Linux音频驱动-PCM设备

https://cloud.tencent.com/developer/article/1603968

 

概述

1. 什么是pcm?

pcm(Pulse-code modulation)脉冲编码调制,是将模拟信号转化为数字信号的一种方法。声音的转化的过程为,先对连续的模拟信号按照固定频率周期性采样,将采样到的数据按照一定的精度进行量化,量化后的信号和采样后的信号差值叫做量化误差,将量化后的数据进行最后的编码存储,最终模拟信号变化为数字信号。

2. pcm的两个重要属性

a. 采样率: 单位时间内采样的次数,采样频率越高越高,

b. 采样位数: 一个采样信号的位数,也是对采样精度的变现。

对于人类而言,能接受声音的频率范围是20Hz-20KHz, 所以采样的频率44.1KHz 以及16bit的采样位数就可以有很好的保真能力(CD格式的采样率和采样位数)。

 

图1-1 声音的录音和播放过程

数据结构

在ALSA架构下,pcm也被称为设备,所谓的逻辑设备。在linux系统中使用snd_pcm结构表示一个pcm设备。

struct snd_pcm {
	struct snd_card *card;
	struct list_head list;
	int device; /* device number */
	unsigned int info_flags;
	unsigned short dev_class;
	unsigned short dev_subclass;
	char id[64];
	char name[80];
	struct snd_pcm_str streams[2];
	struct mutex open_mutex;
	wait_queue_head_t open_wait;
	void *private_data;
	void (*private_free) (struct snd_pcm *pcm);
	struct device *dev; /* actual hw device this belongs to */
	bool internal; /* pcm is for internal use only */
	bool nonatomic; /* whole PCM operations are in non-atomic context */
#if defined(CONFIG_SND_PCM_OSS) || defined(CONFIG_SND_PCM_OSS_MODULE)
	struct snd_pcm_oss oss;
#endif
};

.card: 此pcm设备所属的card。

.list: 用于将pcm设备链接起来,最终所有的pcm设备会放入snd_pcm_devices链表中。

.device: 该pcm的索引号。

.id: 该pcm的标识。

.streams: 指向pcm的capture和playback stream,通常0代表playback,1代表capture。

通常一个pcm下会有两个stream, 分别为capture stream和playback stream,在每个stream下又会存在多个substream。

linux系统中使用snd_pcm_str定义stream, 使用snd_pcm_substream定义substream。

struct snd_pcm_str {
	int stream;				/* stream (direction) */
	struct snd_pcm *pcm;
	/* -- substreams -- */
	unsigned int substream_count;
	unsigned int substream_opened;
	struct snd_pcm_substream *substream;
};

.stream: 当前stream的方向,capture or playback。

.pcm: 所属的pcm。

.substream_count: 该stream下substream的个数。

.substream_opened: 该stream下open的substream个数。

.substream: 该stream下的substream.

struct snd_pcm_substream {
	struct snd_pcm *pcm;
	struct snd_pcm_str *pstr;
	void *private_data;		/* copied from pcm->private_data */
	int number;
	char name[32];			/* substream name */
	int stream;			/* stream (direction) */
	struct pm_qos_request latency_pm_qos_req; /* pm_qos request */
	size_t buffer_bytes_max;	/* limit ring buffer size */
	struct snd_dma_buffer dma_buffer;
	size_t dma_max;
	/* -- hardware operations -- */
	const struct snd_pcm_ops *ops;
	/* -- runtime information -- */
	struct snd_pcm_runtime *runtime;
        /* -- timer section -- */
	struct snd_timer *timer;		/* timer */
	unsigned timer_running: 1;	/* time is running */
	/* -- next substream -- */
	struct snd_pcm_substream *next;
	/* -- linked substreams -- */
	struct list_head link_list;	/* linked list member */
	struct snd_pcm_group self_group;	/* fake group for non linked substream (with substream lock inside) */
	struct snd_pcm_group *group;		/* pointer to current group */
	/* -- assigned files -- */
	void *file;
	int ref_count;
	atomic_t mmap_count;
	unsigned int f_flags;
	void (*pcm_release)(struct snd_pcm_substream *);
	struct pid *pid;
	/* misc flags */
	unsigned int hw_opened: 1;
};

.pcm: 所属的pcm。

.pstr: 所属的stream。

.id: 代表的该stream下第几个substream,也就是序号。

.stream: 该substream的方向流,是palyback or capture。

.name: 该substrem的名字。

.ops: 硬件操作函数集合。

.runtime: 运行时的pcm的一些信息。

.next: 用于链接下一个sub stream。

下图是对这几个结构体之间的简单表述。

 

pcm设备的创建

创建一个pcm设备的实例,使用snd_pcm_new函数。

/**
 * snd_pcm_new - create a new PCM instance
 * @card: the card instance
 * @id: the id string
 * @device: the device index (zero based)
 * @playback_count: the number of substreams for playback
 * @capture_count: the number of substreams for capture
 * @rpcm: the pointer to store the new pcm instance
 *
 * Creates a new PCM instance.
 *
 * The pcm operators have to be set afterwards to the new instance
 * via snd_pcm_set_ops().
 *
 * Return: Zero if successful, or a negative error code on failure.
 */
int snd_pcm_new(struct snd_card *card, const char *id, int device,
		int playback_count, int capture_count, struct snd_pcm **rpcm)
{
	return _snd_pcm_new(card, id, device, playback_count, capture_count,
			false, rpcm);
}

此函数会传入六个参数,其中该函数的注释写的很清楚,不做过多解释。函数最终会返回rpcm参数。

static int _snd_pcm_new(struct snd_card *card, const char *id, int device,
		int playback_count, int capture_count, bool internal,
		struct snd_pcm **rpcm)
{
	struct snd_pcm *pcm;
	int err;
	static struct snd_device_ops ops = {
		.dev_free = snd_pcm_dev_free,
		.dev_register =	snd_pcm_dev_register,
		.dev_disconnect = snd_pcm_dev_disconnect,
	};

	if (snd_BUG_ON(!card))
		return -ENXIO;
	if (rpcm)
		*rpcm = NULL;
	pcm = kzalloc(sizeof(*pcm), GFP_KERNEL);
	if (pcm == NULL) {
		dev_err(card->dev, "Cannot allocate PCM\n");
		return -ENOMEM;
	}
	pcm->card = card;
	pcm->device = device;
	pcm->internal = internal;
	if (id)
		strlcpy(pcm->id, id, sizeof(pcm->id));
	if ((err = snd_pcm_new_stream(pcm, SNDRV_PCM_STREAM_PLAYBACK, playback_count)) < 0) {
		snd_pcm_free(pcm);
		return err;
	}
	if ((err = snd_pcm_new_stream(pcm, SNDRV_PCM_STREAM_CAPTURE, capture_count)) < 0) {
		snd_pcm_free(pcm);
		return err;
	}
	mutex_init(&pcm->open_mutex);
	init_waitqueue_head(&pcm->open_wait);
	if ((err = snd_device_new(card, SNDRV_DEV_PCM, pcm, &ops)) < 0) {
		snd_pcm_free(pcm);
		return err;
	}
	if (rpcm)
		*rpcm = pcm;
	return 0;
}

1. 分配一个snd_pcm结构体。

2. 根据传递进来的参数设置card, device, internal, id。

3. 分别创建palyback & capture stream。

4. 调用snd_device_new接口创建pcm设备。

调用snd_pcm_new_stream创建一个stream

int snd_pcm_new_stream(struct snd_pcm *pcm, int stream, int substream_count)
{
	int idx, err;
	struct snd_pcm_str *pstr = &pcm->streams[stream];
	struct snd_pcm_substream *substream, *prev;

#if IS_ENABLED(CONFIG_SND_PCM_OSS)
	mutex_init(&pstr->oss.setup_mutex);
#endif
	pstr->stream = stream;
	pstr->pcm = pcm;
	pstr->substream_count = substream_count;
	if (substream_count > 0 && !pcm->internal) {
		err = snd_pcm_stream_proc_init(pstr);
		if (err < 0) {
			pcm_err(pcm, "Error in snd_pcm_stream_proc_init\n");
			return err;
		}
	}
	prev = NULL;
	for (idx = 0, prev = NULL; idx < substream_count; idx++) {
		substream = kzalloc(sizeof(*substream), GFP_KERNEL);
		if (substream == NULL) {
			pcm_err(pcm, "Cannot allocate PCM substream\n");
			return -ENOMEM;
		}
		substream->pcm = pcm;
		substream->pstr = pstr;
		substream->number = idx;
		substream->stream = stream;
		sprintf(substream->name, "subdevice #%i", idx);
		substream->buffer_bytes_max = UINT_MAX;
		if (prev == NULL)
			pstr->substream = substream;
		else
			prev->next = substream;

		if (!pcm->internal) {
			err = snd_pcm_substream_proc_init(substream);
			if (err < 0) {
				pcm_err(pcm,
					"Error in snd_pcm_stream_proc_init\n");
				if (prev == NULL)
					pstr->substream = NULL;
				else
					prev->next = NULL;
				kfree(substream);
				return err;
			}
		}
		substream->group = &substream->self_group;
		spin_lock_init(&substream->self_group.lock);
		mutex_init(&substream->self_group.mutex);
		INIT_LIST_HEAD(&substream->self_group.substreams);
		list_add_tail(&substream->link_list, &substream->self_group.substreams);
		atomic_set(&substream->mmap_count, 0);
		prev = substream;
	}
	return 0;
}			

1. 根据传递进来的参数,设置pcm的stream, pcm, substream_count的值。

2. 在proc下创建pcm相关目录信息。会调用snd_pcm_stream_proc_init函数,根据stream的类型创建pcm0p/pcm0c文件夹,然后会在此文件夹下创建info文件。info文件的类型会通过snd_pcm_stream_proc_info_read函数获得。代表就不贴出来了。:(

root@test:/proc/asound/card0/pcm0c$ cat info 
card: 0
device: 0
subdevice: 0
stream: CAPTURE
id: ALC662 rev1 Analog
name: ALC662 rev1 Analog
subname: subdevice #0
class: 0
subclass: 0
subdevices_count: 1
subdevices_avail: 1

3. 会根据substrem_count的个数,进行for循环操作。

4. 分配一个substream结构,设置必要的参数,如: pcm, pstr, number, stream, name等。

5. 调用snd_pcm_substream_proc_init函数,创建sub0目录,然后在此目录下创建info, hw_params, sw_params,status等文件。

6. 将所有的substream会通过linklist链表保存,同时如果有多个substream会通过next指针相连。

至此,pcm设备就全部创建完成,创建完成后会形成如下的逻辑试图。

 

大体上就是一棵树,根节点是card0, 然后子节点是pcm设备,pcm设备分为capture & playback stream, 然后在stream下又分为substrem。

PCM硬件操作函数集设置

实例化一个pcm设备之后,还需要通过snd_pcm_set_ops函数设置该硬件的操作集合。

void snd_pcm_set_ops(struct snd_pcm *pcm, int direction,
		     const struct snd_pcm_ops *ops)
{
	struct snd_pcm_str *stream = &pcm->streams[direction];
	struct snd_pcm_substream *substream;
	
	for (substream = stream->substream; substream != NULL; substream = substream->next)
		substream->ops = ops;
}

该函数会根据当前stream的方向/类型,设置该硬件对应的snd_pcm_ops操作集合。

整个流程梳理

 

PCM设备节点创建

当调用snd_card_register的时候,就会依次调用card列表下每个设备的dev_register回调函数,对pcm设备来说就是在_snd_pcm_new函数中的

	static struct snd_device_ops ops = {
		.dev_free = snd_pcm_dev_free,
		.dev_register =	snd_pcm_dev_register,
		.dev_disconnect = snd_pcm_dev_disconnect,
	};

此时会调用到snd_pcm_dev_register回调处理函数。

static int snd_pcm_dev_register(struct snd_device *device)
{
	int cidx, err;
	struct snd_pcm_substream *substream;
	struct snd_pcm_notify *notify;
	char str[16];
	struct snd_pcm *pcm;
	struct device *dev;

	if (snd_BUG_ON(!device || !device->device_data))
		return -ENXIO;
	pcm = device->device_data;
	mutex_lock(&register_mutex);
	err = snd_pcm_add(pcm);
	if (err) {
		mutex_unlock(&register_mutex);
		return err;
	}
	for (cidx = 0; cidx < 2; cidx++) {
		int devtype = -1;
		if (pcm->streams[cidx].substream == NULL || pcm->internal)
			continue;
		switch (cidx) {
		case SNDRV_PCM_STREAM_PLAYBACK:
			sprintf(str, "pcmC%iD%ip", pcm->card->number, pcm->device);
			devtype = SNDRV_DEVICE_TYPE_PCM_PLAYBACK;
			break;
		case SNDRV_PCM_STREAM_CAPTURE:
			sprintf(str, "pcmC%iD%ic", pcm->card->number, pcm->device);
			devtype = SNDRV_DEVICE_TYPE_PCM_CAPTURE;
			break;
		}
		/* device pointer to use, pcm->dev takes precedence if
		 * it is assigned, otherwise fall back to card's device
		 * if possible */
		dev = pcm->dev;
		if (!dev)
			dev = snd_card_get_device_link(pcm->card);
		/* register pcm */
		err = snd_register_device_for_dev(devtype, pcm->card,
						  pcm->device,
						  &snd_pcm_f_ops[cidx],
						  pcm, str, dev);
		if (err < 0) {
			list_del(&pcm->list);
			mutex_unlock(&register_mutex);
			return err;
		}

		dev = snd_get_device(devtype, pcm->card, pcm->device);
		if (dev) {
			err = sysfs_create_groups(&dev->kobj,
						  pcm_dev_attr_groups);
			if (err < 0)
				dev_warn(dev,
					 "pcm %d:%d: cannot create sysfs groups\n",
					 pcm->card->number, pcm->device);
			put_device(dev);
		}

		for (substream = pcm->streams[cidx].substream; substream; substream = substream->next)
			snd_pcm_timer_init(substream);
	}

	list_for_each_entry(notify, &snd_pcm_notify_list, list)
		notify->n_register(pcm);

	mutex_unlock(&register_mutex);
	return 0;
}

1. 合法性判断,对pcm设备来说,snd_device->device_data存放的是当前的pcm指针。

2. 会调用snd_pcm_add此函数,判断此pcm设备是存在snd_pcm_devices链表中存在,存在就返回错误,不存在就添加。

3. 设置当前pcm设备name, 以及具体的pcm设备类型,PCM_CAPTURE or PCM_PLAYBACK。

4. 调用snd_register_device_for_dev添加pcm设备到系统中。

5. 调用snd_get_device此函数返回当前注册的pcm设备,然后设置该pcm的属性。

6. 调用snd_pcm_timer_init函数,进行pcm定时器的初始化。

在继续分析snd_register_device_for_dev函数之前需要先介绍一个结构体。struct snd_minor。

struct snd_minor {
	int type;			/* SNDRV_DEVICE_TYPE_XXX */
	int card;			/* card number */
	int device;			/* device number */
	const struct file_operations *f_ops;	/* file operations */
	void *private_data;		/* private data for f_ops->open */
	struct device *dev;		/* device for sysfs */
	struct snd_card *card_ptr;	/* assigned card instance */
};

.type: 设备类型,比如是pcm, control, timer等设备。

.card_number: 所属的card。

.device: 当前设备类型下的设备编号。

.f_ops: 具体设备的文件操作集合。

.private_data: open函数的私有数据。

.card_ptr: 所属的card。

此结构体是用来保存当前设备的上下文信息,该card下所有逻辑设备都存在此结构。

int snd_register_device_for_dev(int type, struct snd_card *card, int dev,
				const struct file_operations *f_ops,
				void *private_data,
				const char *name, struct device *device)
{
	int minor;
	struct snd_minor *preg;

	if (snd_BUG_ON(!name))
		return -EINVAL;
	preg = kmalloc(sizeof *preg, GFP_KERNEL);
	if (preg == NULL)
		return -ENOMEM;
	preg->type = type;
	preg->card = card ? card->number : -1;
	preg->device = dev;
	preg->f_ops = f_ops;
	preg->private_data = private_data;
	preg->card_ptr = card;
	mutex_lock(&sound_mutex);
#ifdef CONFIG_SND_DYNAMIC_MINORS
	minor = snd_find_free_minor(type);
#else
	minor = snd_kernel_minor(type, card, dev);
	if (minor >= 0 && snd_minors[minor])
		minor = -EBUSY;
#endif
	if (minor < 0) {
		mutex_unlock(&sound_mutex);
		kfree(preg);
		return minor;
	}
	snd_minors[minor] = preg;
	preg->dev = device_create(sound_class, device, MKDEV(major, minor),
				  private_data, "%s", name);
	if (IS_ERR(preg->dev)) {
		snd_minors[minor] = NULL;
		mutex_unlock(&sound_mutex);
		minor = PTR_ERR(preg->dev);
		kfree(preg);
		return minor;
	}

	mutex_unlock(&sound_mutex);
	return 0;
}

1. 首先上来就分配一个snd_minor结构体。

2. 根据传递进来的参数,各种参数。对于pcm设备来说,当前的private_data就是pcm。此处需要重点介绍file_operations结构。此函数最终会在应用程序调用open的时候走到此处

const struct file_operations snd_pcm_f_ops[2] = {
	{
		.owner =		THIS_MODULE,
		.write =		snd_pcm_write,
		.aio_write =		snd_pcm_aio_write,
		.open =			snd_pcm_playback_open,
		.release =		snd_pcm_release,
		.llseek =		no_llseek,
		.poll =			snd_pcm_playback_poll,
		.unlocked_ioctl =	snd_pcm_playback_ioctl,
		.compat_ioctl = 	snd_pcm_ioctl_compat,
		.mmap =			snd_pcm_mmap,
		.fasync =		snd_pcm_fasync,
		.get_unmapped_area =	snd_pcm_get_unmapped_area,
	},
	{
		.owner =		THIS_MODULE,
		.read =			snd_pcm_read,
		.aio_read =		snd_pcm_aio_read,
		.open =			snd_pcm_capture_open,
		.release =		snd_pcm_release,
		.llseek =		no_llseek,
		.poll =			snd_pcm_capture_poll,
		.unlocked_ioctl =	snd_pcm_capture_ioctl,
		.compat_ioctl = 	snd_pcm_ioctl_compat,
		.mmap =			snd_pcm_mmap,
		.fasync =		snd_pcm_fasync,
		.get_unmapped_area =	snd_pcm_get_unmapped_area,
	}
};

3. 调用snd_kernel_minor函数获得设备的此设备号。该此设备号已经存在则返回BUSY,小于返回错误。

4. 用次设备号为下标,将当前申请的snd_minor放入到全局的snd_minors结构体数组中。

static struct snd_minor *snd_minors[SNDRV_OS_MINORS];

5. 调用device_create函数创建该pcm的设备节点。

6. 为什么创建出的设备节点全在/dev/snd下呢? 此问题源自sound_class创建的时候,设置的devnode参数。

static char *sound_devnode(struct device *dev, umode_t *mode)
{
	if (MAJOR(dev->devt) == SOUND_MAJOR)
		return NULL;
	return kasprintf(GFP_KERNEL, "snd/%s", dev_name(dev));
}

static int __init init_soundcore(void)
{
	int rc;

	rc = init_oss_soundcore();
	if (rc)
		return rc;

	sound_class = class_create(THIS_MODULE, "sound");
	if (IS_ERR(sound_class)) {
		cleanup_oss_soundcore();
		return PTR_ERR(sound_class);
	}

	sound_class->devnode = sound_devnode;

	return 0;
}

当调用device_create的时候,最终会调用到device_add->devtmpfs_create_node->device_get_devnode中

	/* the class may provide a specific name */
	if (dev->class && dev->class->devnode)
		*tmp = dev->class->devnode(dev, mode);

最终出现的设备节点会出现在/dev/snd下。

应用到驱动的过程

当应用程序在通过open系统调用打开/dev/pcmC0D0c的过程

1. 先会调用到在alsa_sound_init中注册的字符设备"alsa"的file_operations中的open函数中。

static const struct file_operations snd_fops =
{
	.owner =	THIS_MODULE,
	.open =		snd_open,
	.llseek =	noop_llseek,
};

2. 此处会根据次设备号在snd_minors中获得注册的pcm的snd_minor结构,然后调用open回调

	if (file->f_op->open)
		err = file->f_op->open(inode, file);

3. 此处的open回调就是snd_pcm_f_ops中的open。

4. 当应用程序执行ioctl的时候,就直接调用file文件中的file_operaions中的ioctl即可,因为在此处已经将snd_minor中的file_operation替换到file中。

#define replace_fops(f, fops) \
	do {	\
		struct file *__file = (f); \
		fops_put(__file->f_op); \
		BUG_ON(!(__file->f_op = (fops))); \
	} while(0)

5. 比如当前调用的是playback中的open,会调用snd_pcm_playback_open函数,此函数会设置pcm的runtime信息,最终会调用硬件相关的open函数中。

	if ((err = substream->ops->open(substream)) < 0)

至此,整个pcm设备创建,调用,以及应用到驱动整个流程分析完毕。:)

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