【LeetCode】75. Sort Colors

题目:

Given an array with n objects colored red, white or blue, sort them in-place so that objects of the same color are adjacent, with the colors in the order red, white and blue.

Here, we will use the integers 0, 1, and 2 to represent the color red, white, and blue respectively.

Note: You are not suppose to use the library's sort function for this problem.

Example:

Input: [2,0,2,1,1,0]
Output: [0,0,1,1,2,2]

Follow up:

  • A rather straight forward solution is a two-pass algorithm using counting sort.
    First, iterate the array counting number of 0's, 1's, and 2's, then overwrite array with total number of 0's, then 1's and followed by 2's.
  • Could you come up with a one-pass algorithm using only constant space?

 

描述:

一个数组中有0,1,2 三种数字,请设计一个算法将三种数字按照升序排列,

要求时间复杂度为 O(n),空间复杂度常数级别

 

分析:

需要设置多个指针,

一个是数字0的右边界的右侧,设为zero,

一个是数字2的左边界的左侧,设为two,

一个是当前处理到的坐标,设为current,

思路不复杂,算法过程如下,

1,当current遇到0时,则这个0和zero位置元素交换,并且zero后移,

             其中如果交换后,current位置仍为0,则current需要后移一位

2,若curren处为1,则current后移

3,若current处为2,则这个2和two位置元素交换,并且two前移

按上述三步循循环,直到current大于two

 

第一次见到这个题是在考研时的专业课复习书上,当时不是特别理解答案的思路,这次自己写出了完整的解法,发现其实也没有那么复杂,很多时候都是自己吓自己,别想太多,做就行了

 

代码:(时间复杂度 O(n), 空间复杂度 O(1))

class Solution {
public:
	void sortColors(vector<int>& nums) {
		int zero = 0, current = 0, two = nums.size() - 1;
		while (current <= two) {
			if (nums[current] == 0) {
				swap(nums[current], nums[zero]);
				if (nums[current] == 0) {
					++current;
				}
				++ zero;
			} else if (nums[current] == 1) {
				++ current;
			} else {
				swap(nums[current], nums[two]);
				-- two;
			}
		}
	}
};

 

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