linux内核3.4基于wakeup_source的autosleep机制分析

一:wakeup_source简介:

    linux 3.4内核PM使用了wakeup_source来保持唤醒状态,也就是keep awake。之前android一直是基于Linux加入了wake_lock机制来阻止系统休眠,后来Linux 3.4内核加入了wakeup_source来管理,安卓4.4跟着升级内核也就摒弃了自己的臃肿的wake_lock机制,在对上层接口并不改变,在内核wake_lock实现直接基于wakeup_source来实现的。当然也会带来debug上的一些问题,比如以前的wake_lock自身带有强大的debug信息,那么我们在调试的时候可以自己看见dmesg中默认打印active wake lock XXX,很直观来辨别需要休眠的时候那个wake lock有问题阻止了休眠。这个需要我们自己来完善。个人认为改进很大,现在使用了autosleep机制,只要不存在任何active wakeup_source了,系统自动休眠,当有active wake_source自动block住,个人认为休眠更及时,非休眠时间在减少,同时不会消耗额外的资源。使用基于queue work与进程block来管理suspend。还有这里的wakeup_source个人觉得应该叫keepawake_source或者stayawake_souce,毕竟系统的唤醒也就是cpu的再次运行是由中断唤醒的而不是wakeup_source。同时安卓4.4还有一个重大改变就是去除了early suspend机制改为fb event通知机制。那么现在就只有suspend与resume,runtime suspend与runtime resume了。


/**
 * struct wakeup_source - Representation of wakeup sources
 *
 * @total_time: Total time this wakeup source has been active.
 * @max_time: Maximum time this wakeup source has been continuously active.
 * @last_time: Monotonic clock when the wakeup source's was touched last time.
 * @prevent_sleep_time: Total time this source has been preventing autosleep.
 * @event_count: Number of signaled wakeup events.
 * @active_count: Number of times the wakeup sorce was activated.
 * @relax_count: Number of times the wakeup sorce was deactivated.
 * @expire_count: Number of times the wakeup source's timeout has expired.
 * @wakeup_count: Number of times the wakeup source might abort suspend.
 * @active: Status of the wakeup source.
 * @has_timeout: The wakeup source has been activated with a timeout.
 */
struct wakeup_source {
    const char         *name;
    struct list_head    entry;
    struct list_head    list;
    spinlock_t        lock;
    struct timer_list    timer;
    unsigned long        timer_expires; //超时时间,也就是wake_lock_timeout()里面的时间参数,超时后会执行deactivate函数
    ktime_t total_time;
    ktime_t max_time;
    ktime_t last_time;
    ktime_t start_prevent_time;
    ktime_t prevent_sleep_time;
    unsigned long        event_count; //event计数
    unsigned long        active_count;//active计数
    unsigned long        relax_count;
    unsigned long        expire_count;
    unsigned long        wakeup_count;
    bool            active:1; //用于判断是否是active状态
    bool            autosleep_enabled:1;//这个变量是来标记active等时间的
};


//active任何wakeup_source都会执行该函数,标记active为true
/**
 * wakup_source_activate - Mark given wakeup source as active.
 * @ws: Wakeup source to handle.
 *
 * Update the @ws' statistics and, if @ws has just been activated, notify the PM
 * core of the event by incrementing the counter of of wakeup events being
 * processed.
 */
static void wakeup_source_activate(struct wakeup_source *ws)
{
    unsigned int cec;

    ws->active = true;
    ws->active_count++;
    ws->last_time = ktime_get();
    if (ws->autosleep_enabled)
        ws->start_prevent_time = ws->last_time;

    /* Increment the counter of events in progress. */
    cec = atomic_inc_return(&combined_event_count);

    trace_wakeup_source_activate(ws->name, cec);
}


//deactivate任何wakeup_source都会执行该函数,标记active为false
/**
 * wakup_source_deactivate - Mark given wakeup source as inactive.
 * @ws: Wakeup source to handle.
 *
 * Update the @ws' statistics and notify the PM core that the wakeup source has
 * become inactive by decrementing the counter of wakeup events being processed
 * and incrementing the counter of registered wakeup events.
 */
static void wakeup_source_deactivate(struct wakeup_source *ws)
{
    unsigned int cnt, inpr, cec;
    ktime_t duration;
    ktime_t now;

    ws->relax_count++;
    /*
     * __pm_relax() may be called directly or from a timer function.
     * If it is called directly right after the timer function has been
     * started, but before the timer function calls __pm_relax(), it is
     * possible that __pm_stay_awake() will be called in the meantime and
     * will set ws->active.  Then, ws->active may be cleared immediately
     * by the __pm_relax() called from the timer function, but in such a
     * case ws->relax_count will be different from ws->active_count.
     */
    if (ws->relax_count != ws->active_count) {
        ws->relax_count--;
        return;
    }

    ws->active = false;

    now = ktime_get();
    duration = ktime_sub(now, ws->last_time);
    ws->total_time = ktime_add(ws->total_time, duration);
    if (ktime_to_ns(duration) > ktime_to_ns(ws->max_time))
        ws->max_time = duration;

    ws->last_time = now;
    del_timer(&ws->timer);
    ws->timer_expires = 0;

    if (ws->autosleep_enabled)
        update_prevent_sleep_time(ws, now);

    /*
     * Increment the counter of registered wakeup events and decrement the
     * couter of wakeup events in progress simultaneously.
     */
    cec = atomic_add_return(MAX_IN_PROGRESS, &combined_event_count);
    trace_wakeup_source_deactivate(ws->name, cec);

    split_counters(&cnt, &inpr);
    
    if (!inpr && waitqueue_active(&wakeup_count_wait_queue)){
        wake_up(&wakeup_count_wait_queue); //当不存在任何active wake_up source的时候唤醒try_to_suspend进程。
    }
    
}

wakup_source的申请与释放:
1:使用安卓的wake_lock接口:wake_lock(),wake_lock_timeout(),wake_unlock();
2: 使用wakeup_source自带的接口:pm_stay_awake(),pm_relax();这里的name就是device name。

二:autosleep分析:

sys接口:sys/power/autosleep

亮屏时libsuspend会写入off,灭屏写入mem


static ssize_t autosleep_show(struct kobject *kobj,
                  struct kobj_attribute *attr,
                  char *buf)
{
    suspend_state_t state = pm_autosleep_state();

    if (state == PM_SUSPEND_ON)
        return sprintf(buf, "off\n");

#ifdef CONFIG_SUSPEND
    if (state < PM_SUSPEND_MAX)
        return sprintf(buf, "%s\n", valid_state(state) ?
                        pm_states[state] : "error");
#endif
#ifdef CONFIG_HIBERNATION
    return sprintf(buf, "disk\n");
#else
    return sprintf(buf, "error");
#endif
}

static ssize_t autosleep_store(struct kobject *kobj,
                   struct kobj_attribute *attr,
                   const char *buf, size_t n)
{
    suspend_state_t state = decode_state(buf, n);
    int error;

    if (state == PM_SUSPEND_ON
        && strcmp(buf, "off") && strcmp(buf, "off\n"))
        return -EINVAL;

    error = pm_autosleep_set_state(state);
    return error ? error : n;
}

power_attr(autosleep);


int pm_autosleep_set_state(suspend_state_t state)
{

#ifndef CONFIG_HIBERNATION
    if (state >= PM_SUSPEND_MAX)
        return -EINVAL;
#endif

    __pm_stay_awake(autosleep_ws); //防止系统休眠

    mutex_lock(&autosleep_lock);

    autosleep_state = state;

    __pm_relax(autosleep_ws); //释放上面的wake up source

    if (state > PM_SUSPEND_ON) {
        pm_wakep_autosleep_enabled(true); //设置所有wake up source里面的autosleep_enabled为真,这个变量不会对休眠有影响,但是会标记active的时间,使用debugfs可以看见
        queue_up_suspend_work();//调度工作队列,会执行try_to_suspend(),其实state mem执行try_to_suspend(),一次就可以了,后面再分析。
    } else {
        pm_wakep_autosleep_enabled(false);//设置所有wake up source里面的autosleep_enabled为假
    }

    mutex_unlock(&autosleep_lock);
    return 0;
}


重头戏:try_to_suspend

static void try_to_suspend(struct work_struct *work)
{
    unsigned int initial_count, final_count;

    if (!pm_get_wakeup_count(&initial_count, true)) //获取initial_count,这个函数会block住,当存在active wakeup source的时候,直到wakeup source为detative状态
        goto out;

    mutex_lock(&autosleep_lock);

    if (!pm_save_wakeup_count(initial_count)) {//保存initial_count,不会block,当然也会检查是否有active wakeup source,当有active存在再次queue work。
        mutex_unlock(&autosleep_lock);
        goto out;
    }

    if (autosleep_state == PM_SUSPEND_ON) {//当为ON状态时,return。//在睡眠期间跟了很久没有遇见过这种情况
        mutex_unlock(&autosleep_lock);
        return;
    }
    if (autosleep_state >= PM_SUSPEND_MAX)
        hibernate();                  //hibernate高通平台目前不支持
    else
        pm_suspend(autosleep_state); //进入pm_suspend,dmesg会有PM: suspend entry 与PM: suspend exit来标记,这里面会执行freeze task,suspend与resume,disable cpu的操作。内核PM最重要的函数。

    mutex_unlock(&autosleep_lock);

    if (!pm_get_wakeup_count(&final_count, false))//获取final_count,非block,当然也会检查是否有active wakeup source,当有active存在再次queue work
        goto out;

    /*
     * If the wakeup occured for an unknown reason, wait to prevent the
     * system from trying to suspend and waking up in a tight loop.
     */
    if (final_count == initial_count)             //这里遇见未知原因,initial_count与final_count相等,超时500ms后继续往下执行。这种现象我也是跟了许久没有遇见过。
        schedule_timeout_uninterruptible(HZ / 2);

 out:
    queue_up_suspend_work(); //调度queue work会再次执行该函数,实际上只要一次echo mem > sys/power/autosleep后这个进程一直会在auto_sleep cycle。
}


pm_get_wakeup_count原型,个人感觉这个是仿__wait_event_interruptible()而写的。

bool pm_get_wakeup_count(unsigned int *count, bool block)
{
    unsigned int cnt, inpr;

    if (block) { //当block为真时,该进程可能会block住
        DEFINE_WAIT(wait);

        for (;;) {
            prepare_to_wait(&wakeup_count_wait_queue, &wait,
                    TASK_INTERRUPTIBLE);
            split_counters(&cnt, &inpr); //有active的wakeup_source存在就是block住,否则block
            if (inpr == 0 || signal_pending(current))
                break;
            
            schedule();//在这里面block住,直到最后一个active的wakeup_source deactivate时会唤醒该进程,之后会break出来。
        }
        finish_wait(&wakeup_count_wait_queue, &wait);
    }

    split_counters(&cnt, &inpr);
    *count = cnt;
    return !inpr;
}

那么有2个问题,按power键唤醒系统是退出try_to_suspend了吗?
       首先系统是如何被唤醒的?这个是由硬件中断唤醒的,比如我们这里的power键,还有其他的比如alarm等其他硬件中断,只要我们在中断申请时enbale_irq_wake(),那么睡眠期间,只要触发该中断就可以唤醒系统。那么在try_to_suspend里面唤醒后pm_suspend()执行完resume后会退出来,接着会获取final_count,在这里是存在active wake_up source的(在out之前加添的打印active wakeup_source,下面的dmesg证明了存在的wakeup_source),之后执行out,后调度工作队列,再次进入try_to_suspend(),在第一次获取initial_count后便会遇见active wakeup_source,这里面更多的是系统上层加的wakeup_source,那么try_to_suspend()会一直block在pm_get_wakeup_count()里面直到灭屏和所有wakeup_source deactivate时会再次进入pm_suspend()休眠。
       这里也就解释了为什么只要执行一次ehco mem > sys/power/autosleep后自动可以休眠了的原因。

看下面的dmesg:
<6>[  928.536418] CPU0: msm_cpu_pm_enter_sleep mode 000000,00000000,00000000,00000000,00000000,00000020,00000000,00000000,00000000,00000000,00000000,00000000,00000000,00000000
<6>[  928.543066] PM: noirq resume of devices complete after 6.020 msecs
<6>[  928.548512] PM: early resume of devices complete after 2.598 msecs
<6>[  928.650793] PM: resume of devices complete after 102.266 msecs
<6>[  928.660290] Restarting tasks ... done.
<6>[  928.681208] PM: suspend exit 1970-01-05 05:23:32.206389881 UTC
<6>[  928.681229] active wake lock KeyEvents
<6>[  928.681267] active wake lock qpnp_soc_wake
<6>[  928.681284] active wake lock alarm, time left 486
<6>[  928.681342] active wake lock KeyEvents
<6>[  928.681584] active wake lock qpnp_soc_wake
<6>[  928.681600] active wake lock alarm, time left 486
<6>[  928.696345] request_suspend_state: wakeup at 928691792356 (1970-01-05 05:23:32.221521704 UTC)
<6>[  928.708608] mdss_dsi_panel_power on=1



还有一个与wakeup source无关的问题,为什么suspend后就一直停留在那里不动了?
       这个是cpu停止运转了,下面再分析下代码。
       核心函数suspend_devices_and_enter():

/**
 * suspend_devices_and_enter - Suspend devices and enter system sleep state.
 * @state: System sleep state to enter.
 */
int suspend_devices_and_enter(suspend_state_t state)
{
    int error;
    bool wakeup = false;

    if (!suspend_ops)
        return -ENOSYS;

    trace_machine_suspend(state);
    if (suspend_ops->begin) {
        error = suspend_ops->begin(state);
        if (error)
            goto Close;
    }
    suspend_console();
    suspend_test_start();
    error = dpm_suspend_start(PMSG_SUSPEND);//这里会执行所有driver的suspend函数,suspend里面有active wakeup_source或者return 为真的话,suspend会报错
    if (error) {
        printk(KERN_ERR "PM: Some devices failed to suspend\n");
        goto Recover_platform;
    }
    suspend_test_finish("suspend devices");
    if (suspend_test(TEST_DEVICES))
        goto Recover_platform;

    do {
        error = suspend_enter(state, &wakeup);//这里会diable cpu
    } while (!error && !wakeup
        && suspend_ops->suspend_again && suspend_ops->suspend_again());

 Resume_devices:
    suspend_test_start();
    dpm_resume_end(PMSG_RESUME);
    suspend_test_finish("resume devices");
    resume_console();
 Close:
    if (suspend_ops->end)
        suspend_ops->end();
    trace_machine_suspend(PWR_EVENT_EXIT);
    return error;

 Recover_platform:
    if (suspend_ops->recover)
        suspend_ops->recover();
    goto Resume_devices;
}


static int suspend_enter(suspend_state_t state, bool *wakeup)
{
    int error;

    if (suspend_ops->prepare) {
        error = suspend_ops->prepare();
        if (error)
            goto Platform_finish;
    }

    error = dpm_suspend_end(PMSG_SUSPEND);
    if (error) {
        printk(KERN_ERR "PM: Some devices failed to power down\n");
        goto Platform_finish;
    }

    if (suspend_ops->prepare_late) {
        error = suspend_ops->prepare_late();
        if (error)
            goto Platform_wake;
    }

    if (suspend_test(TEST_PLATFORM))
        goto Platform_wake;

    error = disable_nonboot_cpus();  //disable nonboot cpu注意还有cpu需要下面disable的
    if (error || suspend_test(TEST_CPUS))
        goto Enable_cpus;

    arch_suspend_disable_irqs();
    BUG_ON(!irqs_disabled());

    error = syscore_suspend();
    if (!error) {
        *wakeup = pm_wakeup_pending();
        if (!(suspend_test(TEST_CORE) || *wakeup)) {
            error = suspend_ops->enter(state); //在这里cpu会停止运行,直到中断唤醒
//下面的全部是唤醒的操作了
            events_check_enabled = false;
        }
        syscore_resume();
    }

    arch_suspend_enable_irqs();
    BUG_ON(irqs_disabled());

 Enable_cpus:
    enable_nonboot_cpus();

 Platform_wake:
    if (suspend_ops->wake)
        suspend_ops->wake();

    dpm_resume_start(PMSG_RESUME);

 Platform_finish:
    if (suspend_ops->finish)
        suspend_ops->finish();

    return error;
}

平台赋值,这里debug平台是基于msm8974的:
static const struct platform_suspend_ops lpm_suspend_ops = {
    .enter = lpm_suspend_enter,//在这里面disbale cpu,停止运行程序
    .valid = suspend_valid_only_mem,
    .prepare_late = lpm_suspend_prepare,
    .wake = lpm_suspend_wake,
};


添加显示wake_lock的dmesg:
<6>[   90.964850] CPU0: msm_cpu_pm_enter_sleep mode 000000,00000000,00000000,00000000,00000000,00000020,00000000,00000000,00000000,00000000,00000000,00000000,00000000,00000000
<6>[   90.965302] Enabling non-boot CPUs ...
<6>[   90.968303] CPU3 is up
<6>[   90.970699] PM: noirq resume of devices complete after 2.382 msecs
<6>[   90.973460] PM: early resume of devices complete after 1.443 msecs
<6>[   91.097369] PM: resume of devices complete after 123.888 msecs
<6>[   91.112858] Restarting tasks ... done.
<6>[   91.141699] PM: suspend exit 1970-01-05 03:59:28.158266979 UTC
<6>[   91.141776] PM: suspend entry 1970-01-05 03:59:28.158347917 UTC
<6>[   91.141801] PM: Syncing filesystems ... done.
<6>[   91.222299] Freezing user space processes ... (elapsed 0.03 seconds) done.
<6>[   91.258126] Freezing remaining freezable tasks ... (elapsed 0.02 seconds) done.
<6>[   91.278279] Suspending console(s) (use no_console_suspend to debug)
<6>[   91.384933] PM: suspend of devices complete after 95.062 msecs
<6>[   91.397910] PM: late suspend of devices complete after 12.934 msecs
<6>[   91.413019] PM: noirq suspend of devices complete after 15.064 msecs
<6>[   91.413059] Disabling non-boot CPUs ...
<6>[   91.424477] CPU0: msm_cpu_pm_enter_sleep mode 000000,00000000,00000000,00000000,00000000,00000020,00000000,00000000,00000000,00000000,00000000,00000000,00000000,00000000//这里cpu停止运行直到中断唤醒
<6>[   91.425144] Enabling non-boot CPUs ...
<6>[   91.432354] CPU3 is up
<6>[   91.444416] PM: noirq resume of devices complete after 11.997 msecs
<6>[   91.460948] PM: early resume of devices complete after 10.458 msecs
<6>[   91.577213] PM: resume of devices complete after 116.231 msecs
<6>[   91.584876] Restarting tasks ... done.
<6>[   91.614571] PM: suspend exit 1970-01-05 03:59:35.550203849 UTC
<6>[   91.614639] active wake lock rmt_storage_-1220268312
<6>[   91.689912] PM: suspend entry 1970-01-05 03:59:35.625550620 UTC
<6>[   91.689921] PM: Syncing filesystems ... done.
<6>[   91.700706] Freezing user space processes ...
<3>[   91.712870] Freezing of user space  aborted
<6>[   91.712898]
<6>[   91.712903] Restarting tasks ... done.
<6>[   91.720540] PM: suspend exit 1970-01-05 03:59:35.656175256 UTC
<6>[   91.720574] PM: suspend entry 1970-01-05 03:59:35.656214579 UTC
<6>[   91.720586] PM: Syncing filesystems ... done.
<6>[   91.801097] Freezing user space processes ...
<3>[   91.815050] Freezing of user space  aborted
<6>[   91.815075]
<6>[   91.815083] Restarting tasks ... done.
<6>[   91.823603] PM: suspend exit 1970-01-05 03:59:35.759241558 UTC
<6>[   91.823633] PM: suspend entry 1970-01-05 03:59:35.759272964 UTC
<6>[   91.823643] PM: Syncing filesystems ... done.
<6>[   91.911985] Freezing user space processes ... (elapsed 0.03 seconds) done.
<6>[   91.949378] Freezing remaining freezable tasks ... (elapsed 0.01 seconds) done.
<6>[   91.969089] Suspending console(s) (use no_console_suspend to debug)
<6>[   92.085594] PM: suspend of devices complete after 98.499 msecs
<6>[   92.098615] PM: late suspend of devices complete after 12.975 msecs
<6>[   92.113909] PM: noirq suspend of devices complete after 15.249 msecs
<6>[   92.113951] Disabling non-boot CPUs ...
<6>[   92.147320] CPU0: msm_cpu_pm_enter_sleep mode 000000,00000000,00000000,00000000,00000000,00000020,00000000,00000000,00000000,00000000,00000000,00000000,00000000,00000000
<6>[   92.148265] Enabling non-boot CPUs ...
<6>[   92.155121] CPU1 is up
<6>[   92.163797] CPU2 is up
<6>[   92.174144] CPU3 is up
<6>[   92.186556] PM: noirq resume of devices complete after 12.344 msecs
<6>[   92.199945] PM: early resume of devices complete after 10.020 msecs
<6>[   92.317528] PM: resume of devices complete after 117.548 msecs
<6>[   92.326254] Restarting tasks ... done.
<6>[   92.342025] PM: suspend exit 1970-01-05 04:00:48.122436614 UTC
<6>[   92.342337] active wake lock qpnp-vadc-f611ac00
<6>[   92.342357] active wake lock alarm, time left 481

<6>[   92.411428] PM: suspend entry 1970-01-05 04:00:48.191838905 UTC
<6>[   92.411451] PM: Syncing filesystems ... done.
<6>[   92.419086] Freezing user space processes ...
<3>[   92.431173] Freezing of user space  aborted
<6>[   92.431213]
<6>[   92.431225] Restarting tasks ... done.
<6>[   92.441575] PM: suspend exit 1970-01-05 04:00:48.221987864 UTC
<6>[   92.441709] active wake lock qpnp-vadc-f611ac00
<6>[   92.445004] PM: suspend entry 1970-01-05 04:00:48.225417551 UTC
<6>[   92.445026] PM: Syncing filesystems ... done.
<6>[   92.525764] Freezing user space processes ...
<3>[   92.541465] Freezing of user space  aborted
<6>[   92.541523]
<6>[   92.541545] Restarting tasks ... done.
<6>[   92.558768] PM: suspend exit 1970-01-05 04:00:48.339166145 UTC
<6>[   92.558865] PM: suspend entry 1970-01-05 04:00:48.339268645 UTC
<6>[   92.558898] PM: Syncing filesystems ... done.
<6>[   92.656122] Freezing user space processes ... (elapsed 0.04 seconds) done.
<6>[   92.699091] Freezing remaining freezable tasks ... (elapsed 0.01 seconds) done.
<6>[   92.718891] Suspending console(s) (use no_console_suspend to debug)
<6>[   92.832084] PM: suspend of devices complete after 97.905 msecs
<6>[   92.845099] PM: late suspend of devices complete after 12.971 msecs
<6>[   92.860407] PM: noirq suspend of devices complete after 15.264 msecs
<6>[   92.860447] Disabling non-boot CPUs ...
<6>[   92.895114] CPU0: msm_cpu_pm_enter_sleep mode 000000,00000000,00000000,00000000,00000000,00000020,00000000,00000000,00000000,00000000,00000000,00000000,00000000,00000000


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