【组合数学】隔板法解决HDU-3037

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题目:

Saving Beans

Time Limit: 6000/3000 MS (Java/Others) Memory Limit: 32768/32768 K (Java/Others)
Total Submission(s): 5582 Accepted Submission(s): 2240

Problem Description
Although winter is far away, squirrels have to work day and night to save beans. They need plenty of food to get through those long cold days. After some time the squirrel family thinks that they have to solve a problem. They suppose that they will save beans in n different trees. However, since the food is not sufficient nowadays, they will get no more than m beans. They want to know that how many ways there are to save no more than m beans (they are the same) in n trees.

Now they turn to you for help, you should give them the answer. The result may be extremely huge; you should output the result modulo p, because squirrels can’t recognize large numbers.

Input
The first line contains one integer T, means the number of cases.

Then followed T lines, each line contains three integers n, m, p, means that squirrels will save no more than m same beans in n different trees, 1 <= n, m <= 1000000000, 1 < p < 100000 and p is guaranteed to be a prime.

Output
You should output the answer modulo p.

Sample Input
2
1 2 5
2 1 5

Sample Output
3
3
Hint

Hint

For sample 1, squirrels will put no more than 2 beans in one tree. Since trees are different, we can label them as 1, 2 … and so on.
The 3 ways are: put no beans, put 1 bean in tree 1 and put 2 beans in tree 1. For sample 2, the 3 ways are:
put no beans, put 1 bean in tree 1 and put 1 bean in tree 2.

思路:

这个问题类似于“允许若干个人(或位置)为空的问题”,如:“将20个大小形状完全相同的小球放入3个不同的盒子,允许有盒子为空,但球必须放完,有多少种不同的方法?

但区别在于,该类问题要求球必须放完,而这道题可以球不必完全放完,这也是难点所在。其实只要完全理解了隔板法的思想,这种变式题并不难解决。

首先,将n个果子分给m棵树,即在n个果子中插入m1块板子,可以分成m份。类似于:

1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 11 1

除去两端,可以插空的位置有n1个,但这样放不符合允许有树为空的情况,故人为加入m个果子,这样保证每棵树都至少分到一个小球,再在各组中去掉一个小球,便符合题意了。

这时虽然满足了允许有树为空的情况,但是还有果子不必全部放完的条件没有被满足,这时我们增加一块板子,同样进行插空,这样就多分隔出一棵树,这棵树其实是没有意义的, 即放入此中的果子,其实并没有放入真正的那m棵树,相当于没放,这样就满足了果子不必全部放完的条件。

共有n+m个果子,m块板子,故答案为Cmn+m

感想:

强行解释并不可取。

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