CentOS 7 中使用NTP进行时间同步

  1. NTP时钟同步方式说明
    NTP在linux下有两种时钟同步方式,分别为直接同步和平滑同步:
    直接同步
    使用ntpdate命令进行同步,直接进行时间变更。如果服务器上存在一个12点运行的任务,当前服务器时间是13点,但标准时间时11点,使用此命令可能会造成任务重复执行。因此使用ntpdate同步可能会引发风险,因此该命令也多用于配置时钟同步服务时第一次同步时间时使用。
    平滑同步
    使用ntpd进行时钟同步,可以保证一个时间不经历两次,它每次同步时间的偏移量不会太陡,是慢慢来的,这正因为这样,ntpd平滑同步可能耗费的时间比较长。

标准时钟同步服务
http://www.pool.ntp.org/zone/cn网站包含全球的标准时间同步服务,也包括对中国时间的同步,对应的URL为cn.pool.ntp.org,在其中也描述了ntp配置文件中的建议写法:
server 1.cn.pool.ntp.org
server 3.asia.pool.ntp.org
server 2.asia.pool.ntp.org

  1. 环境情况
    准备四台电脑,分别为:

IP 用途
192.168.11.212 ntpd服务器,用于与外部公共ntpd同步标准时间
172.16.248.129 ntpd客户端,用于与ntpd同步时间
172.16.248.130 ntpd客户端,用于与ntpd同步时间
172,16,248.131 ntpd客户端,用于与ntpd同步时间
3. 检查服务是否安装

使用rpm检查ntp包是否安装
[root@localhost kevin]# rpm -q ntp
ntp-4.2.6p5-19.el7.CentOS.3.x86_64
如果已经安装则略过此步,否则使用yum进行安装,并设置系统开机自动启动并启动服务
[root@localhost kevin]# yum -y install ntp
[root@localhost kevin]# systemctl enable ntpd
[root@localhost kevin]# systemctl start ntpd
4. 设置ntp服务器: 192.168.11.212

配置前先使用命令:ntpdate -u cn.pool.ntp.org,同步服务器

修改/etc/ntp.conf文件,红色字体是修改的内容

For more information about this file, see the man pages

ntp.conf(5), ntp_acc(5), ntp_auth(5), ntp_clock(5), ntp_misc(5), ntp_mon(5).

driftfile /var/lib/ntp/drift

Permit time synchronization with our time source, but do not

permit the source to query or modify the service on this system.

restrict default nomodify notrap nopeer noquery

Permit all access over the loopback interface. This could

be tightened as well, but to do so would effect some of

the administrative functions.

restrict 127.0.0.1
restrict ::1

Hosts on local network are less restricted.

#restrict 192.168.1.0 mask 255.255.255.0 nomodify notrap
restrict 172.16.248.0 mask 255.255.255.0 nomodify notrap

Use public servers from the pool.ntp.org project.

Please consider joining the pool (http://www.pool.ntp.org/join.html).

#server 0.centos.pool.ntp.org iburst

server 2.cn.pool.ntp.org
server 1.asia.pool.ntp.org
server 2.asia.pool.ntp.org

#broadcast 192.168.1.255 autokey # broadcast server
#broadcastclient # broadcast client
#broadcast 224.0.1.1 autokey # multicast server
#multicastclient 224.0.1.1 # multicast client
#manycastserver 239.255.254.254 # manycast server
#manycastclient 239.255.254.254 autokey # manycast client

允许上层时间服务器主动修改本机时间

restrict 2.cn.pool.ntp.org nomodify notrap noquery
restrict 1.asia.pool.ntp.org nomodify notrap noquery
restrict 2.asia.pool.ntp.org nomodify notrap noquery

server 127.0.0.1 # local clock
fudge 127.0.0.1 stratum 10

Enable public key cryptography.

#crypto

includefile /etc/ntp/crypto/pw

Key file containing the keys and key identifiers used when operating

with symmetric key cryptography.

keys /etc/ntp/keys

Specify the key identifiers which are trusted.

#trustedkey 4 8 42

Specify the key identifier to use with the ntpdc utility.

#requestkey 8

Specify the key identifier to use with the ntpq utility.

#controlkey 8

Enable writing of statistics records.

#statistics clockstats cryptostats loopstats peerstats

Disable the monitoring facility to prevent amplification attacks using ntpdc

monlist command when default restrict does not include the noquery flag. See

CVE-2013-5211 for more details.

Note: Monitoring will not be disabled with the limited restriction flag.

disable monitor
修改完成后重启ntpd服务systemctl restart ntpd

使用ntpq -p 查看网络中的NTP服务器,同时显示客户端和每个服务器的关系

使用ntpstat 命令查看时间同步状态,这个一般需要5-10分钟后才能成功连接和同步。所以,服务器启动后需要稍等下:
刚启动的时候,一般是:

ntpstat

unsynchronised
time server re-starting
polling server every 64 s
连接并同步后:

ntpstat

synchronised to NTP server (202.112.10.36) at stratum 3
time correct to within 275 ms
polling server every 256 s
5. 设置ntp客户端: 172.16.248.129|130|131

安装ntp服务并设置为自动启动,和前面的设置方式相同。然后编辑/etc/ntp.conf文件,红色字体为变化的内容。

For more information about this file, see the man pages

ntp.conf(5), ntp_acc(5), ntp_auth(5), ntp_clock(5), ntp_misc(5), ntp_mon(5).

driftfile /var/lib/ntp/drift

Permit time synchronization with our time source, but do not

permit the source to query or modify the service on this system.

restrict default nomodify notrap nopeer noquery

Permit all access over the loopback interface. This could

be tightened as well, but to do so would effect some of

the administrative functions.

restrict 127.0.0.1
restrict ::1

Hosts on local network are less restricted.

#restrict 192.168.1.0 mask 255.255.255.0 nomodify notrap

Use public servers from the pool.ntp.org project.

Please consider joining the pool (http://www.pool.ntp.org/join.html).

#server 0.centos.pool.ntp.org iburst

server 172.16.248.1

restrict 172.16.248.1 nomodify notrap noquery

server 127.0.0.1
fudge 127.0.0.1 stratum 10

#broadcast 192.168.1.255 autokey # broadcast server
#broadcastclient # broadcast client
#broadcast 224.0.1.1 autokey # multicast server
#multicastclient 224.0.1.1 # multicast client
#manycastserver 239.255.254.254 # manycast server
#manycastclient 239.255.254.254 autokey # manycast client

Enable public key cryptography.

#crypto
includefile /etc/ntp/crypto/pw

Key file containing the keys and key identifiers used when operating

with symmetric key cryptography.

keys /etc/ntp/keys

Specify the key identifiers which are trusted.

#trustedkey 4 8 42

Specify the key identifier to use with the ntpdc utility.

#requestkey 8

Specify the key identifier to use with the ntpq utility.

#controlkey 8

Enable writing of statistics records.

#statistics clockstats cryptostats loopstats peerstats

Disable the monitoring facility to prevent amplification attacks using ntpdc

monlist command when default restrict does not include the noquery flag. See

CVE-2013-5211 for more details.

Note: Monitoring will not be disabled with the limited restriction flag.

disable monitor

重启ntpd服务

#systemctl restart ntpd
启动后,查看同步情况

ntpq -p

ntpstat

因为是内网,一般ntpstat很快就可以同步上。

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