简单四则运算后缀表达式解法

问题描述: 输入一个只包含个位数字的简单四则运算表达式字符串,计算该表达式的值
注: 1、表达式只含 +, -, *, /, (, ), 四则运算符
2、表达式数值只包含个位整数(0-9),且不会出现0作为除数的情况
3、要考虑加减乘除按通常四则运算规定的计算优先级
4、除法用整数除法,即仅保留除法运算结果的整数部分。比如8/3=2。输入表达式保证无0作为除数情况发生
5、输入字符串一定是符合题意合法的表达式,其中只包括数字字符和四则运算符字符,除此之外不含其它任何字符,不会出现计算溢出情况
• 要求实现函数: 
int calculate(int len,char *expStr)
【输入】 int len: 字符串长度;
char *expStr: 表达式字符串;
【输出】 无
【返回】 计算结果

• 示例 
1) 输入:char *expStr = “1+4*5-8/3”
函数返回:19
2) 输入:char *expStr = “8/3*3”
函数返回:6 


关于后缀表达式解法可以在《大话数据结构》p104栈的应用一节了解。

具体实现代码如下:

#include <iostream>
using namespace std;

int calculate(int len,char *a);

int main()
{
	int len;
	char a[50] = "9+(3-1)*3+4/2";
	//cin >> a;
	len = int(strlen(a));
	int total = calculate(len,a);
	cout << total << endl;
	return 0;

}

int calculate(int len,char *a)
{
	//定义符号栈
	struct node
	{
		char c;
		node *next;
	};
	//定义存储运算数据栈
	struct node1
	{
		int a1;
		node1 *next;
	};


///转后缀表达式
	char *b = new char[len+1];
	node *top = NULL;//用NULL判断是否是栈底
	node *q,*p;
	int n = 0;
	for(int i=0; i<len; i++)
	{
		if( a[i] >= '0' &&  a[i] <='9')
			b[n++] = a[i];
		else if(a[i] == '(')
		{
			p = new node;
			p -> c = a[i];
			p -> next = top;
			top = p;
		}

		else if(a[i] == '+' || a[i] == '-')
		{
			while(top != NULL)
			{
				if(top->c != '(')//当为+或-时,其优先级不高于栈顶符号,
					//则在一个括号内或者如果没有括号就是全部范围的栈顶元素出栈
				{
					b[n++] = top->c;
					q = top;
					top = top->next;
					delete q;
				}
				else 
					break;
			}
			//当前符号进栈
			p = new node ;
			p->c = a[i];
			p->next = top;
			top = p;
		}
		else if(a[i]=='*' || a[i]=='/')
		{
			while(top!=NULL && (top->c =='*' || top->c =='/'))//如果前面也是乘除就栈顶多个乘除出栈
			{
				b[n++] = top->c;
				q = top;
				top = top->next;
				delete q;
			}
			//当前符号进栈
			p = new node;
			p->c = a[i];
			p->next = top;
			top = p;
		}
		else if(a[i]==')')
		{
			while(top->c != '(')
			{
				b[n++] = top->c;
				q = top;
				top = top->next;
				delete q;
			}
			//删除‘(’,栈顶指向他的下一个
			q = top;
			top = top->next;
			delete q;
		}
	}
	//将剩余的全部弹出
	while(top != NULL)
	{
		b[n++] = top->c;
		q = top;
		top = top->next;
		delete q;
	}
	b[n] = '\0';
	for(int i=0 ;i<n;i++)
		cout << b[i] << ' ' ;
	cout << endl;

///后缀表达式转换完毕【只能一位数】

///开始计算
	node1 *p1, *q1;
	node1 *top1 = NULL;
	int num1,num2;
	for(int i = 0;i<n;i++)
	{
		if(b[i] >= '0' && b[i] <= '9')
		{
			p1 = new node1;
			p1->a1 = b[i]-'0';
			p1->next = top1;
			top1 = p1;
		}
		else
		{
			q1 = top1;
			top1 = top1->next;
			num1 = top1->a1;
			num2 = q1->a1;
			delete q1;//先删除被减/除/...数,当前top1还要存运算结果
			if(b[i]=='+')
				top1->a1=num1+num2;
			else if(b[i]=='-')
				top1->a1=num1-num2;
			else if(b[i]=='*')
				top1->a1=num1*num2;
			else
				top1->a1=num1/num2;	
		}
	}
	int t = top1->a1;
	delete top1;
	delete []b;
	return t;
}


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