JDK - Integer源码分析

概述

简要的介绍了JDK源码中,包装类Integer类的几个常用细节点,以加深对其内部原理的认识。夯实读者Java基础知识。

分析

基础信息介绍

  1. Integer类中支持的进制数最小为2,最大为36
  2. Integer类能够表示的最大数值为-2^31,最大数值为(2^31) - 1
  3. Integer类内部使用了缓存机制,默认缓存-128 ~ 127 之间的数值

详细分析

  • 继承 Number 实现 Comparable
  • 从数值型转换为对应的字符串

    public static String toString(int i, int radix) {
            if (radix < Character.MIN_RADIX || radix > Character.MAX_RADIX)
                radix = 10;
    
            /* Use the faster version */
            if (radix == 10) {
                return toString(i);
            }
    
            char buf[] = new char[33];
            boolean negative = (i < 0);
            int charPos = 32;
    
            if (!negative) {
                i = -i;
            }
    
            while (i <= -radix) {
                buf[charPos--] = digits[-(i % radix)];
                i = i / radix;
            }
            buf[charPos] = digits[-i];
    
            if (negative) {
                buf[--charPos] = '-';
            }
    
            return new String(buf, charPos, (33 - charPos));
    }
    
    public static String toUnsignedString(int i, int radix) {
            return Long.toUnsignedString(toUnsignedLong(i), radix);
    } // 利用Long对象的无符号方法
    
    public static String toHexString(int i) {
            return toUnsignedString0(i, 4);
    } // 十六进制
    public static String toOctalString(int i) {
            return toUnsignedString0(i, 3);
    } // 八进制
    public static String toBinaryString(int i) {
            return toUnsignedString0(i, 1);
    } // 二进制
    
    /**
     * Convert the integer to an unsigned number.
     */
     private static String toUnsignedString0(int val, int shift) {
            // assert shift > 0 && shift <=5 : "Illegal shift value";
            int mag = Integer.SIZE - Integer.numberOfLeadingZeros(val);
            int chars = Math.max(((mag + (shift - 1)) / shift), 1);
            char[] buf = new char[chars];
    
            formatUnsignedInt(val, shift, buf, 0, chars);
    
            // Use special constructor which takes over "buf".
            return new String(buf, true);
     }
    
     public static String toString(int i) {
             if (i == Integer.MIN_VALUE)
                 return "-2147483648";
             int size = (i < 0) ? stringSize(-i) + 1 : stringSize(i);
             char[] buf = new char[size];
             getChars(i, size, buf);
             return new String(buf, true);
     } // 有符号的十进制

    其中,radix表示转换为对应进制的字符串形式。

  • 解析字符串到对应的数值型(int形式)

    public static int parseInt(String s, int radix)
                    throws NumberFormatException
        {
            /*
             * WARNING: This method may be invoked early during VM initialization
             * before IntegerCache is initialized. Care must be taken to not use
             * the valueOf method.
             */
    
            if (s == null) {
                throw new NumberFormatException("null");
            }
    
            if (radix < Character.MIN_RADIX) {
                throw new NumberFormatException("radix " + radix +
                                                " less than Character.MIN_RADIX");
            }
    
            if (radix > Character.MAX_RADIX) {
                throw new NumberFormatException("radix " + radix +
                                                " greater than Character.MAX_RADIX");
            }
    
            int result = 0;
            boolean negative = false;
            int i = 0, len = s.length();
            int limit = -Integer.MAX_VALUE;
            int multmin;
            int digit;
    
            if (len > 0) {
                char firstChar = s.charAt(0);
                if (firstChar < '0') { // Possible leading "+" or "-"
                    if (firstChar == '-') {
                        negative = true;
                        limit = Integer.MIN_VALUE;
                    } else if (firstChar != '+')
                        throw NumberFormatException.forInputString(s);
    
                    if (len == 1) // Cannot have lone "+" or "-"
                        throw NumberFormatException.forInputString(s);
                    i++;
                }
                multmin = limit / radix;
                while (i < len) {
                    // Accumulating negatively avoids surprises near MAX_VALUE
                    digit = Character.digit(s.charAt(i++),radix);
                    if (digit < 0) {
                        throw NumberFormatException.forInputString(s);
                    }
                    if (result < multmin) {
                        throw NumberFormatException.forInputString(s);
                    }
                    result *= radix;
                    if (result < limit + digit) {
                        throw NumberFormatException.forInputString(s);
                    }
                    result -= digit;
                }
            } else {
                throw NumberFormatException.forInputString(s);
            }
            return negative ? result : -result;
     }
     例如:
    * parseInt("0", 10) returns 0
    * parseInt("473", 10) returns 473
    * parseInt("+42", 10) returns 42
    * parseInt("-0", 10) returns 0
    * parseInt("-FF", 16) returns -255
    * parseInt("1100110", 2) returns 102
    * parseInt("2147483647", 10) returns 2147483647
    * parseInt("-2147483648", 10) returns -2147483648
    * parseInt("2147483648", 10) throws a NumberFormatException
    * parseInt("99", 8) throws a NumberFormatException
    * parseInt("Kona", 10) throws a NumberFormatException
    * parseInt("Kona", 27) returns 411787 
    
     public static int parseUnsignedInt(String s, int radix)
                    throws NumberFormatException {
            if (s == null)  {
                throw new NumberFormatException("null");
            }
    
            int len = s.length();
            if (len > 0) {
                char firstChar = s.charAt(0);
                if (firstChar == '-') {
                    throw new
                        NumberFormatException(String.format("Illegal leading minus sign " +
                                                           "on unsigned string %s.", s));
                } else {
                    if (len <= 5 || // Integer.MAX_VALUE in Character.MAX_RADIX is 6 digits
                        (radix == 10 && len <= 9) ) { // Integer.MAX_VALUE in base 10 is 10 digits
                        return parseInt(s, radix);
                    } else {
                        long ell = Long.parseLong(s, radix);
                        if ((ell & 0xffff_ffff_0000_0000L) == 0) {
                            return (int) ell;
                        } else {
                            throw new
                                NumberFormatException(String.format("String value %s exceeds " +
                                                                    "range of unsigned int.", s));
                        }
                    }
                }
            } else {
                throw NumberFormatException.forInputString(s);
            }
     }  // 无符号字符串到对应的数值

    这种形式获得数值是基础类型int形式

  • 解析字符串到对应的数值型包装对象(Integer包装对象形式)

    public static Integer valueOf(String s, int radix) throws NumberFormatException {
    return Integer.valueOf(parseInt(s,radix));
    }
    public static Integer valueOf(String s) throws NumberFormatException {
    return Integer.valueOf(parseInt(s, 10));
    }

    此种形式下,其内部原理也是先由字符串形式转换为对应基础型int数值,然后再通过装箱为Integer对象
  • 数值型装箱到对应的包装对象(具体装箱细节)

    public static Integer valueOf(int i) {
    if (i >= IntegerCache.low && i <= IntegerCache.high)
    return IntegerCache.cache[i + (-IntegerCache.low)];
    return new Integer(i);
    }

    从中可知里面运用了缓存机制,默认对于low和high之间的数值会之间使用缓存数据,没有缓存时创建新对象,其他范围的都是创建新对象。
  • Integer的缓存原理

    Integer类的里面定义了一个私有的静态内部类IntegerCache

    private static class IntegerCache {
          static final int low = -128;
          static final int high;
          static final Integer cache[];
    
          static {
              // high value may be configured by property
              int h = 127;
              String integerCacheHighPropValue =
                  sun.misc.VM.getSavedProperty("java.lang.Integer.IntegerCache.high");
              if (integerCacheHighPropValue != null) {
                  try {
                      int i = parseInt(integerCacheHighPropValue);
                      i = Math.max(i, 127);
                      // Maximum array size is Integer.MAX_VALUE
                      h = Math.min(i, Integer.MAX_VALUE - (-low) -1);
                  } catch( NumberFormatException nfe) {
                      // If the property cannot be parsed into an int, ignore it.
                  }
              }
              high = h;
    
              cache = new Integer[(high - low) + 1];
              int j = low;
              for(int k = 0; k < cache.length; k++)
                  cache[k] = new Integer(j++);
    
              // range [-128, 127] must be interned (JLS7 5.1.7)
              assert IntegerCache.high >= 127;
          }
    
          private IntegerCache() {}
    }

    从中可知,默认的缓存范围为-128到127,缓存的最大值可以通过修改虚拟机参数调高,最大能提升到Integer.MAX_VALUE - (-low) -1,即:2^31 - 130
    具体属性处理类是sun.misc.VM class。

  • Integer对象转换为short、long、float和double等基础类型

    public byte byteValue() {
        return (byte)value;
    }
    
    public short shortValue() {
        return (short)value;
    }
    
    public int intValue() {
        return value;
    }
    
    public long longValue() {
        return (long)value;
    }
    
    public float floatValue() {
        return (float)value;
    }
    
    public double doubleValue() {
        return (double)value;
    }
    
    public String toString() {
        return toString(value);
    }
  • Integer的hashCode即为本身数值

    public int hashCode() {
        return Integer.hashCode(value);
    }
    
    public static int hashCode(int value) {
        return value;
    }
  • 内容相等性判断

    public boolean equals(Object obj) {
        if (obj instanceof Integer) {
            return value == ((Integer)obj).intValue();
        }
        return false;
    } 

    并不是比较引用,而是比较内容数值是否相等

  • 比较性处理

    public int compareTo(Integer anotherInteger) {
        return compare(this.value, anotherInteger.value);
    }
    
    /**
     * Compares two {@code int} values numerically.
     * The value returned is identical to what would be returned by:
     * <pre>
     *    Integer.valueOf(x).compareTo(Integer.valueOf(y))
     * </pre>
     *
     * @param  x the first {@code int} to compare
     * @param  y the second {@code int} to compare
     * @return the value {@code 0} if {@code x == y};
     *         a value less than {@code 0} if {@code x < y}; and
     *         a value greater than {@code 0} if {@code x > y}
     * @since 1.7
     */
    public static int compare(int x, int y) {
        return (x < y) ? -1 : ((x == y) ? 0 : 1);
    }
    
    /**
     * Compares two {@code int} values numerically treating the values
     * as unsigned.
     *
     * @param  x the first {@code int} to compare
     * @param  y the second {@code int} to compare
     * @return the value {@code 0} if {@code x == y}; a value less
     *         than {@code 0} if {@code x < y} as unsigned values; and
     *         a value greater than {@code 0} if {@code x > y} as
     *         unsigned values
     * @since 1.8
     */
    public static int compareUnsigned(int x, int y) {
        return compare(x + MIN_VALUE, y + MIN_VALUE);
    }
    

    数值相等为0,第一个参数大于第二个参数则为1,第一个参数小于第二个参数为-1

  • 与Long包装类的不同点

    1. Long的数值范围为-2^63 ~ 2^63-1
    2. Long中只能缓存-128到127之间的数值
    3. Long中的hashCode为:(int)(value ^ (value >>> 32))
  • 与Double不同点

    1. Double 的hashCode计算不同
    2. Double 中没有缓存机制
  • 与Short不同点 (特殊的共同点hashCode计算方式一样,为自身数值,其他函数用法相同)

    1. Short中只能缓存-128到127之间的数值
    2. Short范围-2^15 ~ 2^15 - 1

总结

  • 简单的数值包装类,里面涉及很多细节,不容忽视,也是出错点,特别是缓存那里
  • 内部的缓存机制,值得借鉴,对于处理内存缓存机制
  • 所有的处理都是非线程安全的,容易出问题
  • 包装类区别于基础类型,默认未初始化时为null,而不是0
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