Spring Cache 注解用法

缓存策略

Eviction policy

移除策略,即如果缓存满了,从缓存中移除数据的策略;常见的有LFU、LRU、FIFO:

FIFO(First In First Out):先进先出算法,即先放入缓存的先被移除;

LRU(Least Recently Used):最久未使用算法,使用时间距离现在最久的那个被移除;

LFU(Least Frequently Used):最近最少使用算法,一定时间段内使用次数(频率)最少的那个被移除;


TTL(Time To Live )

存活期,即从缓存中创建时间点开始直到它到期的一个时间段(不管在这个时间段内有没有访问都将过期)

TTI(Time To Idle)

空闲期,即一个数据多久没被访问将从缓存中移除的时间。



到此,基本了解了缓存的知识,在Java中,我们一般对调用方法进行缓存控制,比如我调用"findUserById(Long id)",那么我应该在调用这个方法之前先从缓存中查找有没有,如果没有再掉该方法如从数据库加载用户,然后添加到缓存中,下次调用时将会从缓存中获取到数据。


自Spring 3.1起,提供了类似于@Transactional注解事务的注解Cache支持,且提供了Cache抽象;在此之前一般通过AOP实现;使用Spring Cache的好处:

提供基本的Cache抽象,方便切换各种底层Cache;

通过注解Cache可以实现类似于事务一样,缓存逻辑透明的应用到我们的业务代码上,且只需要更少的代码就可以完成;

提供事务回滚时也自动回滚缓存;

支持比较复杂的缓存逻辑;


对于Spring Cache抽象,主要从以下几个方面学习:

  • Cache API及默认提供的实现

  • Cache注解

  • 实现复杂的Cache逻辑

Cache API及默认提供的实现

Spring提供的核心Cache接口:

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package org.springframework.cache;
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                          
public interface Cache {
    String getName();  //缓存的名字
    Object getNativeCache(); //得到底层使用的缓存,如Ehcache
    ValueWrapper get(Object key); //根据key得到一个ValueWrapper,然后调用其get方法获取值
    <T> T get(Object key, Class<T> type);//根据key,和value的类型直接获取value
    void put(Object key, Object value);//往缓存放数据
    void evict(Object key);//从缓存中移除key对应的缓存
    void clear(); //清空缓存
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                          
    interface ValueWrapper { //缓存值的Wrapper
        Object get(); //得到真实的value
        }
}

提供了缓存操作的读取/写入/移除方法;



默认提供了如下实现:

ConcurrentMapCache:使用java.util.concurrent.ConcurrentHashMap实现的Cache;

GuavaCache:对Guava com.google.common.cache.Cache进行的Wrapper,需要Google Guava 12.0或更高版本,@since spring 4;

EhCacheCache:使用Ehcache实现

JCacheCache:对javax.cache.Cache进行的wrapper,@since spring 3.2;spring4将此类更新到JCache 0.11版本;


另外,因为我们在应用中并不是使用一个Cache,而是多个,因此Spring还提供了CacheManager抽象,用于缓存的管理:

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package org.springframework.cache;
import java.util.Collection;
public interface CacheManager {
    Cache getCache(String name); //根据Cache名字获取Cache 
    Collection<String> getCacheNames(); //得到所有Cache的名字
}

默认提供的实现:

ConcurrentMapCacheManager/ConcurrentMapCacheFactoryBean:管理ConcurrentMapCache;

GuavaCacheManager;

EhCacheCacheManager/EhCacheManagerFactoryBean;

JCacheCacheManager/JCacheManagerFactoryBean;


另外还提供了CompositeCacheManager用于组合CacheManager,即可以从多个CacheManager中轮询得到相应的Cache,如

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<bean id="cacheManager" class="org.springframework.cache.support.CompositeCacheManager">
    <property name="cacheManagers">
        <list>
            <ref bean="ehcacheManager"/>
            <ref bean="jcacheManager"/>
        </list>
    </property>
    <property name="fallbackToNoOpCache" value="true"/>
</bean>

当我们调用cacheManager.getCache(cacheName) 时,会先从第一个cacheManager中查找有没有cacheName的cache,如果没有接着查找第二个,如果最后找不到,因为fallbackToNoOpCache=true,那么将返回一个NOP的Cache否则返回null。



除了GuavaCacheManager之外,其他Cache都支持Spring事务的,即如果事务回滚了,Cache的数据也会移除掉。


Spring不进行Cache的缓存策略的维护,这些都是由底层Cache自己实现,Spring只是提供了一个Wrapper,提供一套对外一致的API。


示例

需要添加Ehcache依赖,具体依赖轻参考pom.xml


SpringCacheTest.java

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@Test
public void test() throws IOException {
    //创建底层Cache
    net.sf.ehcache.CacheManager ehcacheManager
            = new net.sf.ehcache.CacheManager(new ClassPathResource("ehcache.xml").getInputStream());
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                            
    //创建Spring的CacheManager
    EhCacheCacheManager cacheCacheManager = new EhCacheCacheManager();
    //设置底层的CacheManager
    cacheCacheManager.setCacheManager(ehcacheManager);
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                            
    Long id = 1L;
    User user = new User(id, "zhang", "zhang@gmail.com");
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                            
    //根据缓存名字获取Cache
    Cache cache = cacheCacheManager.getCache("user");
    //往缓存写数据
    cache.put(id, user);
    //从缓存读数据
    Assert.assertNotNull(cache.get(id, User.class));
}

此处直接使用Spring提供的API进行操作;我们也可以通过xml/注解方式配置到spring容器;


xml风格的(spring-cache.xml):

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<bean id="ehcacheManager" class="org.springframework.cache.ehcache.EhCacheManagerFactoryBean">
    <property name="configLocation" value="classpath:ehcache.xml"/>
</bean>
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                        
<bean id="cacheManager" class="org.springframework.cache.ehcache.EhCacheCacheManager">
    <property name="cacheManager" ref="ehcacheManager"/>
    <property name="transactionAware" value="true"/>
</bean>

spring提供EhCacheManagerFactoryBean来简化ehcache cacheManager的创建,这样注入configLocation,会自动根据路径从classpath下找,比编码方式简单多了,然后就可以从spring容器获取cacheManager进行操作了。此处的transactionAware表示是否事务环绕的,如果true,则如果事务回滚,缓存也回滚,默认false。



注解风格的(AppConfig.java):

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@Bean
public CacheManager cacheManager() {
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                    
    try {
        net.sf.ehcache.CacheManager ehcacheCacheManager
                = new net.sf.ehcache.CacheManager(new ClassPathResource("ehcache.xml").getInputStream());
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                    
        EhCacheCacheManager cacheCacheManager = new EhCacheCacheManager(ehcacheCacheManager);
        return cacheCacheManager;
    } catch (IOException e) {
        throw new RuntimeException(e);
    }
}

和编程方式差不多就不多介绍了。

另外,除了这些默认的Cache之外,我们可以写自己的Cache实现;而且即使不用之后的Spring Cache注解,我们也尽量使用Spring Cache API进行Cache的操作,如果要替换底层Cache也是非常方便的。到此基本的Cache API就介绍完了,接下来我们来看看使用Spring Cache注解来简化Cache的操作。

Cache注解

启用Cache注解

XML风格的(spring-cache.xml):

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<cache:annotation-driven cache-manager="cacheManager" proxy-target-class="true"/>

另外还可以指定一个 key-generator,即默认的key生成策略,后边讨论;



注解风格的(AppConfig.java):

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@Configuration
@ComponentScan(basePackages = "com.sishuok.spring.service")
@EnableCaching(proxyTargetClass = true)
public class AppConfig implements CachingConfigurer {
    @Bean
    @Override
    public CacheManager cacheManager() {
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                          
        try {
            net.sf.ehcache.CacheManager ehcacheCacheManager
                    = new net.sf.ehcache.CacheManager(new ClassPathResource("ehcache.xml").getInputStream());
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                          
            EhCacheCacheManager cacheCacheManager = new EhCacheCacheManager(ehcacheCacheManager);
            return cacheCacheManager;
        } catch (IOException e) {
            throw new RuntimeException(e);
        }
    }
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                          
    @Bean
    @Override
    public KeyGenerator keyGenerator() {
        return new SimpleKeyGenerator();
    }
}

1、使用@EnableCaching启用Cache注解支持;

2、实现CachingConfigurer,然后注入需要的cacheManager和keyGenerator;从spring4开始默认的keyGenerator是SimpleKeyGenerator;

@CachePut

应用到写数据的方法上,如新增/修改方法,调用方法时会自动把相应的数据放入缓存:
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public @interface CachePut {
    String[] value();              //缓存的名字,可以把数据写到多个缓存
    String key() default "";       //缓存key,如果不指定将使用默认的KeyGenerator生成,后边介绍
    String condition() default ""; //满足缓存条件的数据才会放入缓存,condition在调用方法之前和之后都会判断
    String unless() default "";    //用于否决缓存更新的,不像condition,该表达只在方法执行之后判断,此时可以拿到返回值result进行判断了
}

@CacheEvict

即应用到移除数据的方法上,如删除方法,调用方法时会从缓存中移除相应的数据:

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@CacheEvict(value = "user", key = "#user.id") //移除指定key的数据
public User delete(User user) {
    users.remove(user);
    return user;
}
@CacheEvict(value = "user", allEntries = true) //移除所有数据
public void deleteAll() {
    users.clear();
}

@CacheEvict注解:

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public @interface CacheEvict {
    String[] value();                        //请参考@CachePut
    String key() default "";                 //请参考@CachePut
    String condition() default "";           //请参考@CachePut
    boolean allEntries() default false;      //是否移除所有数据
    boolean beforeInvocation() default false;//是调用方法之前移除/还是调用之后移除

@Cacheable

应用到读取数据的方法上,即可缓存的方法,如查找方法:先从缓存中读取,如果没有再调用方法获取数据,然后把数据添加到缓存中:

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@Cacheable(value = "user", key = "#id")
 public User findById(final Long id) {
     System.out.println("cache miss, invoke find by id, id:" + id);
     for (User user : users) {
         if (user.getId().equals(id)) {
             return user;
         }
     }
     return null;
 }

@Cacheable注解:

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public @interface Cacheable {
    String[] value();             //请参考@CachePut
    String key() default "";      //请参考@CachePut
    String condition() default "";//请参考@CachePut
    String unless() default "";   //请参考@CachePut

运行流程

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1、首先执行@CacheEvict(如果beforeInvocation=true且condition 通过),如果allEntries=true,则清空所有
2、接着收集@Cacheable(如果condition 通过,且key对应的数据不在缓存),放入cachePutRequests(也就是说如果cachePutRequests为空,则数据在缓存中)
3、如果cachePutRequests为空且没有@CachePut操作,那么将查找@Cacheable的缓存,否则result=缓存数据(也就是说只要当没有cache put请求时才会查找缓存)
4、如果没有找到缓存,那么调用实际的API,把结果放入result
5、如果有@CachePut操作(如果condition 通过),那么放入cachePutRequests
6、执行cachePutRequests,将数据写入缓存(unless为空或者unless解析结果为false);
7、执行@CacheEvict(如果beforeInvocation=false 且 condition 通过),如果allEntries=true,则清空所有

流程中需要注意的就是2/3/4步:

如果有@CachePut操作,即使有@Cacheable也不会从缓存中读取;问题很明显,如果要混合多个注解使用,不能组合使用@CachePut和@Cacheable;官方说应该避免这样使用(解释是如果带条件的注解相互排除的场景);不过个人感觉还是不要考虑这个好,让用户来决定如何使用,否则一会介绍的场景不能满足。

提供的SpEL上下文数据

Spring Cache提供了一些供我们使用的SpEL上下文数据,下表直接摘自Spring官方文档:

名字 位置 描述 示例

methodName

root对象

当前被调用的方法名

#root.methodName

method

root对象

当前被调用的方法

#root.method.name

target

root对象

当前被调用的目标对象

#root.target

targetClass

root对象

当前被调用的目标对象类

#root.targetClass

args

root对象

当前被调用的方法的参数列表

#root.args[0]

caches

root对象

当前方法调用使用的缓存列表(如@Cacheable(value={"cache1", "cache2"})),则有两个cache

#root.caches[0].name

argument name

执行上下文

当前被调用的方法的参数,如findById(Long id),我们可以通过#id拿到参数

#user.id

result

执行上下文

方法执行后的返回值(仅当方法执行之后的判断有效,如‘unless’,'cache evict'的beforeInvocation=false)

#result

通过这些数据我们可能实现比较复杂的缓存逻辑了,后边再来介绍。

Key生成器

如果在Cache注解上没有指定key的话@CachePut(value = "user"),会使用KeyGenerator进行生成一个key:
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public interface KeyGenerator {
    Object generate(Object target, Method method, Object... params);
}

默认提供了DefaultKeyGenerator生成器(Spring 4之后使用SimpleKeyGenerator):

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@Override
public Object generate(Object target, Method method, Object... params) {
    if (params.length == 0) {
        return SimpleKey.EMPTY;
    }
    if (params.length == 1 && params[0] != null) {
        return params[0];
    }
    return new SimpleKey(params);
}

即如果只有一个参数,就使用参数作为key,否则使用SimpleKey作为key。

我们也可以自定义自己的key生成器,然后通过xml风格的<cache:annotation-driven key-generator=""/>或注解风格的CachingConfigurer中指定keyGenerator。

条件缓存

根据运行流程,如下@Cacheable将在执行方法之前( #result还拿不到返回值)判断condition,如果返回true,则查缓存;

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@Cacheable(value = "user", key = "#id", condition = "#id lt 10")
public User conditionFindById(final Long id)

根据运行流程,如下@CachePut将在执行完方法后(#result就能拿到返回值了)判断condition,如果返回true,则放入缓存;

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@CachePut(value = "user", key = "#user.id", unless = "#result.username eq 'zhang'")
    public User conditionSave2(final User user)

根据运行流程,如下@CacheEvict, beforeInvocation=false表示在方法执行之后调用(#result能拿到返回值了);且判断condition,如果返回true,则移除缓存;

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@CacheEvict(value = "user", key = "#user.id", beforeInvocation = false, condition = "#result.username ne 'zhang'")
public User conditionDelete(final User user)

@Caching

有时候我们可能组合多个Cache注解使用;比如用户新增成功后,我们要添加id-->user;username--->user;email--->user的缓存;此时就需要@Caching组合多个注解标签了。


如用户新增成功后,添加id-->user;username--->user;email--->user到缓存;
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@Caching(
        put = {
                @CachePut(value = "user", key = "#user.id"),
                @CachePut(value = "user", key = "#user.username"),
                @CachePut(value = "user", key = "#user.email")
        }
)
public User save(User user) {


@Caching定义如下:

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public @interface Caching {
    Cacheable[] cacheable() default {}; //声明多个@Cacheable
    CachePut[] put() default {};        //声明多个@CachePut
    CacheEvict[] evict() default {};    //声明多个@CacheEvict
}

自定义缓存注解

比如之前的那个@Caching组合,会让方法上的注解显得整个代码比较乱,此时可以使用自定义注解把这些注解组合到一个注解中,如:

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@Caching(
        put = {
                @CachePut(value = "user", key = "#user.id"),
                @CachePut(value = "user", key = "#user.username"),
                @CachePut(value = "user", key = "#user.email")
        }
)
@Target({ElementType.METHOD, ElementType.TYPE})
@Retention(RetentionPolicy.RUNTIME)
@Inherited
public @interface UserSaveCache {
}


这样我们在方法上使用如下代码即可,整个代码显得比较干净。

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@UserSaveCache
public User save(User user)

示例

新增/修改数据时往缓存中写

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@Caching(
        put = {
                @CachePut(value = "user", key = "#user.id"),
                @CachePut(value = "user", key = "#user.username"),
                @CachePut(value = "user", key = "#user.email")
        }
)
public User save(User user)


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@Caching(
        put = {
                @CachePut(value = "user", key = "#user.id"),
                @CachePut(value = "user", key = "#user.username"),
                @CachePut(value = "user", key = "#user.email")
        }
)


删除数据时从缓存中移除

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@Caching(
        evict = {
@CacheEvict(value = "user", key = "#user.id"),
@CacheEvict(value = "user", key = "#user.username"),
@CacheEvict(value = "user", key = "#user.email")
        }
)
public
User delete(User user)


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@CacheEvict(value = "user", allEntries = true)
publicvoid deleteAll()


查找时从缓存中读

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@Caching(
        cacheable = {
                @Cacheable(value = "user", key = "#id")
        }
)
public User findById(final Long id)


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@Caching(
         cacheable = {
                 @Cacheable(value = "user", key = "#username")
         }
 )
 public User findByUsername(final String username)


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@Caching(
          cacheable = {
                  @Cacheable(value = "user", key = "#email")
          }
  )
  public User findByEmail(final String email)

问题及解决方案

一、比如findByUsername时,不应该只放username-->user,应该连同id--->user和email--->user一起放入;这样下次如果按照id查找直接从缓存中就命中了;这需要根据之前的运行流程改造CacheAspectSupport:

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// We only attempt to get a cached result if there are no put requests
if (cachePutRequests.isEmpty() && contexts.get(CachePutOperation.class).isEmpty()) {
    result = findCachedResult(contexts.get(CacheableOperation.class));
}

改为:

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Collection<CacheOperationContext> cacheOperationContexts = contexts.get(CacheableOperation.class);
if (!cacheOperationContexts.isEmpty()) {
    result = findCachedResult(cacheOperationContexts);
}

然后就可以通过如下代码完成想要的功能:

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@Caching(
        cacheable = {
@Cacheable(value = "user", key = "#username")
        },
        put = {
@CachePut(value = "user", key = "#result.id", condition = "#result != null"),
@CachePut(value = "user", key = "#result.email", condition = "#result != null")
        }
)
public User findByUsername(final String username) {
    System.out.println("cache miss, invoke find by username, username:" + username);
for (User user : users) {
if (user.getUsername().equals(username)) {
return user;
        }
    }
returnnull;
}

二、缓存注解会让代码看上去比较乱;应该使用自定义注解把缓存注解提取出去;


三、往缓存放数据/移除数据是有条件的,而且条件可能很复杂,考虑使用SpEL表达式:

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@CacheEvict(value = "user", key = "#user.id", condition = "#root.target.canCache() and #root.caches[0].get(#user.id).get().username ne #user.username", beforeInvocation = true)
public void conditionUpdate(User user)


或更复杂的直接调用目标对象的方法进行操作(如只有修改了某个数据才从缓存中清除,比如菜单数据的缓存,只有修改了关键数据时才清空菜单对应的权限数据)


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@Caching(
        evict = {
                @CacheEvict(value = "user", key = "#user.id", condition = "#root.target.canEvict(#root.caches[0], #user.id, #user.username)", beforeInvocation = true)
        }
)
public void conditionUpdate(User user)


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public boolean canEvict(Cache userCache, Long id, String username) {
    User cacheUser = userCache.get(id, User.class);
    if (cacheUser == null) {
        return false;
    }
    return !cacheUser.getUsername().equals(username);
}


如上方式唯一不太好的就是缓存条件判断方法也需要暴露出去;而且缓存代码和业务代码混合在一起,不优雅;因此把canEvict方法移到一个Helper静态类中就可以解决这个问题了:


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@CacheEvict(value = "user", key = "#user.id", condition = "T(com.sishuok.spring.service.UserCacheHelper).canEvict(#root.caches[0], #user.id, #user.username)", beforeInvocation = true)
public void conditionUpdate(User user)


四、其实对于:id--->user;username---->user;email--->user;更好的方式可能是:id--->user;username--->id;email--->id;保证user只存一份;如:

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@CachePut(value="cacheName", key="#user.username", cacheValue="#user.username")
public void save(User user)


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@Cacheable(value="cacheName", ley="#user.username", cacheValue="#caches[0].get(#caches[0].get(#username).get())")
public User findByUsername(String username)
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