[Erlang 0109] From Elixir to Erlang Code

Elixir代码最终编译成为erlang代码,这个过程是怎样的?本文通过一个小测试做下探索.
 
 
 
 
编译一旦完成,你就看到了真相
 
Elixir代码组织方式一方面和Erlang一样才用非常扁平的代码模块结构,另一方面Elixir同时支持嵌套.Elixir比较方便的一点是可以在Elixir Shell中完成对模块的定义.看下面的方式:
 
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iex> defmodule Math do
...>   def sum(a, b) do
...>     a + b
...>   end
...> end

iex> Math.sum(1, 2)
3
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下面我们把代码放在m.ex模块中,模块的名字和代码文件的名字是可以不一样的,在编译之后文件夹中新增了一个Elixir.Math.beam的文件.换句话说,elixirc已经把m.ex文件编译成Elixir.Math.beam,按照Erlang对模块名称和文件名一致性的要求,我们可以在Erlang的Shell中验证一下:
 
 
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[root@nimbus elixir]# elixirc m.ex
[root@nimbus elixir]# ls
Elixir.Math.beam  m.ex

[root@nimbus elixir]# erl
Erlang R16B01 (erts-5.10.2) [source] [64-bit] [smp:2:2] [async-threads:10] [hipe] [kernel-poll:false]
Eshell V5.10.2  (abort with ^G)
1> 'Elixir.Math':sum(12,23).
35
2> 
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   是不是和我们预期的一样?之前提到过多次从beam中还原源代码的方法,现在我们动手看下这个Elixir.Math.beam的Erlang代码是怎样的,输出我做了一下排版:
 
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5> {ok,{_,[{abstract_code,{_,AC}}]}} = beam_lib:chunks("Elixir.Math",[abstract_code]).
{ok,{'Elixir.Math',
        [{abstract_code,
             {raw_abstract_v1,
                 [{attribute,0,compile,   {no_auto_import,[{bitsize,1},{apply,2},
                 {spawn,2}, {spawn_link,2}, {spawn_monitor,3}, {spawn_opt,2},
                 {spawn_opt,3}, {spawn,4},
                 {spawn_link,4}, {spawn_opt,4},
                 {spawn_opt,5}, {nodes,...},
                 {...}|...]}},
                  {attribute,1,file,{"/data2/elixir/m.ex",1}},
                  {attribute,1,module,'Elixir.Math'},
                  {attribute,1,export,[{'__info__',1},{sum,2}]},
                  {function,0,'__info__',1,
                      [{clause,0,
                       [{atom,0,functions}],
                       [],
                       [{cons,0,{...},...}]},
                       {clause,0,[{atom,0,macros}],[],[{nil,0}]},
                       {clause,0,[{atom,0,docs}],[],[{cons,...}]},
                       {clause,0,[{atom,0,...}],[],[{...}]},
                       {clause,0,[{atom,...}],[],[...]},
                       {clause,0,[{...}],[],...}]},
                  {function,2,sum,2,
                      [{clause,2,
                     [{var,2,a},{var,2,b}],
                     [],
                     [{op,3,...}]}]}]}}]}}
6>       io:fwrite("~s~n", [erl_prettypr:format(erl_syntax:form_list(AC))]).
-compile({no_auto_import,
          [{bitsize, 1}, {apply, 2}, {spawn, 2}, {spawn_link, 2},
           {spawn_monitor, 3}, {spawn_opt, 2}, {spawn_opt, 3},
           {spawn, 4}, {spawn_link, 4}, {spawn_opt, 4},
           {spawn_opt, 5}, {nodes, 0}, {disconnect_node, 1},
           {integer_to_list, 2}, {integer_to_binary, 2}, {max, 2},
           {min, 2}, {port_control, 3}, {port_connect, 2},
           {port_command, 2}, {port_command, 3}, {port_close, 1},
           {spawn_monitor, 1}, {spawn, 1}, {load_module, 2},
           {spawn_link, 1}, {binary_to_float, 1},
           {float_to_binary, 2}, {float_to_binary, 1},
           {list_to_integer, 2}, {integer_to_binary, 1},
           {binary_to_integer, 2}, {binary_to_integer, 1},
           {check_old_code, 1}, {binary_part, 3}, {binary_part, 2},
           {binary_to_term, 2}, {binary_to_existing_atom, 2},
           {binary_to_atom, 2}, {atom_to_binary, 2},
           {bitstring_to_list, 1}, {list_to_bitstring, 1},
           {bit_size, 1}, {byte_size, 1}, {tuple_size, 1},
           {is_bitstring, 1}, {list_to_existing_atom, 1},
           {iolist_to_binary, 1}, {iolist_size, 1},
           {is_boolean, 1}, {is_record, 3}, {is_record, 2},
           {is_function, 2}, {is_function, 1}, {is_binary, 1},
           {is_reference, 1}, {is_port, 1}, {is_pid, 1},
           {is_number, 1}, {is_integer, 1}, {is_float, 1},
           {is_tuple, 1}, {is_list, 1}, {is_atom, 1}, {error, 2},
           {error, 1}, {is_process_alive, 1}, {demonitor, 2},
           {demonitor, 1}, {monitor, 2}, {whereis, 1},
           {unregister, 1}, {unlink, 1}, {tuple_to_list, 1},
           {trunc, 1}, {tl, 1}, {time, 0}, {throw, 1},
           {term_to_binary, 2}, {term_to_binary, 1},
           {statistics, 1}, {split_binary, 2}, {spawn_link, 3},
           {spawn, 3}, {size, 1}, {setelement, 3}, {self, 0},
           {round, 1}, {registered, 0}, {register, 2}, {put, 2},
           {purge_module, 1}, {processes, 0}, {process_info, 2},
           {process_info, 1}, {process_flag, 3}, {process_flag, 2},
           {pre_loaded, 0}, {pid_to_list, 1}, {open_port, 2},
           {now, 0}, {nodes, 1}, {node, 0}, {node, 1},
           {monitor_node, 2}, {module_loaded, 1}, {make_ref, 0},
           {list_to_tuple, 1}, {list_to_pid, 1},
           {list_to_integer, 1}, {list_to_float, 1},
           {list_to_binary, 1}, {list_to_atom, 1}, {link, 1},
           {length, 1}, {is_alive, 0}, {integer_to_list, 1},
           {hd, 1}, {halt, 2}, {halt, 1}, {halt, 0},
           {group_leader, 2}, {group_leader, 0}, {get_keys, 1},
           {get, 1}, {get, 0}, {garbage_collect, 1},
           {garbage_collect, 0}, {float_to_list, 2},
           {float_to_list, 1}, {float, 1}, {exit, 2}, {exit, 1},
           {erase, 1}, {erase, 0}, {element, 2},
           {delete_module, 1}, {date, 0}, {check_process_code, 2},
           {binary_to_term, 1}, {binary_to_list, 3},
           {binary_to_list, 1}, {atom_to_list, 1}, {apply, 3},
           {abs, 1}]}).

-file("/data2/elixir/m.ex", 1).

-module('Elixir.Math').

-export(['__info__'/1, sum/2]).

'__info__'(functions) -> [{sum, 2}];
'__info__'(macros) -> [];
'__info__'(docs) ->
    [{{sum, 2}, 2, def,
      [{a, [{line, 2}], nil}, {b, [{line, 2}], nil}], nil}];
'__info__'(moduledoc) -> {1, nil};
'__info__'(module) -> 'Elixir.Math';
'__info__'(atom) -> module_info(atom).

sum(a, b) -> a + b.
ok
7>
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如何编译的?

 
 
  下面我们探究一下Elixir编译的过程,切入点当然是elixirc,打开这个脚本:
 
 
可以看到完成了一些环境变量解析之后,最终是调用了elixir
exec "$SCRIPT_PATH"/elixir +compile "$@"

 

OK,我们继续跟进elixir,经过一番参数检查,变量解析后,最后执行的命令类似下面:
  
 erl -pa "$SCRIPT_PATH"/../lib/*/ebin -noshell  -s elixir start_cli -extra +compile

 

简单回顾一下erlang 运行时环境启动的参数,erl的参数分三种:加号+后面跟的是 emulator flags,单连字符"-"后面跟的是flags,init进程会完成这些参数的解析; -extra 后面跟的内容都会被当做是plain arguments. http://erlang.org/doc/man/erl.html
  
% erl +W w -sname arnie +R 9 -s my_init -extra +bertie
(arnie@host)1> init:get_argument(sname).
{ok,[["arnie"]]}
(arnie@host)2> init:get_plain_arguments().
["+bertie"]

 Here +W w and +R 9 are emulator flags. -s my_init is an init flag, interpreted by init. -sname arnie is a user flag, stored by init. It is read by Kernel and will cause the Erlang runtime system to become distributed. Finally, everything after -extra (that is, +bertie) is considered as plain arguments.

% erl -myflag 1
1> init:get_argument(myflag).
{ok,[["1"]]}
2> init:get_plain_arguments().
[]

 Here the user flag -myflag 1 is passed to and stored by the init process. It is a user defined flag, presumably used by some user defined application.

 
 
 书归正传,elixir代码里面给我们后续跟进的线索"-s elixir start_cli",废话少说,打开文件:
 
 
%% Boot and process given options. Invoked by Elixir's script.
start_cli() ->
  application:start(?MODULE),

  'Elixir.Kernel.CLI':main(init:get_plain_arguments()).

 

 
ok,下面我们手工完成m.ex文件的编译过程(为了方便执行你可以去/elixir/lib/elixir/ebin文件夹),我们分两步1.启动elixir 2.调用编译函数 'Elixir.Kernel.CLI':main(["+compile","m.ex"]).之所以要启动elixir,是为了完成类似code_server的职责.
 
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[root@nimbus ebin]# erl
Erlang R16B01 (erts-5.10.2) [source] [64-bit] [smp:2:2] [async-threads:10] [hipe] [kernel-poll:false]

Eshell V5.10.2  (abort with ^G)
1> application:start(elixir).
ok

2>  'Elixir.Kernel.CLI':main(["+compile","m.ex"]).
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检查文件夹中的文件,是不是已经编译好了.

 

 

 

{ok,"今天就到这里."}

 

 
 
如果你要继续跟进代码,你可以看到:

 

 

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@doc """
This is the API invoked by Elixir boot process.
"""
def main(argv) do
  argv = lc arg inlist argv, do: String.from_char_list!(arg)
 
  { config, argv } = process_argv(argv, Kernel.CLI.Config.new)
  System.argv(argv)
 
  run fn ->
    command_results = Enum.map(Enum.reverse(config.commands), &process_command(&1, config))
    command_errors  = lc { :error, msg } inlist command_results, do: msg
    errors          = Enum.reverse(config.errors) ++ command_errors
 
    if errors != [] do
      Enum.each(errors, &IO.puts(:stderr, &1))
      System.halt(1)
    end
  end, config.halt
end

 

 

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defp process_argv(["+compile"|t], config) do
   process_compiler t, config
 end

  

 

 
 
 
最后,于"金蝉脱壳"上映之际小图一张  
 

 

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