * onBrodacastSend()
	 * @author Engineer-Jsp
	 * @param address ip
	 */
	private void onBrodacastSend(InetAddress address) {
		// 假设 239.0.0.1 已经收到了来自其他组ip段的消息,为了进行二次确认,发送 "snoop"
		// 进行确认,当发送方收到该消息可以释放资源
		String out = "snoop";
		// 获取"snoop"的字节数组
		byte[] buf = out.getBytes();
		// 组报
		DatagramPacket datagramPacket = new DatagramPacket(buf, buf.length);
		// 设置地址,该地址来自onBrodacastReceiver()函数阻塞数据报,datagramPacket.getAddress()
		datagramPacket.setAddress(address);
		// 发送的端口号
		datagramPacket.setPort(8082);
		try {
			// 开始发送
			multicastSocket.send(datagramPacket);
		} catch (IOException e) {
			e.printStackTrace();
		}
	}

这是客户端的代码,下面开始上服务端的代码

①初始化

	@Override
	protected void onResume() {
		super.onResume();
		/**
		 * @author Engineer-Jsp 
		 * 笔者在该 Activity 的 onResume()函数初始化接收和发送
		 * onBrodacastSend() 发送
		 * onBrodacastReceiver() 接收
		 */
		onBrodacastSend();
		onBrodacastReceiver();
	}
② onBrodacastSend() 函数

	InetAddress address;
	MulticastSocket multicastSocket;

	/**
	 * @author Engineer-Jsp 
	 * onBrodacastSend() 发送
	 */
	private void onBrodacastSend() {
		try {
			// 侦听的端口
			multicastSocket = new MulticastSocket(8082);
			// 使用D类地址,该地址为发起组播的那个ip段,即侦听10001的套接字
			address = InetAddress.getByName("239.0.0.1");
			new Thread(new Runnable() {
				@Override
				public void run() {
					while (true) {
						// 获取当前时间
						String time = new SimpleDateFormat("yyyy-MM-dd HH:mm:ss").format(new Date());
						// 当前时间+标识后缀
						time = time + " >>> form server onBrodacastSend()";
						// 获取当前时间+标识后缀的字节数组
						byte[] buf = time.getBytes();
						// 组报
						DatagramPacket datagramPacket = new DatagramPacket(buf, buf.length);
						// 向组播ID,即接收group /239.0.0.1  端口 10001
						datagramPacket.setAddress(address); 
						// 发送的端口号
						datagramPacket.setPort(10001);
						try {
							// 开始发送
							multicastSocket.send(datagramPacket);
							// 每执行一次,线程休眠2s,然后继续下一次任务
							Thread.sleep(2000);
						} catch (InterruptedException e) {
							e.printStackTrace();
						} catch (IOException e) {
							e.printStackTrace();
						}
					}
				}
			}).start();
		} catch (UnknownHostException e) {
			e.printStackTrace();
		} catch (IOException e) {
			e.printStackTrace();
		}
	}


③onBrodacastReceiver()函数

	/**
	 * @author Engineer-Jsp 
	 * onBrodacastReceiver() 接收
	 */
	private void onBrodacastReceiver() {
		new Thread(new Runnable() {
			@Override
			public void run() {
				try {
					// 字节数组的格式,即最大大小
					byte[] buf = new byte[1024];
					while (true) {
						// 组报格式
						DatagramPacket datagramPacket = new DatagramPacket(buf, buf.length);
						// 接收来自group组播10001端口的二次确认,阻塞
						multicastSocket.receive(datagramPacket);
						// 从buf中截取收到的数据
						byte[] message = new byte[datagramPacket.getLength()];
						// 数组拷贝
						System.arraycopy(buf, 0, message, 0, datagramPacket.getLength());
						// 这里打印ip字段
						System.out.println(datagramPacket.getAddress());
						// 打印组播端口10001发送过来的消息
						System.out.println(new String(message));
						// 这里可以根据结接收到的内容进行分发处理,假如收到 10001的 "snoop"字段为关闭命令,即可在此处关闭套接字从而释放资源
					}
				} catch (IOException e) {
					e.printStackTrace();
				}
			}
		}).start();
	}

这是服务端的代码,也分享完了,下面画一个图来大概描述一下他们的工作流程图示意:


使用方法:①首先需要在同一wifi网络下 ②需要获取所有ip的手机安装客户端,即侦听10001的那个端口 ③所有需要将信息共享并组播到 239.0.0.1:10001这个group的安装服务端 ④开启服务端与客户端开始进行数据的交互

以上是大致的描述图,帮助大家理解,谢谢观博!


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